Täptäg

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Linguifex
roman
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Posts: 953
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Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 08 Mar 2016 10:01

Protolanguage phonology

/m n/
/p b t d k g ʔ/
/s/
/ɾ/

/u ũ o õ ɔ ɔ̃ a ã ɛ ɛ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/

(C)(ɾ/s)V(C)

phonix rules (I use the features more or less as defined in the example files and documentation) appear below. Note that the palatalized alveolars use the palatal phoneme symbols while the palatalized velars don't; this is an artifact of the default features in phonix.
Spoiler:

Code: Select all

rule s-voicing-1
s => z / $ [+vc] _ [+syll]

rule s-voicing-2
s => z / [+syll] [+cons] [+vc] _

rule aspiration
[+cons -cont] => [+asp] / _ r

rule r-deletion
r => * / [+cons] _

rule voicing-assimilation-1
[+cons -son] => [-vc] / _ [-vc]

rule voicing-assimilation-2
[+cons] => [+vc] / _ [+cons +vc]

rule cleanup
[+cons -cont -son *ro *ant *dist *bk *lo *hi +vc] => [-vc]

rule stop-to-nasal
[+cons -son -cont +vc] => [+cons +son -cont +nas +vc -lat] / _ [+cons +nas]

rule mm
[+cons +son -cont +nas +vc -lat -ro] m => [+long] *

rule nn
[+cons +son -cont +nas -lat +vc +ant -dist] n => [+long] *

rule final-o
* [-cons +son +syll -fr +bk -hi -lo +ro +str] => w [-bk +lo *ro] / _ ([+cons]) $

rule final-e
* [-cons +son +syll +fr -bk -hi -lo +str] => j[-fr +lo *ro] / _ ([+cons]) $

rule aspiration-assimilation
[+cons] => [+asp] / _ [+asp]

rule aspiration-loss
[+cons] => [*asp] / _ [+cons -son *asp]

rule palatalization
[+cons] => [-ant +dist] / _ [+fr +str]

rule raising-before-NC-clusters
[+syll -hi -lo] => [+hi +str] / _ [+cons +nas] [+cons]

rule j-loss
j => * // [+syll] _ [+syll]

rule r_j-j
[+cons +son -nas -ant +dist] => j

rule r-h
[+cons +son -nas] => h

rule intervocalic-voicing
[+cons] => [+vc] / [+syll] _ [+syll]

rule cleanup-again
[+cons -cont -son +vc *ro *ant *dist *bk *str] => [-vc]

rule break-high-nasal-u
* u~ => wo~

rule break-high-nasal-i
* i~ => je~

rule lets-try-this
[+cons $ro $ant $dist $bk $lo $hi $cont $asp] [+cons $ro $ant $dist $bk $lo $hi $cont $asp] => [+long] *

rule another-round-of-j-loss
j => * / [+cons] _

rule drop-jj
j => * / j _

rule like-vowel-deletion
[+syll $fr $bk -lo] => * / [+syll $fr $bk] _

rule kkj
k kʲ => * kʲ:

rule ggj
g gʲ => * gʲ:

rule glottal-stop
ʔ => *

rule deletion-of-pretonic-vowels-after-semivowels
[+syll] => * / [-cons -syll] _ ([+cons]) ([+cons]) ([+cons]) [+syll] ([-cons -syll]) ([+cons]) $

rule aj
[+syll +lo] j => [-str] * // _ [+syll]

rule a-to-ae
[+syll +lo] => [-str] / _ j

rule o-to-u-before-j
[+syll +bk -lo -hi] => [+hi +str] / _ j

rule vowels-after-j
[+syll -lo -str] => [+str] / j _

rule mid-vowel-merger
[+syll -hi -lo -str] => [+str] / _ [+nas]

rule E-ae
[+syll -hi -lo +fr -str] => [-fr +lo]

rule O-a
[+syll -hi -lo +bk +ro -str] => [*ro +lo -bk -fr +str]

rule vocalize-semivowels
[-cons -syll] => [+syll] / _ [+cons] // [+syll] _

rule vowel-harmony-1 (filter=[+syll])
[-fr -bk -hi +lo] => [$str] / [$str] _

rule vowel-harmony-2 (filter=[+syll])
[-fr -bk -hi +lo] => [$str] / [$str] ([]) _

