Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

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Anwelda
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Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

Post by Anwelda » 14 Jan 2017 19:05

Here's a new language I recently started to create. I mainly draw my inspiration from Gothic, Icelandic and Ancient Greek (for now). Since it's relatively new it's still very incomplete, but it should be a bit more developped soon.

______________________________


Phonology

Consonants:

Plosive: /p/ <p> ; /t/ <t> ; /k/ <c> ; /ʔ/ <Ø>
Nasal: /m/ <m> ; /n/ <n> ; /ŋ/ <ng> ;
Trill: /r/ <r> ; /r̥/¹ <ρ/rh> ;
Fricative: /ɸ/ <f> ; /β/ <b> ; /θ/ <þ/d/dh/th> ; /ð/ <ð/d/dh> ; /s/ <s> ; /z/ <z> ; /ç/ <ch/gh> ; /x/ <g> ; /h/ <h>
Lateral fricative: /ɬ/ <lh> ;
Approximant: /j/ <y> ;
Lateral approximant: /l/ <l> ;
Labial-velar fricative: /ʍ/ <wh> ;
Labial-velar approximant: /w/ <w> ;
Labialized: /kʷ/ <cw> ; /xʷ/ <gw> :
Palatalized: /tʲ/ <ty> ; /nʲ/ <ny> ; /θʲ/ <þy> ; /sʲ/ <sy>.

The plosive /p/, /t/, and /k/ are pronounced /pʰ/, /tʰ/ et /kʰ/ most of the time. The consonants can also be lengthened (gemination).

Maybe the language will have the /ɧ/ fricative, but I'm not sure yet.

Vowels:

Short

Close: /i/ <i> ; /u/ <u> ;
Open-mid: /ɔ/ <o> ;
Open: /a/ <a> ;

Long

Close: /i:/ <ī> ; /u:/ <ū>
Close-mid: /e:/ <e> ; /o:/ <ó> ;
Open-mid: /æ:/ <æ> ; /ɔ:/ <ō>.

Diphthongs

/ie:/ <ie> ; /io:/ <io> ; /ia:/ <ia> ; /ai/ <ai> ; /aɔ/ <ao> ; /ei:/ <eī> ; /eu:/ <eū> ; /eo:/ <eó> ; /ea:/ <ea>.

Worth noting that /ei:/, /eu:/ and /ea:/ make the vowel /e:/ lose its length. This happens only because they're diphthong. Thanks to the "mænuρ / mænūρ" example shown below, you'll see that diphthongs and the phonemic function (i-e when a syllable is stressed when it normally shouldn't, thus changing the meaning of the word. I don't remember the proper name of this phonetic mutation, so if anybody has knowledge of how it's called I would gladly accept to know the proper name) are the only cases where /æ:/ and /e:/ lose their length.

The stress is generally located on the root of the word (which most of the time is the first syllable). However, just as I explained some words have the exact same phonemes, but not the same stress location. Thus, if the stress is badly executed on those words, it can change the meaning. This is what I call the phonemic function. Thus:
— Mænuρ, /'mæ:nur̥/, war
— Mænūρ, /mæ'nu:r̥/, ship/boat.

(This is a special case however, since not only the stress has moved, but the /u/ vowel has become longer).

If a word has a prefix or a suffix, the stress syllable remains the same. Here:
— Mænūρ, /mæ'nu:r̥/, ship
— Yamænūρ, /jamæ'nu:r̥/, on a ship.

Now I will present the conjugaison (mainly inspired by Ancient Greek).


Tenses

Present

— used to describe an action currently happening or a general truth.

Future

— used for an action that will happen
— can also have a progressive aspect (explained later).

Perfect

— indicates a present state resulting from a past action
— used for emphasis
— used for emphasis of a past action (explained later since the construction is a bit odd).

Imperfect

— indicates a past action with the progressive aspect
— indicates a past action/fact/state linked to a previous past event (ex: He beheaded him. His head fell off. As we can see, this is basically a causative aspect.

Aorist

— indicates a past action definitively ended
— starting point of a new action or situation (that's the ultimate tense for verbs like "to begin")
— describes an action tending towards its finality (even for a present situation. Ex: "to offer a gift"). That's what I call the "aoristic purpose".

Moods

There are four of them: indicative, imperative, optative (just like in Greek) and infinitive.

— indicative (present, future, perfect, imperfect, aorist)
— imperative (present, future)
— infinitive (Ø)
— optative (present, future, perfect and aorist).

This language has three voices: active, passive and middle (shows the interest of the subject). Some verbs work only with the middle voice (ex: "to lie"). The middle voice is made by adding a suffix to the subject, whilst the passive voice is made by modifying the verb (some kind of "fourth person", but not exactly. The construction shall be explained later). The syntax is SOV. However, this language is a descent from a proto-language which has a particular relationship with syntax and morphology. I don't have enough time to properly explain it right now, but all I can say is that that language doesn't like what happens under the passive voice, that is that although the subject and the object change their location in the sentence, they technically keep their subject/object function. Here is what I mean:

The cat (subject) ate the mouse (object): active voice.

The mouse (syntaxically subject but semantically object) has been eaten by the cat (syntaxically object but semantically subject): passive voice.

As we can see under the passive voice, the syntax make the subject and the object change their role, although they semantically keep their initial one (i-e the cat is object because of the syntax, but is actually subject since it's the one performing the action).

This proto-language doesn't like it when the syntax makes the arguments change their roles (although they actually keep it). Therefore, the passive voice is made simply by adding the objective-nominative declension to the subject (here the cat), and the objective-accusative to the object (the mouse), but the syntax remains the exact same as the active voice. Being this particular, the proto-language heavily influenced the language presented today, but I haven't set how it works in this new language yet.



¹ The /r̥/ consonant is pronounced as in Icelandic and Welsh, that is soft, but written with the greek letter <ρ> (or <rh>).
Last edited by Anwelda on 27 Jan 2017 19:08, edited 2 times in total.

Ælfwine
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Re: Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

Post by Ælfwine » 14 Jan 2017 19:09

Very interesting synthesis. I like how /r̥/ is a thing, and written <rh>, since the phoneme was found in both Ancient Greek and modern Icelandic.
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Anwelda
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Re: Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

Post by Anwelda » 14 Jan 2017 19:20

Ælfwine wrote:Very interesting synthesis. I like how /r̥/ is a thing, and written <rh>, since the phoneme was found in both Ancient Greek and modern Icelandic.
Thank you. I personnally really love this sound. So soft...

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Lambuzhao
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Re: Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

Post by Lambuzhao » 16 Jan 2017 20:13

Let's go, let's go, let's go: MOAR PLZ!
[:)]

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Anwelda
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Re: Conlang [Gothic/Icelandic/Greek]

Post by Anwelda » 18 Jan 2017 15:22

Lambuzhao wrote:Let's go, let's go, let's go: MOAR PLZ!
[:)]
Soon hopefully [:)]

Very encouraging anyway. Thanks!

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