Amjati

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 22:27

I've done some work collecting all my Amjati notes together and doing some minor revisions. (Examples are on my 'to do' list.) As such the current state of Amjati is:

Phonology
Vowels
Amjati has a typical 5 vowel system.

Image

There are a series of vowel movements related to case and tense marking.
It is an asymmetrical system best described by this table:

Image

The only vowel that cannot be adjacent to other vowels is /o/. It will 'eat' nearby vowels.

Ex: Zok
zo-ak → zoak → zok


All other neighboring vowels will be separated by hiatus.
/ ai ea ei eu ia ie iu ua ue ui /

Image

Consonants
The most notable feature of Amjati consonants is a distinctive palatalization. All stops have a palatalized version. However with the alveolar stop they have become affricates.

Image


*/j/ is included under the trill because it considered to be the palatal realization of /r/.

Consonant clusters beginning with fricatives must agree in palatalization.
For example: /zl/ and/ʑʎ/ are acceptable but /zʎ/* /ʑl/* /sl/* and /ɕʎ/* are invalid.

Syllables
(C)(C)V(C)(C)

Word Initial:
/ pr br dv kl kr sk zr zl vr /
/ *r /

Word Final:
/ sk st zm /
/ *ʎ /

Processes
Length Palatalization:
CVV → CʲV

O Deletion:
oV / Vo → o

Pronouns
All pronouns mark for number. Gender is distinguished in the second and third person with familiarity only being relevant in the second person. In addition, pronouns are inflected for five different cases – Absolutive, Ergative, Dative, Genitive and Reflexive.

Image

There is also a set of attached pronouns which can appear on the verb. These always indicate the subject of a verb. Attached pronouns are less specific in that they do not indicate number Using both the attached form and the free form to indicate the subject is ungrammatical as is using neither.

Image

First person and third person attached pronouns have both a prefix and suffix form. The prefix form for the first person are used when the verb is in the simple present, past and future tenses. The suffix form is used when the verb is the potential present, past and future tenses. The third person prefix is used with the simple present and past. In all other cases the suffix form is used.

The second person male formal is the only time an attached pronoun does not exist. The free pronoun must always be used in this case.

Nouns
Cases
Amjati nouns can take one of four cases with the fifth reflexive case being reserved only for pronouns.

Absolutive
This case marks the subject of a intransitive or the object of transitive sentence.

Ergative
This case marks the subject of a transitive sentence.

Reflexive
This case is used when the subject is both the agent and patient of an action. When used with an object it can also be used to distinguish intention. RLX-ABS is intentional. ERG-ABS is accidental/unintentional. This case is only marked on pronouns.

Dative

Genitive
This case is used to mark the possessor of an object. The possessor always comes after the possessed. In addition the possessed object is always marked with the definite article.

Definiteness
All nouns are marked as definite or indefinite. The indefinite article comes before the noun is modifies. The definite article is attached as a suffix to the noun. Articles must agree in gender with the noun and mark for case.

Image

Number
All unmarked nouns are singular. For masculine nouns the plural is indicated with the suffix -i and for feminine nouns it is marked with the suffix -el. Plural suffixes come before the definite suffix.

Image

Verbs
Amjati verbs have three moods – simple, potential and imperative. The simple is an imperative sentence and the potential is used for both subjunctive and conditional meanings. In addition there are also three tenses – present, past and future. Verbs conjugate for tense, mood, person and number, but not for familiarity.

The potential is an irrealis mood that can translate roughly into a subjunctive or conditional.

Image

There are two nonfinite forms. The first is formed by suffixing '-al' and is used as the infinite after the main verb. The second is formed by using 'al' as a particle before the verb.

Full Verb Conjugation - Skolal - To Ask
Spoiler:
Image
---------

Original Post:
Spoiler:
Okay, so I've talked about it enough.
Here's where Amjati stands right now. I guarantee it'll change in the future and I'm still figuring some thing out.

Sounds

Image
Amjati has your standard 5 vowel system.