rule vowel-harmony-3 (filter=[+syll])
[-fr -bk -hi +lo] => [$str] / [$str] ([]) ([]) _

rule vowel-harmony-4 (filter=[+syll])
[-fr -bk -hi +lo] => [$str] / [$str] ([]) ([]) ([]) _

rule nasal-clusters
* => [+syll -cons +son $hi $lo $fr $bk $ro $nas $str] / $ _ n z [+syll -cons +son $hi $lo $fr $bk $ro $nas $str]

rule h-H
h => ɦ / _ [+cons +vc]

rule aspirate-fricatives
[+cons +cont +asp] => [*asp]

rule fricative-voicing
[+cons +cont] => [$vc] / _ [+cons $vc]

rule fricative-voicing-2
[+cons +cont] => [$vc] / [+cons $vc] _
If I did this right…the voiceless diacritic indicates slack voice.

Standard Täptäg phonology

/m m̥ n n̥ ɲ ɲ̊/
/p pʲ pʰ pʲʰ b bʲ b̥ b̥ʲ t tʲ tʰ tʲʰ d dʲ d̥ d̥ʲ c cʰ ɟ ɟ̊ k kʰ g g̊/
/s z ʃ ʒ/
/w j/

/u ũ o õ ɑ ɑ̃ æ æ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/

Gemination is contrastive on consonants.

Basic syllable structure: (C)(s/z/ʃ/ʒ)V(C), where C cannot be a resonant if it precedes a sibilant in the syllable onset.
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Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 09 Mar 2016 10:42

Proto-Täptäg verb template:

ROOT-ASPECT-PERSON.TENSE<NEGATION>

There exist positive and negative conjugations for each verb instead of using a particle or other word for negation.

PERSONAL ENDINGS

An epenthetic *-t- is inserted between a final vowel and a vowel-initial suffix.

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

1SG *-ki
2SG *-s(ɛ) (the *-ɛ appears if the suffix follows another consonant)
3SG *-Ø

1PL *-ʔkã (the *-ʔ- drops out after another consonant)
2PL *-dɔ̃
3PL *-nẽ

Negative conjugation:

1SG *-ke
2SG *-ka
3SG *-e

1PL *-ɾɔ
2PL *-si
3PL *-ne

PAST TENSE

Positive conjugation:

1SG *-ɾɔ̃
2SG *-sen
3SG *-tõ

1PL *-bi
2PL *-ɾĩ
3PL *-tɾu

Negative conjugation:

1SG *-i
2SG *-us
3SG *-op

1PL *-ɾĩ
2PL *-ɛ̃ɾi
3PL *-ɛt

EXAMPLES

*nonsɛn > nunzen

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*nonsɛnki > nunzinkʲi
*nonsɛnsɛ > nunzinza
*nonsɛn > nunzen
*nonsɛnkrã > nunziŋ̊kʰã
*nonsɛndɔ̃ > nunzinːã
*nonsɛnnẽ > nunzeɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*nonsɛnke > nunziŋkʲa
*nonsɛnka > nunziŋka
*nonsɛne > nunzeɲa
*nonsɛnɾɔ > nunzen̥a
*nonsɛnsi > nunzinʒi
*nonsɛnne > nunzeɲːa

PAST TENSE

*nonsɛnɾɔ̃ > nunzen̥ã
*nonsɛnsen > nunzinʒan
*nonsɛntõ > nunzinːwã
*nonsɛnbi > nunzinbʲi
*nonsɛnmɾã > nunziɲ̊ẽ
*nonsɛntru > nunzin̥ːu

*nonsɛni > nunzeɲi
*nonsɛnus > nunzenus
*nonsɛnop > nunzenwap
*nonsɛnrĩ > nunzeɲ̊ẽ
*nonsɛnɛ̃ri > nunzenãji
*nonsɛnɛt > nunzenat

*nɛtsã > nætsæ̃

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*nɛtsãʔki > nætsæ̃kʲi
*nɛtsãs > nætsæ̃s
*nɛtsã > nætsæ̃
*nɛtsãkɾã > nætsæ̃g̊æ̃
*nɛtsãdɔ̃ > nætsæ̃dæ̃
*nɛtsãnẽ > nætsæ̃ɲæ̃

