Inyi

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OTʜᴇB
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Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 20 Jun 2016 16:20

Inyi is my first conlang (of indeterminate type) and it is based a lot around affixes with simplistic grammar rules designed to work without irregularities. I have a very small vocabulary at the moment but I am expanding it as my 2 students ask for vocab. You yourself can learn as much Inyi as I have made lessons for at the time of reading by going to this thread.

Phonology and Orthography (IPA)
/p t k/ <p t k>
/n/ <n>
/f s h/ <f s h>
/ʦ/ <c>
/j/ <y>

/i ɛ a/ <i e a>

Clause ordering
Clause order is OVS e.g.
Steve eats pizza : Pizza is eaten by Steve (This is still SVO but this is shown with the words in the right order to easily demonstrate how sentences are ordered. "Pizza eats Steve" isn't a great example either)
Intransitive verbs simply omit the Object as there is no object to include.

Verbs
The infinitive of a verb is shown by the suffix “-a”. Descriptive verbs have the suffix “-at”. The suffix is removed when the conjugation suffix is added.
Verbs can be conjugated through many tenses and persons using simple rules that can be demonstrated using a table. The infinitive of a verb is used as a noun. Take the example:
Seia : noun - An act of eating
Seiata : verb - I eat

The conjugation suffix is comprised of a person component followed by the root "t" and then the tense component. below is a list of all of these with examples:
I : a
You : i
He/She/It : e
We (exclusive) : as
We (inclusive) : is
They (plural only) : eis

Present Simple : a
Present Progressive : ai
Past Simple : e
Past Progressive : ei
Future Simple : i
Future Progressive : iyi
Pasive : aya

Examples:
Seietei : He/She/It was eating
Seiasti : We (exclusive) will eat
Seieistaya : They eat (at a given time)

Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives and Adverbs are verbs. For instance, “The wall is red” could be interpreted as “The wall reds”. All of these fall into the category of Descriptive Verbs and are conjugated in exactly the same way as Action Verbs. Descriptive verbs come after the word they describe in any order the speaker/writer wishes.

Conjugated descriptive verbs are grammatically equivalent to the verb “to be” in English. For example: “Steve tall-eta” would mean “Steve is tall”, or more literally: “Steve talls”. Notice how the suffix on the verb agrees with the subject, even if it is specified or known by context.

Adpositions
Adpositions in the language are used to denote relation of objects, be it positional, contextual, or for similarity or ownership. Adpositions are achieved with descriptive verbs placed at the end of the clause they are relating to e.g. “The boy rode his bike to school for 2 years” would have the adpositions in the places they are in English.
Of (relation to) : te
About : tef
To : ak
From : yeik
Over : anai
Through : enai
Around : inai
Under : yenai
Above : kanai
Beside : kinai
Inside : kenai
Below : yekanai
For (to be given to/done for) : teyak
For (time) : tanai

Conjunctions
Conjunctions are placed after the connected clause and connected clauses are separated by a comma when written and a pause in speech when vocalised. For instance, the sentence “I like pizza and toast but I don’t like mustard” would be literally translated as “I like pizza, toast also, I don’t like mustard however.” Below is a list of the conjunctions in the language, defined by the “-fi” ending:
And : afi
But : efi
If : kifi
Else : kefi
Or : yafi
So : nifi
As : yenfi


Pronouns
Pronouns are defined by the suffix “-(t)en” and use the start of the verb conjugation suffix as their basis as such:
I : aten
You : iten
He/She/It : eten
Us (exclusive) : asen
Us (inclusive) : isen
Them (singular) : eiten
Them (plural) : eisen
Self (contextual) : aiten
Here the “self” pronoun is contextual. For instance where “Steve hit-eta aiten”, it is interpreted as “Steve hits himself”.

