Proto-Atlantic

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Shemtov
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Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 04 Jan 2016 02:30

This is the Protolang of an "Atlantic Austronesian" family. The Urheimat is in France, Specifically, South Brittany and North Pays de La Loire. However, the language was overtaken in ancient times by Indo-European languages, but survived due to the boating skills of the speakers, who spread the Azores, The The Canary Islands (where they were influenced by Berber) Madeira, the Bissagos and the Coast of Guinea-Bisseau (Where they were influenced by the Mande languages), Cape Verde, the Savage Islands, and Bermuda. Because of its concentration around Macaronesia, the language is also known as Proto-Macaronesian and the family as Macaronesian.


Phonology:
/p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ kʷ kʷʰ k͡p k͡pʰ g͡b/ <p ph b t th d k kh kw kwh kp kph gb>
/f s sʰ x xʷ h/ <f s sh x xw h>
/t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z/ <c ch z>
/m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋ͡m/ <m n ng ngw nm>
/j w/ <y w>
/l/ <l>


/i y u ɛ œ ɔ a/ <i ü u e ö o a>


Phonotactics:
CV(C)
The only codas allowed are /p t k k͡p b d g͡b f s x l m n ŋ ŋ͡m j w t͡s d͡z/. They can only occur root-finally and at the end of affixes.

The rounded vowels exhibit front/back harmony; in neutral stems different affixes take specific frontness, and it depends on the affix.

MORPHOLOGY:
The Proto-Language's Morphology is highly agglutinating, regular (expect this to be messed up in the daughters) and rich in the nominal system, having an abundance of cases. The language is ERG-ABS in alignment

Nominal Morphology:
Nouns take a regular plural suffix <em>.
After this comes the case:
Absolutive: Unmarked
Ergative: <da>
Dative: <lo>/<lö> (back)
Genitive: <chap>
Instrumental: <ib>
Locative: <ut>/<üt> (front)
Ablative: <aw>
Allative: <dom>/<döm> (front)
Perlative: <thi>
Temporal: <kpal>
Equative: <gbong>/<gböng> (back)
Translative: <waf>
Abessive: <mük>/<muk>
Comitative: <nis>
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by elemtilas » 04 Jan 2016 03:34

Shemtov wrote:This is the Protolang of an "Atlantic Austronesian" family. The Urheimat is in France, Specifically, South Brittany and North Pays de La Loire. However, the language was overtaken in ancient times by Indo-European languages, but survived due to the boating skills of the speakers, who spread the Azores, The The Canary Islands (where they were influenced by Berber) Madeira, the Bissagos and the Coast of Guinea-Bisseau (Where they were influenced by the Mande languages), Cape Verde, the Savage Islands, and Bermuda. Because of its concentration around Macaronesia, the language is also known as Proto-Macaronesian and the family as Macaronesian.
Question: did you actually mean "Atlantic Austronesian" or "Atlantic Macaronesian"? I'm guessing the latter, based on the geography!

Interesting history, too.
Image

If we stuff the whole chicken back into the egg, will all our problems go away? --- Wandalf of Angera

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 04 Jan 2016 03:58

elemtilas wrote:
Shemtov wrote:This is the Protolang of an "Atlantic Austronesian" family. The Urheimat is in France, Specifically, South Brittany and North Pays de La Loire. However, the language was overtaken in ancient times by Indo-European languages, but survived due to the boating skills of the speakers, who spread the Azores, The The Canary Islands (where they were influenced by Berber) Madeira, the Bissagos and the Coast of Guinea-Bisseau (Where they were influenced by the Mande languages), Cape Verde, the Savage Islands, and Bermuda. Because of its concentration around Macaronesia, the language is also known as Proto-Macaronesian and the family as Macaronesian.
Question: did you actually mean "Atlantic Austronesian" or "Atlantic Macaronesian"? I'm guessing the latter, based on the geography!

