The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

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The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 23 Apr 2016 09:39

The voiceless diacritic under a voiced sound indicates slack voice. This is the protolanguage phonology.

/m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̊/
/p pʰ b b̥ t tʰ d d̥ k kʰ g g̊ q qʰ ɢ ɢ̥/
/s x h/
/ʜ ʢ/
/w l/

/u uˤ o oˤ a aˤ e eˤ i iˤ/

Syllable structure: (C)(w)V(X), where X is:
  • any nasal;
  • any non-labial plosive;
  • one of *s *x;
  • *l; or
  • a trill.
Word order is typically OSV.

The speakers of this group called themselves *Wekoq (*we-k-oq), roughly speaking "people of the hills" (*we- collective prefix + *k- demonym + oq 'hill').

There are eight noun classes:
  1. *ʢe- Animate
  2. *n̥o- Weather terms
  3. *aˤ- Liquids and gases
  4. *ʜ(i)- Long, thin objects
  5. *m̥iˤ- Fabric-like objects
  6. *oˤ- Abstract
  7. *we- Mass nouns and collectives
  8. *Ø- Miscellaneous
The difference between weather nouns and other nouns can be illustrated with word sets such as *n̥o-miˤ 'snow (falling)' and *we-miˤ 'snow (on the ground)'; *n̥o-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rain (falling)' and *aˤ-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rainwater'; *n̥o-ʢeˤt 'sunny day, sunny weather', *ʢeˤt 'sun', *oˤ-ʢeˤt 'sunlight'; *n̥o-ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hail' and *ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hailstone'; *n̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice storm' and *we-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice'.

The fabric-like noun class covers some concepts that speakers of English might not consider fabrics, such as *m̥iˤ-n̥apʰeˤd 'tide' and *m̥iˤ-miˤn̥ 'sea-foam'.

This language does not make a distinction between number in the second- and third-person pronouns.

*n̥waˤ 1SG
*b̥wo 1PL
*qeˤn̥oˤ 2
*g̊o 3

Despite the word order, adjectives tend to come after the nouns they modify.

Logography
Because for some reason my ideas wanted me to dump even more work on myself, I've decided to make another logography, though technically this is for one of the descendant languages (Waqwaq). I'll admit I mostly started with the logograms rather than the actual in-language words. The process for this language, unlike the Caber logograms, is based off redditor /u/yaesen's guide for creating ideograms. In the third image below you can see the forty-two primitives I use. The majority of the glyphs are made using a 2x3 grid of primitives.
Spoiler:
Image
Image
Image
Image
And the obligatory Seven Kill Stele:
Image

Data for zompist's gen:
Spoiler:
C=ʢNqGPmBMʜxgKɢw1DŋkŊsthbpndlTQ
V=IEAeaUOiuo
X=NsŊdnlTŋD1tʢKQɢkmʜGMqgx

U|uˤ
O|oˤ
A|aˤ
E|eˤ
I|iˤ
M|m̥
N|n̥
Ŋ|ŋ̊
P|pʰ
B|b̥
T|tʰ
D|d̥
K|kʰ
G|g̊
Q|qʰ
1|ɢ̥

CV
CVX
CwV
CwVX
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by qzorum » 24 Apr 2016 14:00

Damn but do I dig that phonology. Dat epiglottal trill.

OSV word order spooked me a bit though. What's your morphosyntactic alignment?
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 30 Apr 2016 00:18

Thank you!
qzorum wrote:What's your morphosyntactic alignment?
Tentatively thinking nominative-accusative, though I'm not really going to be marking case.

Redoing the noun-class system a bit:
  1. *ʢe- Animate
  2. *eˤn̥- Body parts
  3. *n̥o- Weather terms
  4. *aˤ- Liquids and gases
  5. *ʜ(i)- Long, thin objects
  6. *iˤ- Small, round objects
  7. *m̥iˤ- Fabric-like objects
  8. *oˤ- Abstract countable
  9. *ɢ̥(i)- Abstract uncountable
  10. *atʰ- Tools
  11. *we- Mass nouns and collectives
  12. *Ø- Miscellaneous
  13. *ɢoˤ- Plural of classes 1, 2, and 7
  14. *ŋapʰ- Plural of classes 5 and 10
  15. *b̥i- Plural of class 6
  16. *d(i)- Plural of classes 8 and 12
Numbers one through six:
  1. qiˤd
  2. eɢ̥e
  3. gwas
  4. wiˤqʰin̥
  5. xweˤs
  6. ʢwos
Higher-order numbers:
  • 36. wig̊eˤn̥
  • 216. huˤʢu
qeˤaʜ

Sound changes from Proto-Wekoq to Waqwaq:

w → Ø / C[+ trill]_
C[+ voice] C[+ slack] → N[+ voice] N[+ slack] / _#
x → Ø / {#,C}_wV
e → aj / _Q
ŋ → Ø / #_
K → Q / _B
e(ˤ) → a(ˤ) / #w_
u(ˤ) i(ˤ) → o(ˤ) e(ˤ) / w_
o(ˤ) → wa(ˤ) / _Q
N[+ slack] → Ø / _#
N[+ slack] → Ø / #_w
N[+ slack] → N[+ voice]
C[+ aspirated] C[- voice] C[+ slack] C[+ voice] → C[- voice] C[+ slack] C[+ voice] C[+ prenasalized] / #_
C[+ aspirated] C[- voice] C[+ slack] C[+ voice] → C[- voice] C[+ slack] C[+ voice] C[+ prenasalized] / V_V
C[+ aspirated] → C[+ fricative]
K → Q / Vˤ_
Unstressed vowels are deleted in words three syllables and longer

If I did this right, this is the final phonology:

/m n ŋ/
/p b̥ b ⁿb t d̥ d ⁿd k g̊ g ⁿg q ɢ̥ ɢ ⁿɢ/
/ɸ s x χ h/ (the phonemic status of /ɸ/ and /χ/ is enhanced through loans, such as from Irghal)
/ʜ ʢ/
/l/