Image
Palatalization is also used to a large degree. Orthography is fairly straight forward. /ŋ/ seems to have dropped out of the lang but I will include it in case it comes back. Also /ɹ/ seems to be fluctuating between /ɾ/ /r/ and /ɹ/. /ʨ/ and /ʥ/ were probably once /tʲ/ and /dʲ/ but have now become affricates.

Code: Select all

/p/ <p> | /pʲ/ <pj>
/b/ <b> | /bʲ/ <bj>
/t/ <t> | /ʨ/ <tj> 
/d/ <d> | /ʥ/ <dj> 
/k/ <k> | /kʲ/ <kj>
/m/ <m> | /mʲ/ <mj>
/n/ <n> | 
/ŋ/ <g> |
/v/ <v> |
/s/ <s> | /ɕ/ <sj>
/z/ <z> | /ʑ/ <zj>
/l/ <l> | /ʎ/ <lj>
/ɹ/ <r> | /j/ <j>

Grammar
Amjati has two grammatical genders - masculine and feminine. It also has 3 levels of politeness - familiar (t), polite (m) and formal (v). There are also four cases - Absolutive, Ergative, Dative and Genitive - that are marked on all nouns, either directly or indirectly.

Here are the pronouns which incorporate the above mentioned distinctions as well as singular v. plural.
Image
(Please ignore the theme/agent stuff, that is strictly for my own use.)

If a pronoun is used in a sentence than the attached version is omitted. However is no pronoun is used the attached for must be used.

Code: Select all

Ex: I run.
Zo talar
zo       tal-ar
1sg.ABS  run-PRS

OR

Aztalar.
az-tal-ar
1sg.ABS-run-PRS

Code: Select all

Ex: The cat runs.
Tosjak etalar.
toɕ-ak         e-tal-am
cat-DEF.m.ABS  3sg.m.ABS-run-PRS

Ex: He runs.
Ep talam.
ep        tal-am
3.sg.ABS  run-PRS
More to be added. Please question, comment etc.

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 30 Dec 2010 22:55

No noun/verb inflection tables? Or do the nouns inflect the same way as pronouns?

How about some examples of transitive clauses?
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 22:56

Micamo wrote:No noun/verb inflection tables? Or do the nouns inflect the same way as pronouns?

How about some examples of transitive clauses?
They're all coming soon! I'm just lazy.

User avatar
Ceresz
shadowlight
shadowlight
Posts: 2680
Joined: 16 Oct 2010 01:14
Location: North
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ceresz » 30 Dec 2010 23:03

You have indeed created a beast. But the tables are purty. Moar examples!

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 23:36

Nouns
Nouns can take definite and indefinite articles. The system is stolen from Swedish.

However, the articles vary by case.
Image

Nouns can also appear without an article. In use:
Image

The unmarked form is the singular. Masculine words take the suffix -i and feminine words take the suffix -el for plurals.
Amjat (Person) --> Amjati (People)
Tov (Rock) --> Tovel (Rocks)

Code: Select all

Ex: I have a cat.
Zuri er ak tosj.
zuri     er        ak         toɕ
1sg.ERG  have-PRS  IDF.ABS.m  cat.

I have the cat.
Zuri er tosjak.
zuri     er        toɕ-ak
1sg.ERG  have-PRS  cat-IDF.ABS.m
More to come on verbs.

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 30 Dec 2010 23:38

What does the zero article signify with regards to definiteness?
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Ceresz
shadowlight
shadowlight
Posts: 2680
Joined: 16 Oct 2010 01:14
Location: North
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ceresz » 30 Dec 2010 23:40

I must say, I like this language. But I would probably have a hard time learning it if I ever were to try :-o.

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 23:44

Micamo wrote:What does the zero article signify with regards to definiteness?
I don't know yet. It's there in case I need it. I think it'll be used more with names and people.
Ceresz wrote:I must say, I like this language. But I would probably have a hard time learning it if I ever were to try :-o.
Wait for the verbs!