Comparisons, Negatives, Emphasisers
Comparisons, negatives, and emphasisers are achieved using prefixes which is the more polysynthetic part of the language. They are combined to create the various meanings required as below and are placed at the beginning of verbs:
Not : ye-
Only : yek-
Never : yeke-
Rarely : yepia-

Most : piaspia-
More : pia-
Equal : af-
Less : piye-
Least : piyespia-

Especially : piayek-
Very : pias-
Almost : piafas-
Quite : afas-
Little : piyes-

Again : pia.fi-
For the first time : pia.tein-
For the second time : pia.pin-
And so on...

Plurals
Plurals are defined by the addition of the suffix “-(e)fs” to the very end of a noun. Where a vowel is already present, the “e” is omitted. Plurals are not numeric but are only volumetric, for example the plural of “apple” would literally translate as “lots of apple” or “much apple”. Numerical plurals use a descriptive verb form of the numbers of the language. Despite this irregularity to plurals, the interpretation of them should be logical (e.g. the plural of “apple” would be interpreted as “multiple apples”).

Syllable Structure
All words follow the following syllable structures:
C (C) V (V) (C) (C)
(V) (V) (C)
The second syllable form is only used at the beginning of a word.
There are limits of what phonemes may follow others within a given syllable. Listed is what phonemes may precede others:
p k : yV i e a
t : s(ts > c) yV i e a
n : V_t i e a
f s : V_t V_k i e a
h c y : i e a
i : C V(iV > yV)
e a : C i

Where prefixes and suffixes do not agree with these rules, an "i" is added between them to fix any contradictions. This will become a "y" when preceding a vowel.

Writing System
The language uses an alphabet as in the image below.
Image
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Numbers and counting
The language uses a base 12 counting system as a lot of maths is simplified in base 12. For instance, a third is not 0.333333… but instead simply 0.4. A fifth is 0.2rec and a sixth is 0.2. halves, quarters, and eighths are 0.6, 0.3, and 0.16 respectively.
Numbers are declared as single digits (for instance where 235 would be said as “two-three-five”). Triple-digits such as 555 use the “very” emphasiser “pias-” and quintuples use “most”: “piaspia-”. Below is a list of all the digits in the number system:
0 : pin
1 : tein
2 : apin
3 : atein
4 : epan
5 : atin
6 : pen
7 : atan
8 : kin
9 : etan
A (10) : ken
B (11) : acan

Examples:
12 = 10 : teinpin
32 = 28 : apinkin
136 = B4 : acanepan
327,489 = 139,629 : teinateinetanpenapinetan
1000 = 6B4 : penacanepan
13 = 11 : teintein
157 = 111 : teinteintein > piastein
Negatives simply add the negative “ye-” to the start and fractions use the verb for “break” in the past simple tense (broken). Numerator-broken-denominator. Decimals use the verb for “big” with the comparative “pia-” prefix. Number-bigger-decimal.

Want, need, must, could, should, would, might, can…
These various modifiers are achieved by placing a suffix on the verb or noun they affect. These suffixes are as follows:
The (definite article) (nouns) : -kit
All (general concept) (nouns) : -kiast
Want (verbs) : -ift
Need (verbs) : -piaft
Could (verbs) : -est
Should (verbs) : -piast
Must (verbs) : -piapist
Can (is capable of) (verbs) : -int
Might (verbs) : -piyent
Would (...but…) (verbs) : -yent

Questions
Questions use the question suffix “-afk” and it is placed on the end of the word it is querying. Take the following cases for example:
Steve-afk tall : Is it Steve that is tall?
Steve tall-afk : Is Steve tall?
Height-afk te Steve : What is the height of Steve?

In the last example, the adposition “te” is used to relate the height to what it describes. Take the following examples:
Place-afk te Steve : In what place is Steve?
Steve-afk : Who/What is Steve?
Time-afk te eat-eti Steve : When will Steve eat?
Time-afk te eat-etaya Steve : When does Steve eat?
Reason-afk te eat-eta Steve : Why does Steve eat?
Method-afk te eat-eta Steve : How does Steve eat?