/u uˤ o oˤ a aˤ e eˤ i iˤ/
/wo woˤ wa waˤ we weˤ/
/aj aˤj/

wekoq → waqwaq

n̥waˤ → waˤ
b̥wo → bwo
qeˤn̥oˤ → ɢ̥eˤnoˤ
g̊o → go

n̥o-miˤ → nomiˤ
we-miˤ → wamiˤ
n̥o-d̥wiˤn̥ → nod̥weˤ
aˤ-d̥wiˤn̥ → aˤd̥weˤ
n̥o-ʢeˤt → noʢeˤt
ʢeˤt → ʢeˤt
oˤ-ʢeˤt → oˤʢeˤt
n̥o-ʜwaˤŋ̊ → noʜaˤ
ʜwaˤŋ̊ → ʜaˤ
n̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ → nonmweˤ
we-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ → wanmweˤ
m̥iˤ-n̥apʰeˤd → miˤnpeˤn
m̥iˤ-miˤn̥ → miˤmiˤ (possibly → miˤ by haplology)
  1. qiˤd → ɢ̥iˤn
  2. eɢ̥e → ajɢe
  3. gwas → ⁿgwas
  4. wiˤqʰin̥ → weˤqi
  5. xweˤs → weˤs
  6. ʢwos → ʢos
Higher-order numbers:
  • 36. wig̊eˤn̥ → wegeˤ
  • 216. huˤʢu → huˤʢu
Noun-class prefixes:
  1. *ʢe- → ʢaj- (before an original uvular), ʢe- (otherwise)
  2. *eˤn̥- → eˤn-
  3. *n̥o- → wa- (before an original uvular), no- (otherwise)
  4. *aˤ- → aˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  5. *ʜ(i)- → ʜi- (before a consonant other than /w/), ʜ- (otherwise)
  6. *iˤ- → iˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  7. *m̥iˤ- → miˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  8. *oˤ- → waˤ- (before an original uvular), oˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  9. *ɢ̥(i)- → ɢi- (before a consonant), ɢ- (before a vowel or /w/)
  10. *atʰ- → as- (before a consonant), at- (before a vowel)
  11. *we- → waj- (before an original uvular), wa- (otherwise)
  12. *Ø- → Ø-
  13. *ɢoˤ- → ⁿɢwaˤ- (before original uvulars), ⁿɢoˤ- (causes retraction of a following velar to a uvular)
  14. *ŋapʰ- → aɸ- (before a consonant), ap- (before a vowel)
  15. *b̥i- → bi-
  16. *d(i)- → ⁿd- (before a vowel), ⁿdi- (before a consonant other than /w/)
aspirated - voiceless - slack - voiced
>
voiceless - slack - voiced - prenasalized
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by shimobaatar » 05 May 2016 01:32

Linguifex wrote: The speakers of this group called themselves *Wekoq (*we-k-oq), roughly speaking "people of the hills" (*we- collective prefix + *k- demonym + oq 'hill').
So *k- is used only to derive demonyms? Is it etymologically related to any other word or morpheme?
Linguifex wrote: The difference between weather nouns and other nouns can be illustrated with word sets such as *n̥o-miˤ 'snow (falling)' and *we-miˤ 'snow (on the ground)'; *n̥o-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rain (falling)' and *aˤ-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rainwater'; *n̥o-ʢeˤt 'sunny day, sunny weather', *ʢeˤt 'sun', *oˤ-ʢeˤt 'sunlight'; *n̥o-ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hail' and *ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hailstone'; *n̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice storm' and *we-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice'.

The fabric-like noun class covers some concepts that speakers of English might not consider fabrics, such as *m̥iˤ-n̥apʰeˤd 'tide' and *m̥iˤ-miˤn̥ 'sea-foam'.
I like these ideas here. They're quite creative.
Linguifex wrote: Numbers one through six:
  1. qiˤd
  2. eɢ̥e
  3. gwas
  4. wiˤqʰin̥
  5. xweˤs
  6. ʢwos
Higher-order numbers:
  • 36. wig̊eˤn̥
  • 216. huˤʢu
I take it that the language is base-six? Personally, I always forget to make words for, as you call them here, "higher-order numbers", so this is a nice reminder. That isn't to say that the word forms here aren't pleasant as well, though.
Linguifex wrote: qeˤaʜ
What does this mean?
Linguifex wrote: If I did this right, this is the final phonology:

/m n ŋ/
/p b̥ b ⁿb t d̥ d ⁿd k g̊ g ⁿg q ɢ̥ ɢ ⁿɢ/
/ɸ s x χ h/ (the phonemic status of /ɸ/ and /χ/ is enhanced through loans, such as from Irghal)
/ʜ ʢ/
/l/

/u uˤ o oˤ a aˤ e eˤ i iˤ/
/wo woˤ wa waˤ we weˤ/
/aj aˤj/
I like the changes, and the final results here. I found the note about /ɸ/ and /χ/ here of particular interest.
Linguifex wrote: Noun-class prefixes:
  1. *ʢe- → ʢaj- (before an original uvular), ʢe- (otherwise)
  2. *eˤn̥- → eˤn-
  3. *n̥o- → wa- (before an original uvular), no- (otherwise)
  4. *aˤ- → aˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  5. *ʜ(i)- → ʜi- (before a consonant other than /w/), ʜ- (otherwise)
  6. *iˤ- → iˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  7. *m̥iˤ- → miˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  8. *oˤ- → waˤ- (before an original uvular), oˤ- (causes retraction of a velar to a uvular)
  9. *ɢ̥(i)- → ɢi- (before a consonant), ɢ- (before a vowel or /w/)
  10. *atʰ- → as- (before a consonant), at- (before a vowel)
  11. *we- → waj- (before an original uvular), wa- (otherwise)
  12. *Ø- → Ø-
  13. *ɢoˤ- → ⁿɢwaˤ- (before original uvulars), ⁿɢoˤ- (causes retraction of a following velar to a uvular)
  14. *ŋapʰ- → aɸ- (before a consonant), ap- (before a vowel)
  15. *b̥i- → bi-
  16. *d(i)- → ⁿd- (before a vowel), ⁿdi- (before a consonant other than /w/)
It's cool how the sound changes have resulted in allomorphs in some cases here.