Negative conjugation:

*nɛtsãke > nætsæ̃gʲæ
*nɛtsãka > nætsæ̃gæ
*nɛtsãte > nætsæ̃dʲæ
*nɛtsãɾɔ > nætsæ̃ɦæ
*nɛtsãsi > nætsæ̃ʒi
*nɛtsãne > nætsæ̃ɲæ

PAST TENSE

*nɛtsãrɔ̃ > nætsæ̃ɦæ̃
*nɛtsãsen > nætsæ̃ʒæn
*nɛtsãtõ > nætsæ̃twæ̃
*nɛtsãbi > nætsæ̃bʲi
*nɛtsãrĩ > nætsæ̃jẽ
*nɛtsãtru > nætsæ̃d̥u

*nɛtsãti > nætsæ̃dʲi
*nɛtsãtus > nætsæ̃dus
*nɛtsãtop > nætsæ̃twap
*nɛtsãrĩ > nætsæ̃jẽ
*nɛtsãtɛri > nætsæ̃dæji
*nɛtsãtɛt > nætsæ̃dæt

*bɔp > bap

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*bɔpki > bapkʲi
*bɔpsɛ > bapsa
*bɔp > bap
*bɔpkã > bapkã
*bɔpdɔ̃ > babdã
*bɔpnẽ > bumɲã

Negative conjugation:

*bɔpke > bapkʲa
*bɔpka > bapka
*bɔpe > babʲa
*bɔpnɾɔ > bum̥n̥a
*bɔpsi > bapʃi
*bɔpnẽ > bumɲa

PAST TENSE

*bɔprɔ̃ > bab̥ã
*bɔpsen > bapʃan
*bɔptõ > baptwã
*bɔpbi > babʲːi
*bɔprĩ > bab̥ʲẽ
*bɔptru > bapʰtʰu

*bɔpi > babʲi
*bɔpus > babus
*bɔpop > bapwap
*bɔprĩ > bab̥ʲẽ
*bɔpɛrĩ > babajẽ
*bɔpɛt > babat

*begtrɛg > bʲekʰtʰag

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*begtrɛgki > bʲekʰtʰakʲːi
*begtrɛgsɛ > bʲekʰtʰaksa
*begtrɛg > bʲekʰtʰag
*begtrɛgkã > bʲekʰtʰakːã
*begtrɛgdɔ̃ > bʲekʰtʰagdã
*begtrɛgnẽ > bʲekʰtʰiŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*begtrɛgke > bʲekʰtʰakʲːa
*begtregka > bʲekʰtʰakːa
*begtrɛge > bʲekʰtʰagʲa
*begtrɛgɾɔ > bʲekʰtʰag̊a
*begtrɛgsi > bʲekʰtʰakʃi
*begtrɛgne > bʲekʰtʰaŋɲe

PAST TENSE

*begtrɛgrɔ̃ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ã
*begtrɛgsen > bʲekʰtʰakʃan
*begtrɛgtõ > bʲekʰtʰaktwã
*begtrɛgbi > bʲekʰtʰagbʲi
*begtrɛgrĩ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ʲẽ
*begtrɛgtru > bʲekʰtʰakʰtʰu

*begtrɛgi > bʲekʰtʰagʲi
*begtrɛgus > bʲekʰtʰagus
*begtrɛgop > bʲekʰtʰagwap
*begtrɛgrĩ > bʲekʰtʰag̊ʲẽ
*begtrɛgɛ̃ri > bʲekʰtʰagãji
*begtrɛgɛt > bʲekʰtʰagat

*gɾɛm > g̊em

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*gɾɛmki > g̊imkʲi
*gɾɛmsɛ > g̊imza
*gɾɛm > g̊em
*gɾɛmkã > g̊imkã
*gɾɛmdɔ̃ > g̊imdã
*gɾɛmnẽ > g̊imɲã

Negative conjugation:

*gɾɛmke > g̊imkʲa
*gɾɛmka > g̊imka
*gɾɛme > g̊emʲa
*gɾɛmɾɔ > g̊em̥a
*gɾɛmsi > g̊imʒi
*gɾɛmne > g̊imɲa