Interesting history, too.
I meant "Austronesian", as the idea was to create a family in the Atlantic similiar to what Austronesian is in the Pacific.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Shemtov
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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 04 Jan 2016 07:41

Verbal Morphology Part 1:
Verbs have two conjugation groups: those whose infinitive ends with a /aw/ and those whose infinitive ends with a /aj/. The latter has tense, voice and mood endings that contain neutral vowels except /a/ and the former's endings contain vowels effected by vowel harmony. Also, some ending of the /w/ conjugating have an <ng> placed at the end when the /j/ ending ends in a vowel.

Active Indicative conjugation of <Xwünaw> "to eat"
Past: Xwününg
Present: Xwün
Future: Xwünölü

Active Indicative conjugation of <Kwishaday> "To trap" To "entangle"
Past: Kwishadi
Present: Kwishad
Future: Kwishadeli

The verb also takes person and number marking for the absolutive argument and person marking for the ergative arguement:
Abs. marking:
1p. sing.: nmam
1p plr: nmamem
2p sing: ti
2p plr.: tihem
3p sing: Unmarked
3p plr: em

Erg. Marking:
1p:ninm
2p: tex
3p: unmarked

Example sentences:

Meshoda kphallo ongsi facapeyatüt nöxüng
Mesho-da kphal-lo ongsi facapeyat-üt nöx-üng-∅-∅
man-ERG woman-DAT boat island-LOC show-PST-3p-3p
"The man showed the woman the boat on the island"

Kpohib facapeyataw efönelinmam
Kpo-hib facapeyat-aw efön-eli-nmam
Raft-INSTR island-ALL sail-FUT-1p
"I will sail to the island on a raft"

The language has no word for "want". Instead the following construction is used:

Ongsimuk ocnmam
Ongsi-muk oc-nmam
boat-ABE think-1p
"I want a boat"
Literally "I think without a boat"

COMPARITIVES:
Comparatives use the following construction:
Fönmeshogböng kpalmuk efön
Fönmesho-gböng kpal-muk efön
sailor-EQUAT woman-ABE sail
"A sailor sails more then a woman"
Literally "Like a sailor without a woman sails"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Linguist_Wannabe » 04 Jan 2016 10:55

One comment on the doubly articulated stops (e.g. kp, gb). These have an extremely strong tendency to be areal features (see http://wals.info/chapter/19). It seems very unlikely that they would develop in a language spoken in Europe.

With your history though, perhaps you could do some diachronics. When the speakers were still living in Europe, they were some other phonemes, and then contact with West African languages triggered a sound change.

For example, in the first stage of the proto-lang, there could have been a phonemic contrast in labial stops and nasals, between plain consonants (or palatalised if you want) and velarised consonants e.g. /pʰ p b m f pʰˠ pˠ bˠ mˠ/ (pʰˠ seems a bit awkward, so maybe fˠ might be better). Then in the next stage, when the speakers come into contact with speakers of West African languages, the velerised labial consonants become doubly articulated.

Of course, this is just one option.

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 04 Jan 2016 19:12

Linguist_Wannabe wrote:One comment on the doubly articulated stops (e.g. kp, gb). These have an extremely strong tendency to be areal features (see http://wals.info/chapter/19). It seems very unlikely that they would develop in a language spoken in Europe.

With your history though, perhaps you could do some diachronics. When the speakers were still living in Europe, they were some other phonemes, and then contact with West African languages triggered a sound change.

For example, in the first stage of the proto-lang, there could have been a phonemic contrast in labial stops and nasals, between plain consonants (or palatalised if you want) and velarised consonants e.g. /pʰ p b m f pʰˠ pˠ bˠ mˠ/ (pʰˠ seems a bit awkward, so maybe fˠ might be better). Then in the next stage, when the speakers come into contact with speakers of West African languages, the velerised labial consonants become doubly articulated.

Of course, this is just one option.
But, honestly, as we (unless one believes Venneman's Vasconic theory) have no idea what the pre-Indo-European language situation in Europe was like. So honestly, anything is possible regarding tose languages.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 06 Jan 2016 04:32

Mood :
The Mood suffix comes after the tense suffix.
THE Conditional mood:
Suffix: <im>
Used in the apodeisis of conditional clauses.