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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 05 May 2016 04:16

shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: The speakers of this group called themselves *Wekoq (*we-k-oq), roughly speaking "people of the hills" (*we- collective prefix + *k- demonym + oq 'hill').
So *k- is used only to derive demonyms? Is it etymologically related to any other word or morpheme?
The demonym morpheme is *k(i)-.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: The difference between weather nouns and other nouns can be illustrated with word sets such as *n̥o-miˤ 'snow (falling)' and *we-miˤ 'snow (on the ground)'; *n̥o-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rain (falling)' and *aˤ-d̥wiˤn̥ 'rainwater'; *n̥o-ʢeˤt 'sunny day, sunny weather', *ʢeˤt 'sun', *oˤ-ʢeˤt 'sunlight'; *n̥o-ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hail' and *ʜwaˤŋ̊ 'hailstone'; *n̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice storm' and *we-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice'.

The fabric-like noun class covers some concepts that speakers of English might not consider fabrics, such as *m̥iˤ-n̥apʰeˤd 'tide' and *m̥iˤ-miˤn̥ 'sea-foam'.
I like these ideas here. They're quite creative.
Thank you!
shimobataar wrote:I take it that the language is base-six? Personally, I always forget to make words for, as you call them here, "higher-order numbers", so this is a nice reminder. That isn't to say that the word forms here aren't pleasant as well, though.
Yes. A friend of mine on the ZBB observed that counting in base-six is easy to do on the hands—one hand can count off the multiples of six whereas the other hand can count off one through five. I use it for most of the languages in this setting because it is different than base-ten.
shimobataar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: qeˤaʜ
What does this mean?
That was a cool word that I forgot to remove from the post before it was posted.
shimobataar wrote:I like the changes, and the final results here. I found the note about /ɸ/ and /χ/ here of particular interest.
shimobataar wrote:It's cool how the sound changes have resulted in allomorphs in some cases here.
[:D]

Sound changes from Classical Waqwaq to Imperial Waqwaq:

C[+ slack] → C[+ voiced]
u i → aw aj / {K,Q}_#
o → aw / #K_#
V[+ high] → Ø / #C(w)VC_CV
P → Ø / _w
(ⁿ)ɢ → ʕ
t → Ø / _x
N{ɸ,l} h{ɸ,x} → Ø s
N → S[+ voice] / _(V)N
{h,N} → Ø / _C
x → Ø / _{p,k}
x → s
{e,a}(ˤ){k,q} → o(ˤ)χ / _w
{k,q} → χ / _(w)a(ˤ) ! #_
{k,q} → χ / a(ˤ)_ ! _#
wa(ˤ) → o(ˤ)
(a(ˤ)w)a(ˤ)ha(ˤ) → a(ˤ)ː
{a(ˤ)wa(ˤ),i(ˤ)wa(ˤ),i(ˤ)we(ˤ)} → u(ˤ)ː
{o(ˤ),a(ˤ)}we(ˤ) → o(ˤ)ː
e(ˤ)hi(ˤ) → e(ˤ)ː
{a(ˤ)ja(ˤ),i(ˤ)ha(ˤ),i(ˤ)je(ˤ),i(ˤ)hi(ˤ),i(ˤ)ja(ˤ)} → i(ˤ)ː
V[+ high] → V[+ mid] / {h,q,ʕ}_
j → Ø / a_ʕ
e(ˤ) → a(ˤ) / w_
V → Ø / V(C)(C)C[+ trill]_#
o e → u i / _C[+ trill]
w → Ø / CC_
ɸ → w
B → E / #_(C)(C)E
aN eN → o a / _#
w → h / #_

If I did this right…

waqwaq → woχoq

waˤ → oˤ
bwo → ho
ɢ̥eˤnoˤ → ʕeˤnoˤ
go → gaw

nomiˤ → domiˤ
wamiˤ → emiˤ
nod̥weˤ → nodwaˤ
aˤd̥weˤ → aˤdwaˤ
noʢeˤt → nuʢeˤt
ʢeˤt → ʢeˤt
oˤʢeˤt → iˤʢeˤt
noʜaˤ → nuʜ
ʜaˤ → ʜaˤ
nonmweˤ → nodmaˤ
wanmweˤ → odmaˤ
miˤnpeˤn → biˤpaˤ
miˤmiˤ (possibly → miˤ by haplology) → miˤ ~ biˤmiˤ
  1. ɢ̥iˤn → ʕaˤ
  2. ajɢe → aʕe
  3. ⁿgwas → ⁿgos
  4. weˤqi → haˤqaj
  5. weˤs → haˤs
  6. ʢos → ʢos
Higher-order numbers:
  • 36. wegeˤ → hagaˤj
  • 216. huˤʢu → huˤʢ
I'm also considering having initial nasals drop (but not initial prenasals). This might mess up the noun-class prefixes a bit.
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 06 May 2016 09:15

Some thoughts on verbs

Word order revisited

Proto-Wekoq uses OSV word order.

*ʢekoq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ
ʢe-k-oq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ
ANIM.SG-demonym-river 2 be
'you are Wekoq'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o gi-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PST-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he used to live by the Great River'

Polar questions

The question particle *de occurs at the end of the sentence:

*ʢekoq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ de
ʢe-k-oq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ de
ANIM.SG-demonym-river 2 be Q
'are you Wekoq?'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ de
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o gi-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ de
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PST-INCOMPL-live.somewhere Q
'did he used to live by the Great River?'

Completives and incompletives

The default form of a verb is the incompletive. The incompletive is also the only form of a verb that can be negated (see below).

*g̊o n̥waˤ n̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ Ø-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 INCOMPL-put.down.fabric
'I am putting it (the fabric) down'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o n̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he lives by the Great River'

The completive is indicated by a prefix *-maqʰ-.

*g̊o n̥waˤ maqʰn̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ maqʰ-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 COMPL-put.down.fabric
'I have put it (the fabric) down'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o maqʰn̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o maqʰ-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 COMPL-live.somewhere
'he no longer lives by the Great River'

Tense

There are four tenses: *gi- PAST, *Ø- PRESENT, *aˤ- PERSISTIVE, and *ʢi- FUTURE.