PAST TENSE

*grɛmrɔ̃ > g̊em̥ã
*grɛmsen > g̊imʒan
*grɛmtõ > g̊imtwã
*grɛmbi > g̊imbʲi
*grɛmrĩ > g̊em̥ʲẽ
*grɛmtru > g̊im̥tʰu

*grɛmi > g̊emʲi
*grɛmus > g̊emus
*grɛmop > g̊emwap
*grɛmrĩ > g̊em̥ʲẽ
*grɛmɛ̃ri > g̊emãji
*grɛmɛt > g̊emat

*kɾẽd > kʲʰãd

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*kɾẽdki > kʲʰẽtkʲi
*kɾẽdsɛ > kʲʰẽtsa
*kɾẽd > kʲʰãd
*kɾẽdkã > kʲʰãtkã
*kɾẽddɔ̃ > kʲʰẽdːã
*kɾẽdnẽ > kʲʰẽɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*kɾẽdke > kʲʰẽtkʲa
*kɾẽdka > kʲʰẽtka
*kɾẽde > kʲʰẽdʲa
*kɾẽdrɔ > kʲʰẽd̥a
*kɾẽdsi > kʲʰẽtʃi
*kɾẽdne > kʲʰẽɲːa

PAST TENSE

*krẽdrɔ̃ > kʲʰẽd̥ã
*krẽdsen > kʲʰẽtʃan
*krẽdtõ > kʲʰẽtːwã
*krẽdbi > kʲʰẽdbʲi
*krẽdrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽdtru > kʲʰẽtʰːu

*krẽdi > kʲʰẽdʲi
*krẽdus > kʲʰẽdus
*krẽdop > kʲʰẽdwap
*krẽdrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽdɛ̃ri > kʲʰẽdãji
*krẽdɛt > kʲʰẽdat

*kɾẽt > kʲʰãt

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*kɾẽtki > kʲʰẽtkʲi
*kɾẽtsɛ > kʲʰẽtsa
*kɾẽt > kʲʰãt
*kɾẽtkã > kʲʰãtkã
*kɾẽtdɔ̃ > kʲʰẽdːã
*kɾẽtnẽ > kʲʰẽɲːã

Negative conjugation:

*kɾẽtke > kʲʰẽtkʲa
*kɾẽtka > kʲʰẽtka
*kɾẽte > kʲʰẽdʲa
*kɾẽtrɔ > kʲʰẽd̥a
*kɾẽtsi > kʲʰẽtʃi
*kɾẽtne > kʲʰẽɲːa

PAST TENSE

*krẽtrɔ̃ > kʲʰẽd̥ã
*krẽtsen > kʲʰẽtʃan
*krẽttõ > kʲʰẽtːwã
*krẽtbi > kʲʰẽdbʲi
*krẽtrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽttru > kʲʰẽtʰːu

*krẽti > kʲʰẽdʲi
*krẽtus > kʲʰẽdus
*krẽtop > kʲʰẽtwap
*krẽtrĩ > kʲʰẽd̥ʲẽ
*krẽtɛ̃ri > kʲʰẽdãji
*krẽtɛt > kʲʰẽdat

*dsĩ > dʒẽ

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*dsĩʔki > dʒẽkʲa
*dsĩs > dʒẽs
*dsĩ > dʒẽ
*dsĩkã > dʒẽgã
*dsĩdɔ̃ > dʒẽdã
*dsĩnẽ > dʒẽɲã

Negative conjugation:

*dsĩke > dʒẽgʲa
*dsĩka > dʒẽga
*dsĩte > dʒẽdʲa
*dsĩɾɔ > dʒẽɦa
*dsĩsi > dʒẽʒi
*dsĩne > dʒẽɲa

PAST TENSE

*dsĩrɔ̃ > dʒẽɦã
*dsĩsen > dʒẽʒan
*dsĩtõ > dʒẽtwã
*dsĩbi > dʒẽbʲi
*dsĩrĩ > dʒẽjẽ
*dsĩtru > dʒẽd̥u

*dsĩti > dʒẽdʲi
*dsĩtus > dʒẽdus
*dsĩtop > dʒẽtwap
*dsĩrĩ > dʒẽjẽ
*dsĩtɛ̃ri > dʒẽdãji
*dsĩtɛt > dʒẽdat