The Hypothetical Mood:
Suffix: <ik>
Used for the protasis of conditional clauses. Also, used for theoretical possibilities in non-conditional clauses.




The Imperative mood
Suffix: <üse>/<use>

The Hortative mood:
Suffix: mo/mö
Used to express things that should be done by the referent, or as a gentle imperative.


Examples:
Kpalemda meshohemlo ongsihem zimükikem, ongihem nölabimemninm.
Kpal-em-da mesho-hem-lo ongsi-hem zimük-ik-em, ongi-hem nölab-im-em-ninm.
woman-PLR-ERG man-PLR-DAT boat-PLR give-HYP-3p.PLR boat-PLR destroy-COND-3p.PLR-1p
"If women gave men boats, I would destroy boats."

Xwünölühiknmam thakkpal
Xwün-ölü-hik-nmam thak-kpal
eat-FUT-HYP-1p.SING close.thing-TEMP
"I could eat soon"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by opipik » 06 Jan 2016 15:33

A fan-descendant:

/p pʷ t k kʷ ʔ/ <p pw t k kw ʔ>
/n ŋ ŋʷ/ <n ṉ ṉw>
/ɸ β s z x/ <wh w s z x>
/w j ɥ/ <w̲ j w̲j>

All consonants can be palatalized. <Cj>

/i e ɛ ɑ ɔ u/ <i ɇ e a o u>
+ nasalization <Ṽ>

/pʷip ɸɛtɛpʲɑkɑw ɔɸɔnʲiβɑ̃ || wɔsɔkɑ pɑw ɔj ɸɛtɛpʲɛkik nexi || pɑʔɔŋɑ wɔɸɔ̃ ɔjẽ jiwiʔiʔẽ | ɔjẽ nɛpiwẽniβ || ɸũniʔβɑ̃ xɑʔpɑw || ɸɔβɔsɔpe pɑwuʔ eɸen || wɔsɔkɑ pɑw penewiwip || wɔsɔnis pɑwkɑ pɔnɔpɛkipe || wɔsɔkɑ pɔnɔpɛkiʔij pɛwip || ʔɔkɛpiβɑ̃ pɔwuʔ || ɔsiwuʔ ɔtβɑ̃ || wɔsɔkɑ wɔsɔwpɑsɸɑkɑ pɑw peniwip || ʔɔkɛpiβɑ̃ pɔwuʔ wɔsɑpɑwuʔ || wɔsɔkɑ ɔwpɛsikɑ pɑw peniwip
wɑ̃sɑkɑ pɑjɔβuʔ ɔpusẽ jɛkʲ || xɔnkɑ wɔɡɔnkɑ̃ wɔsɔwpɑs tɑwu || xɔβɑkɑ es wesiwen tɑwu || xɔβɑkɑ tɛwuʔij wɔɸip pɛkɛwusip/
<Pw̲ip whetepjakau owhonjiwã. W̲osoka paw̲ oi whetepjekik nɇxi. Paʔoṉa w̲owhõ ojɇ̃ jiw̲iʔiʔɇ̃, ojɇ̃ nepiw̲ɇ̃niw. Whũniʔwã xaʔpaw̲. Whowosopɇ paw̲uʔ ɇwhɇn. W̲osoka paw̲ pɇnɇw̲iw̲ip. W̲osonis paw̲ka ponopekipɇ. W̲osoka ponopekiʔij pew̲ip. ʔOkepiw̲ã powuʔ. Osiw̲uʔ otwã. W̲osoka w̲osow̲paswhaka paw̲ pɇniw̲ip. ʔOkepiwã pow̲uʔ w̲osapaw̲uʔ. W̲osoka ow̲pesika paw̲ pɇniw̲ip
W̲ãsaka pajowuʔ opusɇ̃ jekj. Xonka w̲ogonkã w̲osow̲pas taw̲u. Xowaka ɇs w̲ɇsiw̲ɇn taw̲u. Xowaka tew̲uʔij w̲owhip pekew̲usip.
>