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PST-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he used to by the Great River'/'he was living by the Great River'

*g̊o n̥waˤ gimaqʰn̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 PST-COMPL-put.down.fabric
'I put it (the fabric) down'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o n̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o Ø-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PRES-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he no longer lives by the Great River'

*g̊o n̥waˤ maqʰn̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ Ø-maqʰ-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 PRES-COMPL-put.down.fabric
'I have put it (the fabric) down'/'I just put it down'/'I am finished putting it down'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o aˤn̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o aˤ-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PERSISTIVE-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he still lives by the Great River'

*g̊o n̥waˤ aˤmaqʰn̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ aˤ-maqʰ-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 PERSISTIVE-COMPL-put.down.fabric
'I put it (the fabric) down (emphatic)'/'I am finished putting it down (emphatic)'

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o ʢin̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o ʢi-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 FUT-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he will live by the Great River'

*g̊o n̥waˤ ʢimaqʰn̥uˤŋ
g̊o n̥waˤ ʢi-maqʰ-n̥uˤŋ
3 1 FUT-COMPL-put.down.fabric
'I will have put it (the fabric) down'

The persistive tense is not typically used with completives; when it is, it adds further emphasis to the fact that the action of the verb is no longer occurring.

*ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o aˤmaqʰn̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o aˤ-maqʰ-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PERSISTIVE-COMPL-live.somewhere
'he no longer lives by the Great River (emphatic)'

Negation

There are two types of negative morpheme in Proto-Wekoq: The negative particle bu and the negative prefix miˤ-. Unfortunately (for me and everybody else), which verb takes which is semantically governed. The verb *qeˤ 'be', for instance, uses the negative prefix:

*ʢekoq qeˤn̥oˤ miˤqeˤ
ʢe-k-oq qeˤn̥oˤ Ø-miˤ-qeˤ
ANIM.SG-demonym-river 2 INCOMPL-NEG-be
'you are not Wekoq'

The verb *m̥iˤb̥oˤs 'fasten', on the other hand, uses the postverbal particle *bu:

*go qeˤn̥oˤ gim̥iˤb̥oˤs bu
go qeˤn̥oˤ gi-Ø-m̥iˤb̥oˤs bu
3 2 PST-INCOMPL-fasten NEG
'you didn't fasten it'

Negatives can only negate verbs that are not in the completive aspect.

The verbs that take the negative prefix tend to denote relatively "common" actions. The list below may be expanded later.
  • *qeˤ 'be'
  • *n̥iˤkʰ 'pick up (a long, thin object)'
  • *xeˤ 'pick up (a small, round object)'
  • *ɢ̥aˤ 'pick up (a fabric-like object)'
  • *seˤ 'pick up (other objects)'
  • *n̥wiˤ 'hold, carry (a long, thin object)'
  • *mweˤ 'hold, carry (a small, round object)'
  • *kʰaˤ 'hold, carry (a fabric-like object)'
  • *an̥ 'hold, carry (other objects)'
  • *ʢiˤ 'have, possess (a long, thin object)'
  • *m̥ad 'have, possess (a small, round object)'
  • *ŋ̊wuˤ 'have, possess (a fabric-like object)'
  • *ʢwad̥we 'have, possess (other objects)'
  • *kʰe 'put down (a long, thin object)'
  • *woˤ 'put down (a small, round object)'
  • *n̥uˤŋ 'put down (a fabric-like object)'
  • *ʢoˤ 'put down (other objects)'
  • *g̊waˤn̥ 'begin (something)'
  • *pʰwe 'end (something)'
  • *ŋak 'eat, drink'
  • *mwed 'sleep'
  • *n̥eˤn 'live'
  • *n̥in̥wiˤ 'live (somewhere)'
  • *kʰwes 'die'
  • * 'sow a field'
  • *mud̥ 'plow a field'
  • *meˤg̊uˤ 'harvest'
  • *m̥wiˤn̥ 'sing'
  • *qiˤŋwo 'think (that)'
  • *e 'apologize'
  • *uˤŋ̊qeˤ 'speak, say'
  • *iˤŋ̊ 'argue'
  • *n̥weˤd 'do work'
  • *n̥wa 'play'
Furthermore, there are four verbs with suppletive negative stems:
  • *eˤŋ 'run' ~ *woˤn̥wiˤm̥ 'not run'
  • *b̥oˤtqwuˤn̥ 'travel by boat' ~ *ʢwiˤtwe 'not travel by boat'
  • *n̥ekʰwu 'kill' ~ *n̥aiˤʢo 'not kill'
  • *waˤʜiˤŋ̊ 'betray' ~ *ʜang̊iˤ 'not betray'
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by opipik » 06 May 2016 20:57

A fan-descendant(yay Bukawa!):
Spoiler:
g̊/g̥/_
---
m̥/pm/_
n̥/tn/_
ŋ̊/kŋ/_
N/Z/_/S_
Vˤ/W/_
ʢ/kʷ/_
kʷ/wk/_#
Vw/\\/_
Z̥/S/_
e/ɪ/_
o/ʊ/_
ɛ/e/_
ɔ/o/_
V/W/_q
q/k/_
V/O/w_/#w_
w//_O
tn/̃t/_/#_
pm/̃p/_/#_
kŋ/̃k/_/#_
s/˩/_#
Z/S˩/_#
t/ʔ/_(T)#
k/ʔ˩/_(T)#
ŋ/ŋ˩/_(T)#
m/ŋ˥˩/_(T)#
n/ŋ/_(T)#
˩˩/˥˩/_
Sʰ/F/_
N//_
Z/N/_Ṽ
Z/N/̃_
D/N/_Ṽ
D/N/̃_
̃//_
ʔ/k/#_
ʜ/ɣ/_
x/h/_
ɴ/ŋ/_
y/i/_
ɛ/a/_
ɒ/o/_
a/ɑ/_
ɣ/hʷ/_B
ɣ/ɡ/_ɑ
[dɣ]/dz/_I
f/s̪/_I
f/hʷ/_
b/ᵐb/_
d/ⁿd/_
g/ɡ/_
ɡ/ᵑɡ/_
ɢ/ᶰɢ/_
h/ʔ/_C
[kt]/ʔ/_C/#_
Spoiler:
wekoq
n̥waˤ
b̥wo
qeˤn̥oˤ
g̊o
n̥omiˤ
wemiˤ
n̥od̥wiˤn̥
aˤd̥wiˤn̥
n̥oʢeˤt
ʢeˤt
oˤʢeˤt
n̥oʜwaˤŋ̊
ʜwaˤŋ̊
n̥on̥eˤm̥wiˤ
wen̥eˤm̥wiˤ
m̥iˤn̥apʰeˤd
m̥iˤmiˤn̥
qiˤd
eɢ̥e
gwas
wiˤqʰin̥
xweˤs
ʢwos
wig̊eˤn̥
huˤʢu
ʢekoq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ
ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ
g̊o n̥waˤ n̥uˤŋ
go qeˤn̥oˤ gim̥iˤb̥oˤs bu