And that is it! that is Inyi! 3 months work in one post. If I have missed anything vital or if there are any fatal flaws I am yet to find, do tell me and I can try and fix/add them.
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Re: Inyi

Post by shanoxilt » 17 Jul 2016 04:51

I find that the ultimate test of a language is poetry translation. Could you give us an example of the first stanza of Poe's The Raven?
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Re: Inyi

Post by Sglod » 17 Jul 2016 08:42

shanoxilt wrote:I find that the ultimate test of a language is poetry translation. Could you give us an example of the first stanza of Poe's The Raven?
If you want to see translations so badly, why not just post the stanza in the translations forum?

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 17 Jul 2016 12:02

I'll certainly try, but I'll have to make quite a few substitutions as I will agree, the grammar in this language is not the best I've seen. I missed out a lot of things in it. But for my first conlang, I'm happy with it. I might also take this opportunity to try an actual gloss for the first time.

ipespanfike, ipinkeyate ekpepatate efneninenate,
tef aceknaifs ifiyepiyete—
piafinai ipanpeyate, piafasyepeiyatei, yef eisapkaisete te kenteyetei,
apneyetei eftyes kinai sine te aten afasfi.
"eten yatiftikete" apneyate piafinai sine te aten kenteyatei—
yekafkit, yepia afi.


[ɪpɛspanfɪkɛ, ɪpɪnkɛjatɛ ɛkpɛpatatɛ ɛfnɛnɪnɛnatɛ,
tɛf aʦɛknaifs ɪfɪjɛpijɛtɛ—
piafɪnai ɪpanpɛjatɛ, piafasjɛpɛijatɛi, jɛf ɛisapkaisɛtɛ tɛ kɛntɛjɛtɛi,
apnɛjɛtɛi ɛftjɛs kɪnai sɪnɛ tɛ atɛn afasfi.
"ɛtɛn jatɪftɪkɛtɛ" apnɛjatɛ piafɪnai sɪnɛ tɛ atɛn kɛntɛjatɛi—
jɛkafkɪt, jɛpia afi.]

midnight-3SG.PST, act_of_pondering-1SG.PST weakness-1SG.PST tiredness-1SG.PST,
about story-PL act_of_forgetting-3SG.PST—
whilst act_of_nodding-1SG.PST, almost-act_of_sleeping-1SG.PST.PROG, sound suddenness-3SG.PST of act_of_tapping-3SG.PST.PROG,
act_of_speaking-3SG.PST.PROG someone beside door of me like.
"it visitor-3SG.PST" act_of_speaking-1SG.PST whilst door of me act_of_tapping-1SG.PST.PROG—
only-this, not-more and.

Lit. Midnight, I pondered weakly and tiredly,
About lots of forgotten stories—
While I nodded, nearly sleeping, there was a sudden sound of tapping,
Like someone speaking at my door.
I said "It is a visitor" whilst tapping my door—
It was only this and nothing more.


Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore—
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
“’Tis some visitor,” I muttered, “tapping at my chamber door—
Only this and nothing more.”
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Re: Inyi

Post by Omzinesý » 17 Jul 2016 19:57

Want, need, must, could, should, would, might, can…
These various modifiers are achieved by placing a suffix on the verb or noun they affect. These suffixes are as follows:
The (definite article) (nouns) : -kit
All (general concept) (nouns) : -kiast
Want (verbs) : -ift
Need (verbs) : -piaft
Could (verbs) : -est
Should (verbs) : -piast
Must (verbs) : -piapist
Can (is capable of) (verbs) : -int
Might (verbs) : -piyent
Would (...but…) (verbs) : -yent
It would be interesting if all of them could be added to any roots whether nouns or verbs.
The meaning could be 'I can/must/should do something with X/concerning X.' without more specification.

The definite article could also join verb I will cook-DEF 'I will do the cooking that was already mentioned.'
I don't understand what you mean by general concepts.

Just an idea I found up because of the way you presented the suffixes in the same paragraph.