*ukbɾɛ̃k > ug̊b̥ãk

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*ukbɾɛ̃kki > ug̊b̥ãkʲːi
*ukbɾɛ̃ksɛ > ug̊b̥ãksa
*ukbɾɛ̃k > ug̊b̥ãk
*ukbɾɛ̃kkã > ug̊b̥ãkːã
*ukbɾɛ̃kdɔ̃ > ug̊b̥ãgdã
*ukbɾɛ̃knẽ > ug̊b̥ẽŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*ukbɾɛ̃kke > ug̊b̥ãkʲːa
*ukbɾɛ̃kka > ug̊b̥ãkːa
*ukbɾɛ̃ke > ug̊b̥ãgʲa
*ukbɾɛ̃kɾɔ > ug̊b̥ãg̊a
*ukbɾɛ̃ksi > ug̊b̥ãkʃi
*ukbɾɛ̃kne > ug̊b̥ẽŋɲa

PAST TENSE

*ukbrɛ̃krɔ̃ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ã
*ukbrɛ̃ksen > ug̊b̥ãkʃan
*ukbrɛ̃ktõ > ug̊b̥ãktwã
*ukbrɛ̃kbi > ug̊b̥ãgbʲi
*ukbrɛ̃krĩ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ʲẽ
*ukbrɛ̃ktru > ug̊b̥ãkʰtʰu

*ukbrɛ̃ki > ug̊b̥ãgʲi
*ukbrɛ̃kus > ug̊b̥ãgus
*ukbrɛ̃kop > ug̊b̥ãkwap
*ukbrɛ̃krĩ > ug̊b̥ãg̊ʲẽ
*ukbrɛ̃kɛ̃ri > ug̊b̥ãgãji
*ukbrɛ̃kɛt > ug̊b̥ãgat

*ĩbto > jẽptwa

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*ĩbtoʔki > jẽptokʲi
*ĩbtos > jẽptwas
*ĩbto > jẽptwa
*ĩbtokã > jẽptogã
*ĩbtodɔ̃ > jẽptodã
*ĩbtonẽ > jẽptoɲã

Negative conjugation:

*ĩbtoke > jẽptogʲa
*ĩbtoka > jẽptoga
*ĩbtote > jẽptodʲa
*ĩbtoɾɔ > jẽptoɦa
*ĩbtosi > jẽptoʒi
*ĩbtone > jẽptoɲa

PAST TENSE

*ĩbtorɔ̃ > jẽptoɦã
*ĩbtosen > jẽptoʒan
*ĩbtotõ > jẽptotwã
*ĩbtobi > jẽptobʲi
*ĩbtorĩ > jẽptujẽ
*ĩbtotru > jẽptod̥u

*ĩbtoti > jẽptodʲi
*ĩbtotus > jẽptodus
*ĩbtotop > jẽptotwap
*ĩbtorĩ > jẽptujẽ
*ĩbtotɛ̃ri > jẽptodãji
*ĩbtotɛt > jẽptodat

*gsɔpʔɛ > gzapa

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*gsɔpʔɛʔki > gzapakʲi
*gsɔpʔɛs > gzapas
*gsɔpʔɛ > gzapa
*gsɔpʔɛkã > gzapagã
*gsɔpʔɛdɔ̃ > gzapadã
*gsɔpʔɛnẽ > gzapeɲã

Negative conjugation:

*gsɔpʔɛke > gzapagʲa
*gsɔpʔɛka > gzapaga
*gsɔpʔɛte > gzapadʲa
*gsɔpʔɛrɔ > gzapaɦa
*gsɔpʔɛsi > gzapaʒi
*gsɔpʔɛne > gzapeɲa

PAST TENSE

*gsɔpʔɛrɔ̃ > gzapaɦã
*gsɔpʔɛsen > gzapaʒan
*gsɔpʔɛtõ > gzapatwã
*gsɔpʔɛbi > gzapabʲi
*gsɔpʔɛrĩ > gzapajẽ
*gsɔpʔɛtru > gzapad̥u