-->

wɪkoʔ˩
to
po
keto

tʊᵐbɪ
wɪᵐbɪ
tʊtøʔ
ɑtøʔ
tʊkʷeʔ
kʷeʔ
okʷeʔ
tʊŋoʔ˩
ŋoʔ˩
tʊtepø
mɪtepø
pɪtɑs̪eʔ˩
pɪmɪʔ
kɪʔ˩
ekɪ
ᵑɡo˩
wehiʔ
hø˩
kʷo˩
wikeʔ
hʊkʷu
kʷɪkoʔ˩ keto ke
hʷoʔ˩ ⁿdzikɑhoʔ˩ kʊ ŋititø
kʊ to tʊʔ˥˩
ᵑɡʊ keto ŋipɪpo˩ ᵐbu
Spoiler:
V=aeiouɪʊɑɛɔøyɒœ
O=ɒøyouøoɒœɔ
W=ɑɛeɔoeo
L=āēīōū
C=ptcqbdgmnlrhs
I=ieɪ
B=uoʊ
S=ptkq
Z=bdgɢ
N=mnŋɴ
F=fsx
D=wlgʜ
T=˥˩˦˩˧
Last edited by opipik on 19 May 2016 09:33, edited 2 times in total.

shimobaatar
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Posts: 11658
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Location: PA → IN

Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by shimobaatar » 07 May 2016 19:41

Linguifex wrote:The demonym morpheme is *k(i)-.
And that's the only usage it has, just to be clear?
Linguifex wrote: That was a cool word that I forgot to remove from the post before it was posted.
Ahh, got it. I've done that before myself.
Linguifex wrote: Sound changes from Classical Waqwaq to Imperial Waqwaq:
These are nice, too. [:D]
Linguifex wrote: miˤmiˤ (possibly → miˤ by haplology) → miˤ ~ biˤmiˤ
[+1]
Linguifex wrote: I'm also considering having initial nasals drop (but not initial prenasals). This might mess up the noun-class prefixes a bit.
I'd say give it a try to see exactly how "messed up" the noun-class prefixes might become.
Linguifex wrote: Proto-Wekoq uses OSV word order.
Any thoughts yet about how this might change in the descendants?
Linguifex wrote: Completives and incompletives

The default form of a verb is the incompletive. The incompletive is also the only form of a verb that can be negated (see below).
I take it that the distinction between these two is nearly as simple as it sounds, so to speak? That is, the completive marks completed actions, and the incompletive marks ongoing actions, at least generally?
Linguifex wrote: *ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o n̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o Ø-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PRES-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he no longer lives by the Great River'
This is probably a stupid question, but why does this mean that he no longer lives there if it's in the present and incompletive? Also, is the Great River a noteworthy place/concept, or just something made up for the sake of these examples?
Linguifex wrote: There are two types of negative morpheme in Proto-Wekoq: The negative particle bu and the negative prefix miˤ-. Unfortunately (for me and everybody else), which verb takes which is semantically governed. The verb *qeˤ 'be', for instance, uses the negative prefix:
Linguifex wrote:The verbs that take the negative prefix tend to denote relatively "common" actions. The list below may be expanded later.
Very interesting.
Linguifex wrote: Negatives can only negate verbs that are not in the completive aspect.
Is there any particular reason for that?
Linguifex wrote:
  • *n̥iˤkʰ 'pick up (a long, thin object)'
  • *xeˤ 'pick up (a small, round object)'
  • *ɢ̥aˤ 'pick up (a fabric-like object)'
  • *seˤ 'pick up (other objects)'
I like how there are sets of verbs like this differentiated by the qualities of their objects.
Linguifex wrote: Furthermore, there are four verbs with suppletive negative stems:
  • *eˤŋ 'run' ~ *woˤn̥wiˤm̥ 'not run'
  • *b̥oˤtqwuˤn̥ 'travel by boat' ~ *ʢwiˤtwe 'not travel by boat'
  • *n̥ekʰwu 'kill' ~ *n̥aiˤʢo 'not kill'
  • *waˤʜiˤŋ̊ 'betray' ~ *ʜang̊iˤ 'not betray'
Is there any particular reason why these have suppletive negative forms, and/or why there are only four of them?

User avatar
Davush
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Davush » 07 May 2016 20:00

I'm very interested in how this language would sound spoken. I don't think I have heard any languages with pharyngealised vowels. I speak Arabic, so I'm familiar with pharyngeal (and pharyngealised) consonants, but not as a vowel quality combined with everything else in that phonology!