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 17 Jul 2016 20:17

General article would be xyz in general. So "man" is "epaken", "the man" is "epakenkit", and "men in general" is "epakenkiast".

As with your cooking example, "cook" is a noun in that sentence. In Inyi, all words are nouns until conjugated to a tense and person.
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 17 Jul 2016 20:58

OTheB wrote:The infinitive of a verb is shown by the suffix “-a”. Descriptive verbs have the suffix “-at”. The suffix is removed when the conjugation suffix is added.
Verbs can be conjugated through many tenses and persons using simple rules that can be demonstrated using a table. The infinitive of a verb is used as a noun. Take the example:
Seia : noun - An act of eating
Seiata : verb - I eat

The conjugation suffix is comprised of a person component followed by the root "t" and then the tense component. below is a list of all of these with examples:
I : a
You : i
He/She/It : e
We (exclusive) : as
We (inclusive) : is
They (plural only) : eis
Erm, you do realise that the syncretism of simgular and plural in the second person and no other persons is (as far as I know) a distinctively English thing. Also I really wouldn't expect a clusivity distinction on top of that either.

Also, have you ever heard of this wonderful thing called polypersonal marking? I'd like to see more languages use it.
Present Simple : a
Present Progressive : ai
Past Simple : e
Past Progressive : ei
Future Simple : i
Future Progressive : iyi
Passive : aya
OK, so I like the proper separation of simple/progressive (of perfective/imperfective if you prefer) versus tense: Aspect and tense are not the same, and it's nice to see them differentiated. But do you really mean to say that the passive takes no marking for tense and aspect? You do know that voice is a completely separate thing, right, and that there's no tense-voice mix up in the same way that there is a tense-aspect-mood mix up?
Conjunctions
Conjunctions are placed after the connected clause and connected clauses are separated by a comma when written and a pause in speech when vocalised. For instance, the sentence “I like pizza and toast but I don’t like mustard” would be literally translated as “I like pizza, toast also, I don’t like mustard however.” Below is a list of the conjunctions in the language, defined by the “-fi” ending:
And : afi
But : efi
If : kifi
Else : kefi
Or : yafi
So : nifi
As : yenfi
All conjunctions have the same ending? Are you trying to go for the eng-lang thing or are you wanting at least a hint of naturalism?
Pronouns
Pronouns are defined by the suffix “-(t)en” and use the start of the verb conjugation suffix as their basis as such:
I : aten
You : iten
He/She/It : eten
Us (exclusive) : asen
Us (inclusive) : isen
Them (singular) : eiten
Them (plural) : eisen
Self (contextual) : aiten
Here the “self” pronoun is contextual. For instance where “Steve hit-eta aiten”, it is interpreted as “Steve hits himself”.
Can I also ask how person is supposed to be reliably distinguished by vowel alone? Do like the shape of the reflexive pronoun, though.
Plurals
Plurals are defined by the addition of the suffix “-(e)fs” to the very end of a noun. Where a vowel is already present, the “e” is omitted. Plurals are not numeric but are only volumetric, for example the plural of “apple” would literally translate as “lots of apple” or “much apple”. Numerical plurals use a descriptive verb form of the numbers of the language. Despite this irregularity to plurals, the interpretation of them should be logical (e.g. the plural of “apple” would be interpreted as “multiple apples”).
I think We've already had the discussion about this weird non-plural, but I'd still like to point it out.
Writing System
The language uses an alphabet as in the image below.
Image
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All the letters look the same! Dyslexics beware! (seriously, though, you need to work hard on making the forms distinguishable, otherwise people will start complaining that they can't read the darn thing)
Questions
Questions use the question suffix “-afk” and it is placed on the end of the word it is querying. Take the following cases for example:
Steve-afk tall : Is it Steve that is tall?
Steve tall-afk : Is Steve tall?
Height-afk te Steve : What is the height of Steve?
That's a nice start, but I'd expect it to be more clitic-like and cause fronting of the questioned argument.

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 17 Jul 2016 21:07

I did not realise that. And no I have not heard of polypersonal marking.