*gsɔpʔɛti > gzapadʲi
*gsɔpʔɛtus > gzapadus
*gsɔpʔɛtop > gzapatwap
*gsɔpʔɛrĩ > gzapajẽ
*gsɔpʔɛtɛ̃ri > gzapadãji
*gsɔpʔɛtɛt > gzapadat

*dɛ̃nɾik > dẽɲ̊ik

PRESENT TENSE

Positive conjugation:

*dɛ̃nɾikki > dẽɲ̊ikʲːi
*dɛ̃nɾiksɛ > dẽɲ̊iksa
*dɛ̃nɾik > dẽɲ̊ik
*dɛ̃nɾikkã > dẽɲ̊ikːã
*dɛ̃nɾikdɔ̃ > dẽɲ̊igdã
*dɛ̃nɾiknẽ > dẽɲ̊iŋɲã

Negative conjugation:

*dɛ̃nɾikke > dẽɲ̊ikʲːa
*dɛ̃nɾikka > dẽɲ̊ikːa
*dɛ̃nɾike > dẽɲ̊igʲa
*dɛ̃nɾikrɔ > dẽɲ̊ig̊a
*dɛ̃nɾiksi > dẽɲ̊ikʃi
*dɛ̃nɾikne > dẽɲ̊iŋɲa

PAST TENSE

*dɛ̃nrikrɔ̃ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ã
*dɛ̃nriksen > dẽɲ̊ikʃan
*dɛ̃nriktõ > dẽɲ̊iktwã
*dɛ̃nrikbi > dẽɲ̊igbʲi
*dɛ̃nrikrĩ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲẽ
*dɛ̃nriktru > dẽɲ̊ikʰtʰu

*dɛ̃nriki > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲi
*dɛ̃nrikus > dẽɲ̊igus
*dɛ̃nrikop > dẽɲ̊ikwap
*dɛ̃nrikrĩ > dẽɲ̊ig̊ʲẽ
*dɛ̃nrikɛ̃ri > dẽɲ̊igãji
*dɛ̃nrikɛt > dẽɲ̊igat
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Linguifex
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Re: Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 10 Mar 2016 03:09

/m m̥ mʲ m̥ʲ n n̥ ɲ ɲ̊/ <m mh mi mhi n nh ni nhi>
/p pʲ pʰ pʲʰ b bʲ b̥ b̥ʲ t tʲ tʰ tʲʰ d dʲ d̥ d̥ʲ k kʰ kʲ kʲʰ g g̊ gʲ g̊ʲ/ <p pi ph phi b bi bh bhi t ti th thi d di dh dhi k kh ki khi g gh gi ghi>
/s z ʃ ʒ/ <s z si zi>
/w j/ <w j>

/u ũ o õ ɑ ɑ̃ æ æ̃ e ẽ i ĩ/ <u ų o ǫ a ą ä ą̈ e ę i/ai į/aį> (<ai aį> are used when the /i/ is non-palatalizing, as in /g̊im̥tʰu/ <ghaimhthu>)
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Re: Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 13 Mar 2016 09:54

Numbers for Janko:

1. *gsɛ > gzæ gzä
2. *dɾɛ̃s > d̥æ̃s dhą̈s
3. *ksẽɾe > kʃẽja księja
4. *pektɾɛ > pʲekʰtʰa piekhtha
5. *brẽpgɾɔ > b̥ʲẽb̥g̊a bhiębhgha
6. *nseɾ > anʒah anziah
12. *sĩʔtɾe > ʃẽtʲʰa sęthia
36. *ɾĩgɾũ > jẽg̊wõ jęghwǫ
216. *ben > bʲan bian
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Re: Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 02 Apr 2016 06:10

Pronouns in Täptäg generally don't distinguish number for the second and third person; the Täptäg languages in general share this trait and it is generally reconstructed as being the case in the protolanguage.

*kse > kʃa ksia 1SG
*mɾogsĩ > m̥okʃẽ mhoksię 1PL
*brĩ > b̥ʲẽ bhię 2
*mɛ̃ɾe > mæ̃jæ mą̈jä 3

Context usually clears up whether the second- or third-person referent is singular or plural. It is considered nonstandard, but occasionally you'll hear analogical forms mhoghbhię 2PL and mhokmą̈jä 3PL.
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Re: Täptäg

Post by Linguifex » 09 Apr 2016 09:36

Proto-Täptäg had thirty-one noun classes, which are listed below.