User avatar
Linguifex
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Location: Ohio

Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 08 May 2016 07:17

opipik wrote:A fan-descendant(yay Bukawa!):
Spoiler:
g̊/g̥/_
---
m̥/pm/_
n̥/tn/_
ŋ̊/kŋ/_
N/Z/_/S_
Vˤ/W/_
ʢ/kʷ/_
kʷ/wk/_#
Vw/\\/_
Z̥/S/_
e/ɪ/_
o/ʊ/_
ɛ/e/_
ɔ/o/_
V/W/_q
q/k/_
V/O/w_/#w_
w//_O
tn/̃t/_/#_
pm/̃p/_/#_
kŋ/̃k/_/#_
s/˩/_#
Z/S˩/_#
t/ʔ/_(T)#
k/ʔ˩/_(T)#
ŋ/ŋ˩/_(T)#
m/ŋ˥˩/_(T)#
n/ŋ/_(T)#
˩˩/˥˩/_
Sʰ/F/_
N//_
Z/N/_Ṽ
Z/N/̃_
D/N/_Ṽ
D/N/̃_
̃//_
ʔ/k/#_
ʜ/ɣ/_
x/h/_
ɴ/ŋ/_
y/i/_
ɛ/a/_
ɒ/o/_
a/ɑ/_
ɣ/hʷ/_B
ɣ/ɡ/_ɑ
[dɣ]/dz/_I
f/s̪/_I
f/hʷ/_
b/ᵐb/_
d/ⁿd/_
g/ɡ/_
ɡ/ᵑɡ/_
ɢ/ᶰɢ/_
Spoiler:
wekoq
n̥waˤ
b̥wo
qeˤn̥oˤ
g̊o
n̥omiˤ
wemiˤ
n̥od̥wiˤn̥
aˤd̥wiˤn̥
n̥oʢeˤt
ʢeˤt
oˤʢeˤt
n̥oʜwaˤŋ̊
ʜwaˤŋ̊
n̥on̥eˤm̥wiˤ
wen̥eˤm̥wiˤ
m̥iˤn̥apʰeˤd
m̥iˤmiˤn̥
qiˤd
eɢ̥e
gwas
wiˤqʰin̥
xweˤs
ʢwos
wig̊eˤn̥
huˤʢu
ʢekoq qeˤn̥oˤ qeˤ
ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o gin̥in̥wiˤ
g̊o n̥waˤ n̥uˤŋ
go qeˤn̥oˤ gim̥iˤb̥oˤs bu

-->

wɪkoʔ˩
to
po
keto

tʊᵐbɪ
wɪᵐbɪ
tʊtøʔ
ɑtøʔ
tʊkʷeʔ
kʷeʔ
okʷeʔ
tʊŋoʔ˩
ŋoʔ˩
tʊtepø
mɪtepø
pɪtɑs̪eʔ˩
pɪmɪʔ
kɪʔ˩
ekɪ
ᵑɡo˩
wehiʔ
hø˩
kʷo˩
wikeʔ
hʊkʷu
kʷɪkoʔ˩ keto ke
hʷoʔ˩ ⁿdzikɑhoʔ˩ kʊ ŋititø
kʊ to tʊʔ˥˩
ᵑɡʊ keto ŋipɪpo˩ ᵐbu
Spoiler:
V=aeiouɪʊɑɛɔøyɒœ
O=ɒøyouøoɒœɔ
W=ɑɛeɔoeo
L=āēīōū
C=ptcqbdgmnlrhs
I=ieɪ
B=uoʊ
S=ptkq
Z=bdgɢ
N=mnŋɴ
F=fsx
D=wlgʜ
T=˥˩˦˩˧
[:D] I always love it when you make descendant languages, opipik.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote:The demonym morpheme is *k(i)-.
And that's the only usage it has, just to be clear?
Yes, at least so far. It may end up being something more akin to the Arabic nisba form.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: That was a cool word that I forgot to remove from the post before it was posted.
Ahh, got it. I've done that before myself.
It is very easy to do, especially with long posts dealing with lists of words and stuff.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: Sound changes from Classical Waqwaq to Imperial Waqwaq:
These are nice, too. [:D]
[:D]
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: miˤmiˤ (possibly → miˤ by haplology) → miˤ ~ biˤmiˤ
[+1]
Should I keep the different forms in separate descendants or dialectally? (Or both?)
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: I'm also considering having initial nasals drop (but not initial prenasals). This might mess up the noun-class prefixes a bit.
I'd say give it a try to see exactly how "messed up" the noun-class prefixes might become.
OK.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: Proto-Wekoq uses OSV word order.
Any thoughts yet about how this might change in the descendants?
No; grammatical change is actually something I'm relatively new at. If you have any idea how basic word orders end up changing, please let me know.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: Completives and incompletives

The default form of a verb is the incompletive. The incompletive is also the only form of a verb that can be negated (see below).
I take it that the distinction between these two is nearly as simple as it sounds, so to speak? That is, the completive marks completed actions, and the incompletive marks ongoing actions, at least generally?
Yes.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: *ʜoq ʜig̊ahaʢ g̊o n̥in̥wiˤ
ʜ-oq ʜ-g̊ahaʢ g̊o Ø-Ø-n̥in̥wiˤ
long.thin-river long.thin-great 3 PRES-INCOMPL-live.somewhere
'he no longer lives by the Great River'
This is probably a stupid question, but why does this mean that he no longer lives there if it's in the present and incompletive? Also, is the Great River a noteworthy place/concept, or just something made up for the sake of these examples?
I think that was me forgetting to edit something after I copy-pasted it. It should mean "he lives/is currently living by the Great River".
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: There are two types of negative morpheme in Proto-Wekoq: The negative particle bu and the negative prefix miˤ-. Unfortunately (for me and everybody else), which verb takes which is semantically governed. The verb *qeˤ 'be', for instance, uses the negative prefix:
Linguifex wrote:The verbs that take the negative prefix tend to denote relatively "common" actions. The list below may be expanded later.
Very interesting.
That came from something I read on WALS, actually.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: Negatives can only negate verbs that are not in the completive aspect.
Is there any particular reason for that?
Yes, that came from something I misread on WALS (specifically about Aghem; the word order is apparently different for negating incompletive vs. negating completive verbs and I missed the part where the completive verb was negated).
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote:
  • *n̥iˤkʰ 'pick up (a long, thin object)'
  • *xeˤ 'pick up (a small, round object)'
  • *ɢ̥aˤ 'pick up (a fabric-like object)'
  • *seˤ 'pick up (other objects)'
I like how there are sets of verbs like this differentiated by the qualities of their objects.
On some level this was informed by Navajo, which, to my understanding, has many more stems with specific meanings like this.
shimobaatar wrote:
Linguifex wrote: Furthermore, there are four verbs with suppletive negative stems:
  • *eˤŋ 'run' ~ *woˤn̥wiˤm̥ 'not run'
  • *b̥oˤtqwuˤn̥ 'travel by boat' ~ *ʢwiˤtwe 'not travel by boat'
  • *n̥ekʰwu 'kill' ~ *n̥aiˤʢo 'not kill'
  • *waˤʜiˤŋ̊ 'betray' ~ *ʜang̊iˤ 'not betray'
Is there any particular reason why these have suppletive negative forms, and/or why there are only four of them?
That was just to throw in a little bit of irregularity.
Davush wrote:I'm very interested in how this language would sound spoken. I don't think I have heard any languages with pharyngealised vowels. I speak Arabic, so I'm familiar with pharyngeal (and pharyngealised) consonants, but not as a vowel quality combined with everything else in that phonology!
Wikipedia has this to say:
Wikipedia contributors wrote:The Khoisan language Taa (or !Xóõ) has pharyngealized vowels that contrast phonemically with voiced, breathy, and epiglottalized vowels.[3] This feature of !Xóõ is represented in its orthography by a tilde beneath the respective pharyngealized vowel. In Danish many of the vowel phonemes have distinct pharyngealized qualities, and in the Tuu languages epiglottalized vowels are phonemic.
Your best bet is probably to go on YouTube and find videos of people speaking Danish.