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 30 Dec 2010 23:45

Ossicone wrote:I don't know yet. It's there in case I need it. I think it'll be used more with names and people.
So for now, it's English-style and articles are only used with common nouns. Right?
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 23:48

Micamo wrote:So for now, it's English-style and articles are only used with common nouns. Right?
I guess so. Pronouns are also used with names.
Told you it was very germanic. :P

It is very much a work in progress.

User avatar
Ceresz
shadowlight
shadowlight
Posts: 2680
Joined: 16 Oct 2010 01:14
Location: North
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ceresz » 30 Dec 2010 23:51

Swedish fever.

Or, Basque and Swedish's bastard child.

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 30 Dec 2010 23:55

Ceresz wrote:Basque and Swedish's bastard child.
Indeed. Though it is a highly simplified version of Basque verbs!

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 31 Dec 2010 06:10

The current state of Amjati verbs.
The arrows indicate the movement of the last vowel in the verb stem.

Image

Up: a --> e --> i
o --> u

Down: i --> e --> a
u --> o --> a

Back: i --> u
e --> o

Any vowel that cannot move stays the same.

So a fully conjugated regular verb - Al vem 'to sleep'
Unmarked
Image

Absolutive
Image

Ergative
Image


Final note on phonology:
CVV --> CʲV when VV is the same vowel.
The only diphthong is /a͡i/.

I hope that makes sense!

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 31 Dec 2010 06:28

What does person agree with? The absolutive? Or is the erg-abs system purely in morphological marking?

What's the difference between simple and potential? I wanna think "potential" means situational possibility here but I doubt that's what you mean.
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 31 Dec 2010 07:55

Micamo wrote:What does person agree with? The absolutive? Or is the erg-abs system purely in morphological marking?

What's the difference between simple and potential? I wanna think "potential" means situational possibility here but I doubt that's what you mean.
The verb agrees with the erg. If there is no erg then it defaults to the abs.

I stole the potential thing straight off of Euskera.

Present - I run/am running
Present potential -I may be running
Past - I ran/was running
Past Potential - I would have been running
Future - I will run
Future potential - I might run

I'm going to add some compound tenses later.

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 31 Dec 2010 07:57

Ossicone wrote:The verb agrees with the erg. If there is no erg then it defaults to the abs.
Aww. I like deep ergativity.
I stole the potential thing straight off of Euskera.

Present - I run/am running
Present potential -I may be running
Past - I ran/was running
Past Potential - I would have been running
Future - I will run
Future potential - I might run

I'm going to add some compound tenses later.
Oh, so it's epistemic possibility! Alright.
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 31 Dec 2010 08:01

Micamo wrote:Aww. I like deep ergativity.
I like the valency change! Although I'm certain that is not the right term for it.

User avatar
Micamo
MVP
MVP
Posts: 7186
Joined: 05 Sep 2010 18:48
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Micamo » 31 Dec 2010 08:04

Ossicone wrote:I like the valency change! Although I'm certain that is not the right term for it.
It's not valency change, you just have a nominative-accusative agreement structure, with the erg-abs only being reflected in morphological marking. There's nothing particularly wrong with this as this is what most erg-abs natlangs do, I just think deep ergativity (where erg-abs is reflected in syntax as well as morphology) is much more interesting to play with.
My pronouns are <xie> [ʒiː] / <xer> [ʒɚ]

My shitty twitter

User avatar
Chandith
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 183
Joined: 27 Sep 2010 15:28

Re: Amjati

Post by Chandith » 31 Dec 2010 13:09

One quick note: Shouldn't the ABS mark the theme, and the ERG the Agent? You have it the other way in your tables.

User avatar
Ossicone
moderator
moderator
Posts: 3695
Joined: 12 Aug 2010 04:20
Location: I've heard it both ways.
Contact:

Re: Amjati

Post by Ossicone » 31 Dec 2010 15:14

Chandith wrote:One quick note: Shouldn't the ABS mark the theme, and the ERG the Agent? You have it the other way in your tables.
(Please ignore the theme/agent stuff, that is strictly for my own use.)
I know it's the wrong way around. :)

Post Reply