1: *d(i)- – sentient beings
2: *ip- – kinship terms
3: *t(i)- – plural sentient beings/kinship
4: *ɛ̃- – small animals
5: *nĩ- – large animals
6: *ɾ(ɔ)- – aquatic animals
7: *ũ- – plural animals
8: *kaʔ- – action nominals/gerunds
9: *Ø- – infinitive; inanimate
10: *ĩ- – plural inanimate
11: *kɾ(ɔ)- – trees
12: *at- – shrubs
13: *mɾẽ- – flowers
14: *sõ- – weeds
15: *sasõ- – other terrestrial plants
16: *nẽ- – plural terrestrial plants
17: *mɾit- – aquatic plants
18: *ĩɾ- – plural aquatic plants
19: *ɾĩ- – body parts
20: *bos- – dual body parts
21: *ãɾ- – plural body parts
22: *te- – words dealing with time
23: *ag(i)- – abstract and mass nouns
24: *o- – foods
25: *in- – plural foods
26: *ãk- – units of measurement
27: *poʔ- – liquids and gases
28: *ɛ̃ʔ- – quality associated with something
29: *s(i)- – locative (at, near, on top of, outside of)
30: *nsɔ̃ʔ- – locative (inside, under, part of, within)
31: *daɾã- – locative (away from, far from, on the other side of, across from)

Words or stems beginning with *ɾ- produced an interesting result in Standard Täptäg. Initial *ɾ was lost, but when a prefix occurred it was no longer initial and was retained. Then the aspiration/slack-voice process happened leading to a few noun subclasses—basically, if a prefix ended in a consonant (other than *ɾ), that consonant then became aspirated or slack-voiced.

As an example, noun class 1: Given a vowel-initial stem, the *d- > d- (class 1a in Standard Täptäg); but if the stem began with *ɾ-, *dɾ- > d̥- (and if palatalization rules apply, d̥ʲ-) (class 1b in Standard Täptäg). Subclasses for which no voicing change occurs are denoted as class Xa; when voicing changes do occur, that is class Xb.

I have not yet decided fully on which noun classes merge in Standard Täptäg, but have the following ideas. I am fairly certain that classes 10 and 19 will merge due to the influence of sound changes; 13 merges into 12, and 15 merges into 14. 26 and 27 merge into 23. 6 merges into 4 or 5, as appropriate (some regions have slight differences here). Class 20 is kept as a variant of class 21 for body parts that come naturally in pairs but otherwise falls out of use.
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Re: Täptäg

Post by Omzinesý » 09 Apr 2016 11:25

Linguifex wrote:Proto-Täptäg had thirty-one noun classes, which are listed below.

1: *d(i)- – sentient beings
2: *ip- – kinship terms
3: *t(i)- – plural sentient beings/kinship
4: *ɛ̃- – small animals
5: *nĩ- – large animals
6: *ɾ(ɔ)- – aquatic animals
7: *ũ- – plural animals
8: *kaʔ- – action nominals/gerunds
9: *Ø- – infinitive; inanimate
10: *ĩ- – plural inanimate
11: *kɾ(ɔ)- – trees
12: *at- – shrubs
13: *mɾẽ- – flowers
14: *sõ- – weeds
15: *sasõ- – other terrestrial plants
16: *nẽ- – plural terrestrial plants
17: *mɾit- – aquatic plants
18: *ĩɾ- – plural aquatic plants
19: *ɾĩ- – body parts
20: *bos- – dual body parts
21: *ãɾ- – plural body parts
22: *te- – words dealing with time
23: *ag(i)- – abstract and mass nouns
24: *o- – foods
25: *in- – plural foods
26: *ãk- – units of measurement
27: *poʔ- – liquids and gases
28: *ɛ̃ʔ- – quality associated with something
29: *s(i)- – locative (at, near, on top of, outside of)
30: *nsɔ̃ʔ- – locative (inside, under, part of, within)
31: *daɾã- – locative (away from, far from, on the other side of, across from)
Interesting!
I think I'll copy some of your ideas.
Is class 9 really the only class for inanimate objects, say pens?

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