I've been reading Mary Niepokuj's 1991 thesis "The Historical Development of Reduplication, with Special Reference to Indo-European", and I'm thinking of developing reduplication into the Waqwaq branch of Wekoq.

Verbs will involve full reduplication. This stems from colloquial repetition of imperatives which was generalized into the marker for the imperative.

*ŋak 'eat' (root, original imperative form)
*ŋak ŋak 'eat, eat!' > *ŋakŋak 'eat!'

*mwed 'sleep' (root, original imperative form)
*mwed mwed 'sleep, sleep!' > *mwedmwed 'sleep!'

Nouns, on the other hand, exhibit partial reduplication. This started as the use of an echo word to denote contrastive focus (Wikipedia gives the example of "cheesecake" vs. "CAKE-cake"), which then was generalized into a sense of genuineness, then finally into a definite marker. Proto-Wekoq stress, which Waqwaq retains (at least in the Classical era), was on the first syllable; the first iambic foot of a word (or the entire word in the case of words of only one or two syllables) was reduplicated and prefixed.

*n̥o-ʢeˤt 'ice storm'
*n̥oʢeˤt n̥oʢeˤt 'a true sunny day, a really sunny day' > 'a genuine sunny day' > *n̥oʢeˤtn̥oʢeˤt 'the sunny day'

*n̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'ice storm'
*n̥o-n̥eˤn̥o-n̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'a true ice storm, a severe ice storm' > 'a genuine ice storm' > *n̥on̥eˤn̥on̥eˤm̥wiˤ 'the ice storm'

In either case, this process is shown in the Waqwaq logograms as repeating the appropriate character.

The name of the people themselves, Waqwaq, will eventually fall victim to reanalysis, with the first syllable being analyzed as a reduplicant. A root -q will be derived, meaning something like "we the people".
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shimobaatar
korean
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Posts: 11658
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 22:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by shimobaatar » 08 May 2016 22:09

Linguifex wrote: Yes, at least so far. It may end up being something more akin to the Arabic nisba form.
Oh, cool!
Linguifex wrote: It is very easy to do, especially with long posts dealing with lists of words and stuff.
Indeed.
Linguifex wrote: Should I keep the different forms in separate descendants or dialectally? (Or both?)
I'd say both, but if you end up only wanting to go with one, I'd recommend the former, personally.
Linguifex wrote: No; grammatical change is actually something I'm relatively new at. If you have any idea how basic word orders end up changing, please let me know.
There are many possible answers here; I'll try to remember to give a better one at a later date once more information about the grammar in general is posted, since more specific answers likely will depend on that information.
Linguifex wrote: I think that was me forgetting to edit something after I copy-pasted it. It should mean "he lives/is currently living by the Great River".
Ah, got it.
Linguifex wrote: That came from something I read on WALS, actually.
Linguifex wrote: Yes, that came from something I misread on WALS (specifically about Aghem; the word order is apparently different for negating incompletive vs. negating completive verbs and I missed the part where the completive verb was negated).
Linguifex wrote: On some level this was informed by Navajo, which, to my understanding, has many more stems with specific meanings like this.
Interesting, I haven't read through any of WALS in quite some time now, so this also serves as a reminder for me to do so. Also, I think I've actually read that about Navajo in the past, but had forgotten about it. All in all, very cool ideas! And misreading information can indeed be just as good for inspiration as reading it correctly, if not better. [:D]
Linguifex wrote: That was just to throw in a little bit of irregularity.
But there's no particular reason as for why only these particular verbs are irregular?

Linguifex wrote: Verbs will involve full reduplication. This stems from colloquial repetition of imperatives which was generalized into the marker for the imperative.
Linguifex wrote: Nouns, on the other hand, exhibit partial reduplication. This started as the use of an echo word to denote contrastive focus (Wikipedia gives the example of "cheesecake" vs. "CAKE-cake"), which then was generalized into a sense of genuineness, then finally into a definite marker. Proto-Wekoq stress, which Waqwaq retains (at least in the Classical era), was on the first syllable; the first iambic foot of a word (or the entire word in the case of words of only one or two syllables) was reduplicated and prefixed.
[+1] Nice ideas, as usual!
Linguifex wrote: The name of the people themselves, Waqwaq, will eventually fall victim to reanalysis, with the first syllable being analyzed as a reduplicant. A root -q will be derived, meaning something like "we the people".
That's funny; when I first read the name "Waqwaq", I assumed it was formed through reduplication in the first place until seeing its true etymology.