Sound changes:
Spoiler:
k͡p/kʷ/_
ŋ͡m/ŋʷ/_
ɡ͡b/kʷ/_
Z/S/_
k/ʔ/_
ŋ/ɣ/_
ɣʷ/β/_
t/k/_
ʦ/t/_
ʣ/z/_
ʔʷ/pʼ/_
xʷ/ɸ/_
f/ɸ/_
pʼʰ/pʰ/_
sʰ/s/_
kʰ/x/_
ʰ//_
a/ɑ/_
œ/ɔ/_…[ɑɔu]
y/u/_…[ɑɔu]
œ/ɛ/_
y/i/_
d/l/V_V
h//_
l//V_V
ll/l/_
[ɔu]/ʷ/_V/V_
[ɛi]/ʲ/_V/V_
[ɔu]/ʷ/_#/V_
[ɛi]/ʲ/_#/V_
[iɛ]j/ʲ/_/#_
ʲʲ/ʲ/_
ʷʷ/ʷ/_
wʷ/w/_
ɣʲ/j/_
sʲ/j/_
z/j/_
ɣ//_
lʷ/w/_
l/w/_
/ʔ/V_V
w/ʷ/C_
pʼ/p/_
ɛ/ɔ/_…[ɑɔuʷ]
ɑ/a/_…[ɛiʲ]
N/ŋ/_[xk]
ŋ[xk]/ŋ/_
sʷ/ɸ/_
nʷ/mn/_
tʷ/p/_
mʷ/m/_
m/̃/_[C#]/#_
m/w/_
ww/w/_
wn/n/_
ɛ/e/_
a/ɛ/_
Last edited by opipik on 18 Jan 2016 20:55, edited 8 times in total.

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Shemtov
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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 07 Jan 2016 19:41

The Direct Causative:
The Direct Causative is a derivational process that turns intransitive verbs transitive. The way it is done is to take the plain root and add the suffix <ögbataw>/<ogbataw> (front)
For example <kwönaj> "To die" <Kwönögbataw> "to Kill"

The Reflexive/Reciprocal:
This is also a derivational process that turns a transitive verb into a reflexive or reciprocal. The suffix is <-ilay>.
<nöxaw> "to show" <nöxilay> "To show oneself" "To realize". This can be stacked with the Direct causative:
<Kwönögbatilay> "To commit suicide".

The Indirect Causative:
This is suffix the comes after the tense marker that means that the agent caused the patient to undergo the action indirectly. it is also usually used with Intransitive verbs, but can be used with transitive verbs. The suffix is <mükp>/<mukp>:
Meshoda kphal kwönelimükp
Mesho-da kphal kwön-eli-mükp
man-ERG woman die-FUT-IND.CAUS
"The man will cause the woman to die".
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 08 Jan 2016 01:17

VOICE:
Aside from the active, Proto-Atlantic has both the Passive and Anti-Passive voice, which demote the Agent and Patient respectively. Use of these two voices also can act, depending on context, as a definite marker on the Patient and Agent, respectively.
The voice suffixes come between the tense and modal suffixes.
The Passive voice:
The suffix is <phö>/<pho>.
The patient is put in the Ergative case, while the agent is placed in the Comitative case.
Meshonis kpalda kwönögbatüngphö
Mesho-nis kpal-da kwön-ögbat-üng-phö
man-COM woman-ERG die-CAUS-PST-PASS
"The woman was killed by a man".

The Antipassive suffix is <(h)iz>. The Patient is placed in the Instrumentive case. Usually the word order is AVP instead of the canonical APV:
Meshoda kwönögbatüngiz kpalib
Mesho-da kwön-ögbat-üng-iz kpal-ib
man-ERG die-CAUS-PST-ANTIPASS woman-INSTR
"The man killed a woman"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 12 Jan 2016 21:19

NEGATION:
Negation in the past requires a special tense suffix. The future and present tense use the preposition <ye>:
Negative conjunction of w-verb <Xwünaw> "to eat":
Past: Xwünö
Present: Ye Xwün
Future: Ye Xwünölü

Negative conjunction of y-verb <Kwishaday> "To trap" To "entangle"
Past: Kwishadey
Present: Ye Kwishad
Future: Ye Kwishadeli