"Passive" was a result of incorrect information somewhere ages ago. It's the perfective tense.

I am in no way going for naturalism what-so-ever.

Seeing as there are only 3 vowels in the language, the speakers would likely have developed a keen ear for them.

Eh with the plural. I think it's cool.

Again: Eh. This is my first conlang and I have very little knowledge of how to do so effectively. I thought it looked cool at the time and that's pretty much my ethic towards most if not all of the language.

I didn't understand "clitic" or "fronting" so I have no idea how to respond to that.
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 17 Jul 2016 23:23

OTheB wrote:I didn't understand "clitic" or "fronting" so I have no idea how to respond to that.
Well fronting is easy: it's when something is moved to the front of the sentence/clause. Clitics are a bit harder: I'm on my phone at the moment so can't give a detailed explanation, but the possessive 's in English is an example (e.g. "The Mayor of London's car": the car is being possessed by the Mayor but the 's attaches to London).

Also, do you mean perfective or perfect? Those are two quite different things and I think if you've already got the simple/progressive distinction then you'll mean the perfect (a past action with preeent relevance).

Furthermore I appreciate your newness in this, but good conscripting is partly a matter of usability: if you want your script to be usable and used frequently, the letterforms have got to be sufficiently distinct to make it easy to read running text. It may look nice but will you be able to read it?

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 18 Jul 2016 13:41

Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:I didn't understand "clitic" or "fronting" so I have no idea how to respond to that.
Well fronting is easy: it's when something is moved to the front of the sentence/clause. Clitics are a bit harder: I'm on my phone at the moment so can't give a detailed explanation, but the possessive 's in English is an example (e.g. "The Mayor of London's car": the car is being possessed by the Mayor but the 's attaches to London).

Also, do you mean perfective or perfect? Those are two quite different things and I think if you've already got the simple/progressive distinction then you'll mean the perfect (a past action with preeent relevance).

Furthermore I appreciate your newness in this, but good conscripting is partly a matter of usability: if you want your script to be usable and used frequently, the letterforms have got to be sufficiently distinct to make it easy to read running text. It may look nice but will you be able to read it?
Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every tuesday".

And again, like the distinction in vowels, a culture that spoke/wrote this language would develop a keen eye for the differences in the letters. The letters virtually tell you how to pronounce them anyway. Where the line goes and what shapes it makes are defined by what the sound is.
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 18 Jul 2016 16:01

OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 18 Jul 2016 16:47

Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 18 Jul 2016 17:00

OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
Oh, you mean a kind of delimitive, like "Steve ate pizza on Tuesday", "Steve ate pizza every day", "Steves eats pizza on Sundays" etc.?

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 18 Jul 2016 17:01

Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
Oh, you mean a kind of delimitive, like "Steve ate pizza on Tuesday", "Steve ate pizza every day", "Steves eats pizza on Sundays" etc.?
Only the last one. Like a shedule-ative tense that did not happen, will not happen, or does not happen. It only describes a regular event.
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 18 Jul 2016 17:06

OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
Oh, you mean a kind of delimitive, like "Steve ate pizza on Tuesday", "Steve ate pizza every day", "Steves eats pizza on Sundays" etc.?
Only the last one. Like a shedule-ative tense that did not happen, will not happen, or does not happen. It only describes a regular event.
Oh, so you do mean a habitual (but with a delimitive sense): this is an aspect, and can be generally be used in all tenses (a past version would translate as "Steve used to eat pizza every Tuesday").