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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Proto-Wekoq and Waqwaq)

Post by Linguifex » 19 May 2016 05:11

Thanks for the compliments!
shimobaatar wrote: But there's no particular reason as for why only these particular verbs are irregular?
No, there's no real reason.

Relative clauses are handled in the following manner.

To introduce a relative clause, there is a general structure of classifier + relative. For singular nouns, the relative form is *biˤl; for plural (or mass) referents, it is *kʰeˤtʰin.

The following are the classifiers:

*d̥waˤw Animate
*qʰeˤn̥ Body parts
*xu Weather terms
*saˤ Liquids and gases
*ʜiˤ Long, thin objects
*iˤ Small, round objects
*aˤw Fabric-like objects
*oˤʢ Abstract countable
*do Abstract uncountable
*tʰi Tools
*aˤd̥ Mass nouns and collectives
*sekʰ Miscellaneous

*d̥waˤw n̥waˤ biˤl gimaqʰwaˤʜiˤŋ̊ ʢeŋ̊d̥aw n̥waˤ gimaqʰikʰtʰin
d̥waˤw n̥waˤ biˤl gi-maqʰ-waˤʜiˤŋ̊ ʢe-ŋ̊d̥aw n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-kʰtʰin
CLS.ANIM 1.SG REL.SG PST-COMPL-betray ANIM-male.person 1.SG PST-COMPL-see
'I saw the man who betrayed me'

*d̥waˤw biˤl g̊o gimaqʰwaˤʜiˤŋ̊ ʢeŋ̊d̥aw n̥aiˤʢon̥aiˤʢo
d̥waˤw biˤl g̊o gi-maqʰ-waˤʜiˤŋ̊ ʢe-ŋ̊d̥aw n̥aiˤʢo~n̥aiˤʢo
CLS.ANIM REL.SG 3 PST-COMPL-betray ANIM-male.person IMP~not.kill
'spare the man whom he betrayed!'

*qʰeˤn̥ biˤl n̥waˤ gimaqʰswoˤs eˤn̥-du aˤxamxam
qʰeˤn̥ g̊o n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-swoˤs eˤn̥-du aˤ-Ø-xamxam
CLS.body.part REL.SG 1 PST-COMPL-damage body.part-tooth persistive-INCOMPL-move.side.to.side
'the tooth I chipped is still loose'

*iˤ biˤl n̥waˤ gimaqʰtʰaw iˤstem sikʰ n̥waˤ gimaqʰpʰoˤloˤl
iˤ biˤl n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-tʰaw iˤ-stem sikʰ n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-pʰoˤloˤl
CLS.small.round REL.SG 1 PST-COMPL-throw small.round-stone to 1 PST-COMPL-return
'the pebble I threw fell back down to me'

*iˤ kʰeˤtʰin n̥waˤ gimaqʰtʰaw b̥istem sikʰ n̥waˤ gimaqʰpʰoˤloˤl
iˤ kʰeˤtʰin n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-tʰaw b̥i-stem sikʰ n̥waˤ gi-maqʰ-pʰoˤloˤl
CLS.small.round REL.PL 1 PST-COMPL-throw small.round.PL-stone to 1 PST-COMPL-return
'the pebbles I threw fell back down to me'
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Jačuk)

Post by Linguifex » 19 May 2016 08:09

And now for another descendant: Jačuk.

ŋ → h / {C,V}_V
ŋ → g / _#
ŋ → Ø
x → i / #_w
k kʰ g g̊ x → tʃ tʃʰ dʒ d̥ʒ̊ j
q qʰ ɢ ɢ̥ → k kʰ g g̊
w → g / _V
hV → Ø / V_
w → Ø / u(ˤ)_
j → Ø / i(ˤ)_
{m,m̥} {n,n̥} → w Ø / V_V
u(ˤ)(j) → y(ˤ)
o(ˤ)w o(ˤ)j → u(ˤ) ø(ˤ)
a(ˤ)w a(ˤ)j → ɔ(ˤ) ɛ(ˤ)
e(ˤ)w e(ˤ)j → ø(ˤ) i(ˤ)
i(ˤ)w → y(ˤ)
Consecutive vowels turn the unstressed one into a glide
d d̥ → l ɬ
l → Ø / #_C[+ voiced]
m m̥ n n̥ → b b̥ d d̥
ʜ ʢ → h ɦ
K → Ḱ / _{ø,y,e,i,j}
o ø e → ua ya ia / stressed
{y,i} → Ø / _V
C[+ slack] → Ø / V_V
C[+ slack] → C[+ voiced]
u y i → aʊ aʏ aɪ / _{R,H}
H → Ø
V → C[+ glide] / a_
V[+ mid + pharyngeal] → V[+ low + pharyngeal]
C → Ø / #L_
Like vowels drop the unstressed one
V[+ pharyngeal] → V[- pharyngeal]
o aw → u o
u i → ua ia / _R
aj → e

ɟatʃuk

dga
bgu
cu
ɮu

1. ci̯al
2. e
3. dʒgas
4. ɟicʰid
5. iɟas
6. gas

Higher-order numbers:

36. ɟand
216. u

duj
ɟe
daɮɟid
aɮɟid
det
et
et
daga
ga
dabɟi
ɟebɟi
bapʰel
byjd
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Re: The Wekoq languages (NP: Jačuk)

Post by shimobaatar » 19 May 2016 15:04

Linguifex wrote: Relative clauses are handled in the following manner.

To introduce a relative clause, there is a general structure of classifier + relative. For singular nouns, the relative form is *biˤl; for plural (or mass) referents, it is *kʰeˤtʰin.

The following are the classifiers:
Spoiler:
*d̥waˤw Animate
*qʰeˤn̥ Body parts
*xu Weather terms
*saˤ Liquids and gases
*ʜiˤ Long, thin objects
*iˤ Small, round objects
*aˤw Fabric-like objects
*oˤʢ Abstract countable
*do Abstract uncountable
*tʰi Tools
*aˤd̥ Mass nouns and collectives
*sekʰ Miscellaneous
This is a cool way of doing things!
Linguifex wrote:And now for another descendant: Jačuk.
[+1] Looking good, as usual.

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