For both existential verbs (i.e. Khetabay "To have") and to negate noun the abessive is used:
Khetabi'nmam kpomuk
Kheta-bi-nmam kpo-muk
have-PST-1P raft-ABESS
"I didn't have a raft"
Last edited by Shemtov on 18 Jan 2016 17:22, edited 1 time in total.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by opipik » 13 Jan 2016 21:05

Yet another fan-descendant:

/p t ʧ k ʔ/ <p t č k ʔ>
/m n/ <m n>
/ɸ β ð h/ <wh w ð h>

/i ɛ ɑ u/ <i e a u>
/m̩ n̩/ <ṃ ṇ>

/pih ɸɑtɑhɛʧɑkɑh ʔɛɸnɛtiβɑm || mɛhkɑ pɑttu ʔhi ɸɑtɑhɛʧɑkik nɛhih || pɑtɛmkɑ mɛhɛmtu ʔhiɛm ðimiʔiʔɛm | ʔhiɛm n̩tɑhimɛmniβ || m̩βɛhpɛh pɑmmuʔ ʔɛɸɛn || mɛhkɑ pɑt pɛnɛtimip || mɛhnih pɑtkɑ pm̩pɑkihɛ || mɛhkɑ pm̩pɑkihið pɑtih || ʔɛkɑhiβɑm pmuʔ || ʔhimuʔ ʔm̩βɑm || mɛhkɑ mɛhthɑhɸɑkɑ pɑt pɛnimip || ʔɛkɑhiβɑm pmuʔ tɛhɑhpɑmuʔ || mɛhkɑ thɑhikɑ pɑt pɛnimip
tɑmhɑkɑ pɑʧβuʔ ɛpuhɛm ʧɑki || hɛnkɑ hɛɡn̩kɑm tɛhthɑh tɑmuh || hɛβɑkɑ ɛh tɛhimɛn tɑmuh || hɛβɑkɑ tɑmuhið mɛhih pɑkɑmuhih/
<Pih whatahečakah ʔewhnetiwam. Mehka pattu ʔhi whatahečakik nehih. Patemka mehemtu ʔhiem ðimiʔiʔem, ʔhiem ṇtahimemniw. Ṃwehpeh pammuʔ ewhen. Mehka pat penetimip. Mehnih patka pṃpakihe. Mehka pṃpakihið patih. Ekahiwam pmuʔ. ʔhimuʔ ʔṃwam. Mehka mehthahwhaka pat penimip. Ekahiwam pmuʔ tehahpamuʔ. Mehka thahika pat penimip.
Tamhaka pačwuʔ epuhem čaki. Henka hegṇkam tehthah tamuh. Hewaka eh tehimen tamuh. Hewaka tamuhið mehih pakamuhih.
>

Sound changes:
Spoiler:
k͡p/kʷ/_
ŋ͡m/ŋʷ/_
ɡ͡b/kʷ/_
Z/S/_
k/ʔ/_
ŋ/ɣ/_
ɣʷ/β/_
t/k/_
ʦ/t/_
ʣ/z/_
ʔʷ/pʼ/_
xʷ/ɸ/_
f/ɸ/_
pʼʰ/pʰ/_
sʰ/s/_
kʰ/x/_
ʰ//_
a/ɑ/_
œ/ɔ/_…[ɑɔu]
y/u/_…[ɑɔu]
œ/ɛ/_
y/i/_
d/l/V_V
h//_
l/t/_
[xsɣ]/h/_
z/ð/_
hh/h/_
p/pʼ/#_/_ʼ
p/w/_/_ʼ
pʼ/p/_
w/ɣ/_
j/ʤ/_
ʤ/ʧ/_
ɣ/h/_
hh/h/_
ɔ/u/_#
ɔ/ə/_
/ʔ/#_V
ə//_
[tn]/m/_[pβɸwm]
ɸ/m/[#C]_[#C]
ɸ/m/[#C]_[#C]
Last edited by opipik on 18 Jan 2016 20:51, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 18 Jan 2016 18:12

Adjectives:
Adjectives work with a classifier system, based on semantics. They also take a distal marker <xwa> if the noun they describe is distantand the case marking of the noun they modify. Most adjective stems begin with a vowel.
Classifier classes and prefixes:
Human beings: <mes->
Animals: <khad->
Natural features: <yül->/<yul->
Food and drink:<id->
Man-made objects: <les->
Other Objects: <kwu->/<kwü ->

Meshoda mesolpasxwada kphal kwönimükp
Mesho-da mes-olpas-xwa-da kphal kwön-i-mükp
man-ERG CLSS-fat-DIST-ERG woman die-PST-IND.CAUS
"The fat man over there caused the woman to die".