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Re: Inyi

Post by qwed117 » 18 Jul 2016 17:18

Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
Oh, you mean a kind of delimitive, like "Steve ate pizza on Tuesday", "Steve ate pizza every day", "Steves eats pizza on Sundays" etc.?
Only the last one. Like a shedule-ative tense that did not happen, will not happen, or does not happen. It only describes a regular event.
Oh, so you do mean a habitual (but with a delimitive sense): this is an aspect, and can be generally be used in all tenses (a past version would translate as "Steve used to eat pizza every Tuesday").
Of course, tense and aspect sometimes are conflated, look at PIE, where the imperfective/aorist/perfect distinction was only in the past (TMK)
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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 18 Jul 2016 17:26

qwed117 wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:
Frislander wrote:
OTheB wrote:Perfective e.g. "Steve eats pizza every Tuesday".
That's a habitual: English mixes the two in the present: give an example in the past to show us what you mean.
Past? It's like present but of a specified time. There isn't a past version of it. "Steve eats pizza every last Tuesday?"
Oh, you mean a kind of delimitive, like "Steve ate pizza on Tuesday", "Steve ate pizza every day", "Steves eats pizza on Sundays" etc.?
Only the last one. Like a shedule-ative tense that did not happen, will not happen, or does not happen. It only describes a regular event.
Oh, so you do mean a habitual (but with a delimitive sense): this is an aspect, and can be generally be used in all tenses (a past version would translate as "Steve used to eat pizza every Tuesday").
Of course, tense and aspect sometimes are conflated, look at PIE, where the imperfective/aorist/perfect distinction was only in the past (TMK)
Yes, but why shouldn't the habitual be allowed a least a past sense? And if you consistently distinguish simple/progressive for all three tenses, why is the habitual restricted to the present?

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Re: Inyi

Post by Xing » 18 Jul 2016 18:26

OTheB wrote:
And again, like the distinction in vowels, a culture that spoke/wrote this language would develop a keen eye for the differences in the letters.
Why would they? Wouldn't it be more natural if speakers sought to increase redundancy by abandoning similar-sounding forms that may be easily confused? Say that the word for "I" is [sikom], and the word for "you" (singular) is [sekom]. Now these two may be too easily confused. Wouldn't the most natural development be that people in some way sought to make the phonetic difference greater? For instance, they could add a suffix to the second person root: [sekompal] "you there", or perhaps start to use the second person plural pronoun (which might be, say, [sawat]) also in the singular, and perhaps introduce a new second person plural pronoun?

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Re: Inyi

Post by OTʜᴇB » 18 Jul 2016 19:15

Xing wrote:
OTheB wrote:
And again, like the distinction in vowels, a culture that spoke/wrote this language would develop a keen eye for the differences in the letters.
Why would they? Wouldn't it be more natural if speakers sought to increase redundancy by abandoning similar-sounding forms that may be easily confused? Say that the word for "I" is [sikom], and the word for "you" (singular) is [sekom]. Now these two may be too easily confused. Wouldn't the most natural development be that people in some way sought to make the phonetic difference greater? For instance, they could add a suffix to the second person root: [sekompal] "you there", or perhaps start to use the second person plural pronoun (which might be, say, [sawat]) also in the singular, and perhaps introduce a new second person plural pronoun?
Maybe, but that type of thing would never have crossed my mind when I was making this. Also "o", "m", and "l" don't exist in the language.
:con: : Current Project

BTW I use Arch

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Re: Inyi

Post by Frislander » 18 Jul 2016 19:40

OTheB wrote:
Xing wrote:
OTheB wrote:
And again, like the distinction in vowels, a culture that spoke/wrote this language would develop a keen eye for the differences in the letters.
Why would they? Wouldn't it be more natural if speakers sought to increase redundancy by abandoning similar-sounding forms that may be easily confused? Say that the word for "I" is [sikom], and the word for "you" (singular) is [sekom]. Now these two may be too easily confused. Wouldn't the most natural development be that people in some way sought to make the phonetic difference greater? For instance, they could add a suffix to the second person root: [sekompal] "you there", or perhaps start to use the second person plural pronoun (which might be, say, [sawat]) also in the singular, and perhaps introduce a new second person plural pronoun?
Maybe, but that type of thing would never have crossed my mind when I was making this. Also "o", "m", and "l" don't exist in the language.
He was using those phoneme as part of his illustrative examples, not intended to directly represent your language.

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