Khetabi'nmam kpomuk lesanggbamuk
Kheta-bi-nmam kpo-muk les-anggba-muk
have-PST-1P raft-ABESS CLSS-big-ABESS
"I didn't have a big raft"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 18 Jan 2016 20:04

Pronouns:
Pronouns follow a logical pattern of having the case endings being attached to the stem.
Stems:
1p, sing: In
1p, plr: Mi
2p sing: Thi
2p plr: Sing
3p sing proximate: Xen
3p plr proximate: Xi
3p sing distal: Xengwa
3p plr distal: Xiwa

The 3p pronouns are also used as demonstrative determiners.

The demonstrative adjectives are <Axen> (Prox) and <axwa> (dist).
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 18 Jan 2016 20:45

I've translated the beginning of Schleicher's fable into Proto-Atlantic. Note that because they had contact with IE speakers before they split up, the Proto-Atlantic peoples borrowed a few words from the IE languages:
Lamsada gbayönmuk kwusem yadi.
Lamsa-da gbayön-mük kwus-em yad-i.
Sheep-ERG wool-ABESS horse-PLR see-PST

Xenda wekontam lesolpas camung
Xen-da wekontam les-olpas cam-ung
3p-ERG wagon CLSS-heavy carry-PST

Xengwada es lesimön camung
Xengwa-da es les-imön cam-ung
3p.DIST-ERG load CLSS-big carry-PST

Xengwada camungiz meshohib phatamusib
Xengwa-da cam-ung-iz mesho-hib phatamus-ib
3p.DIST-ERG carry-PST-ANTIPASS man-INSTR quickness-INSTR

“A sheep without wool saw horses. This [horse] was carrying a heavy wagon . That [horse] was carrying a big load. And another [lit. “that”] [horse] was carrying a man quickly.”
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Shemtov
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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 29 Jan 2016 21:31

Numerals 1-100:
1. Kwet
2. Xaz
3. Xoy
4. Ngey
5. Büdö
6. Xide
7. Xüngac
8. Xadec
9. Xwec
10. Lögb

The teens are formed by "X öt Lögb"
Examples:
11: Kwet öt Lögb
12: Xaz öt Lögb
13: Xoy öt Lögb

The tens are formed by Lögb de X:

20: Lögb de Xaz
30: Lögb de Xoy
40 Lögb de Ngey

Numbers like "21" are formed by combining the teen form and the ten form:
21: Kwet öt Lögb de Xaz
42: Xaz öt Lögb de Ngey
69: Xwec öt Lögb de Xide

100 is "Xwidenm"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Shemtov
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Re: Proto-Atlantic

Post by Shemtov » 07 Feb 2016 05:42

Polar questions:
Polar questions are marked by the particle <Xök> after the questioned part of the question:
Lamsada xök gbayönmuk kwusem yadi.
Lamsa-da xök gbayön-mük kwus-em yad-i.
Sheep-ERG INT wool-ABESS horse-PLR see-PST
"Was it woolless sheep that saw the horses?"
But
Lamsada gbayönmuk xök kwusem yadi.
Lamsa-da gbayön-mük xök kwus-em yad-i.
Sheep-ERG wool-ABESS INT horse-PLR see-PST
"Were the sheep that saw the horses without wool?"
Or
Lamsada gbayönmuk kwusem xök yadi.
Lamsa-da gbayön-mük kwus-em xök yad-i.
Sheep-ERG wool-ABESS horse-PLR INT see-PST
"Was it horses the woolless sheep saw?"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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