Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 13 Feb 2018 01:00

Colors
Colors can be used as both adjectival verbs and nouns

紅 (Hunh)- Crimson
瀂 (Rỏ)- Pink
𧹦 (Mảir)- Red
黃 (Ả)- Orange
鐄 (Cũich)- Yellow
𦲿𩇢 (Xa·Gio)- Green (stresses green over blue)
𩇢 (Gio)- Green/Blue
海𩇢 (Hứy·Gio)- Blue (stresses blue over green)
藍 (Lam)- Indigo
紫 (Té)- Purple
𦷨 (Đra)- Brown
壯 (Có)- White
亟 (Ghĩ)- Grey
黰 (Tam)- Black
*烏 (O)- Black/Dark (never occurs as a noun)

*Only a few nouns are described with 烏. When used attributively, the adjective occurs instead as a nominal prefix:
馭戺 (A·Xĩ)- Horse (the word for black horse is irregularly 烏馬 (O·Má) with the Sinic word for horse)
豹 (Bào)- Leopard
𪀄 (Chim)- Bird
𤝞 (Chỏ)- Rat
𣻅 (Chủ)- Sand
海𣻅 (Hứy·Chủ)- Beach
𣎀 (Mãm)- Night
墨 (Mơc)- Ink
猫 (Mưo)- Cat
蜅 (Rưy)- Bug (烏蜅 (O·Rưy) means beetle)
㹥 (So)- Dog
天 (Tén)- Sky
渃 (Yar)- Water

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Parlox » 13 Feb 2018 02:47

Where do you get your resources on the Chamic languages?
  • :con: Cajun, a descendant of French spoken in Louisiana.
  • :con: Bàsupan, loosely inspired by Amharic.
  • :con: Oddúhath Claire, a fusion of Welsh and Arabic.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 13 Feb 2018 04:29

Parlox wrote:
13 Feb 2018 02:47
Where do you get your resources on the Chamic languages?
University of Hawaii Press' From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects: Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change by Graham Thurgood

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 15 Feb 2018 05:13

Types Of Character Readings
Ởnh·Vú character readings can be divided roughly into 6 different categories

訓讀 (Hùn·Đuc) (Meaning Reading)
This is the native Chamic reading (or readings) for a character. These characters are typically written in Chữ Nôm but are written as Hanzi in words without Chữ Nôm. An example of this is the reading Yãnh for the character .

漢讀 (Hàn·Đuc) (Han Reading)
This is the official Sino-Ởnh·Vú reading (or readings) for a character and thus only Hanzi can have these readings. Examples of this would be the reading Gin for the character and the reading Hưn for the character .

慣用讀 (Gừn·Yừonh·Đuc) (Everyday Reading)
This reading refers to any unofficial Sinic reading for a character outside of the official Sino-Ởnh·Vú reading. These usually come from dialects of Chinese or Vietnamese. An example of this is the reading Ván for the character . Some Sinic words don't have a Sino-Ởnh·Vú reading such as the character which only has the reading Kèm as opposed to the expected reading Cừm.

法讀 (Pưp·Đuc) (French Reading)
This reading refers to any reading used to transcribe loanwords, more often than not from French. Sometimes the character is borrowed for meaning such as the character 廁 in the word 廁𥆼 (Tòy·Lé) which means bathroom (from French toilet). Sometimes the character is a borrowed for pronunciation, and in many cases is unused outside of the loanword usage. An example of this is the use of the character 仚 (Xàm) to mean bedroom (from French chambre). Thus to almost all Ởnh·Vú speakers, the character 仚 is simply the character for bedroom, and not a character used for phonetic transcription.

義訓讀 (Vè·Hùn·Đuc) (Real Meaning Reading)
This is when a character is used for its meaning without regard to pronunciation. An example of this would be using the character for what: 咦 (Hí) and the character for place: 兜 (Lơnh) for the word for where: 咦兜 (Xi·Đĩn).

借讀 (Tèy·Đuc) (Borrowed Reading)
This is when a character is used for pronunciation without regard to meaning. This is very common in polysyllabic Chamic terms. Typically the first character uses a character based on meaning while the second is used purely for phonetic transcription. An example of this would be the character 奴 (No) in the word for man: 仉奴 (Ta·No) where the first character is the Chữ Nôm for man and the second character acts a phonetic placeholder for the sound of the second syllable.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 19 Feb 2018 10:12, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Vlürch » 15 Feb 2018 21:23

I feel like the way you're presenting this makes it even better. This might sound weird but I think your word for centipede is really cute, both in terms of your choice of hanzi and the sound. And what is that badass character you have for termite and mosquito? Bug-mother? Literally why does that even exist? (EDIT: Well, nevermind, I looked closer and then looked it up to make sure and it turns out it wasn't bug-mother after all... but still...) Why do half of these exist? So many rare hanzi, I'm in heaven! [xD] Are you going to use 𪚥, 龘 and/or 龖 eventually in some interesting innovative way, or are those too mainstream? [:P]

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 15 Feb 2018 23:49

Vlürch wrote:
15 Feb 2018 21:23
I feel like the way you're presenting this makes it even better.
I'm really glad to hear that but could you explain what you mean by this a little? [:)]
Vlürch wrote:
15 Feb 2018 21:23
This might sound weird but I think your word for centipede is really cute, both in terms of your choice of hanzi and the sound. And what is that badass character you have for termite and mosquito? Bug-mother? Literally why does that even exist? (EDIT: Well, nevermind, I looked closer and then looked it up to make sure and it turns out it wasn't bug-mother after all... but still...) Why do half of these exist? So many rare hanzi, I'm in heaven! [xD]
There are definitely a lot of really bizarre Chữ Nôm! I absolutely love a ton of them myself [:D]. I'm really wishing there was a bug-mother character now.
Vlürch wrote:
15 Feb 2018 21:23
Are you going to use 𪚥, 龘 and/or 龖 eventually in some interesting innovative way, or are those too mainstream? [:P]
I'm afraid none of those characters are used in Chữ Nôm so it'd be difficult to rationalize using them [:S]

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Vlürch » 17 Feb 2018 16:21

All4Ɇn wrote:
15 Feb 2018 23:49
Vlürch wrote:
15 Feb 2018 21:23
I feel like the way you're presenting this makes it even better.
I'm really glad to hear that but could you explain what you mean by this a little? [:)]
Just how all the vocabulary is organised so neatly in your posts, etc.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 18 Feb 2018 07:43

Vlürch wrote:
17 Feb 2018 16:21
Just how all the vocabulary is organised so neatly in your posts, etc.
Glad to hear it!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 18 Feb 2018 08:06

Some Changes To Grammar
As I've been learning more about Vietnamese and Chinese I've decided to modify 2 parts of the grammar of a bit

The Topic
The topic now only occurs at the beginning of a sentence, including with objects. The topic particle Dõc (now written 𤴓 instead of 𠃣) is now placed after the noun it refers to. When the topic is the same as the subject, the topic particle continues to be dropped.

Pre-Reform:
伮䀡𠃣仉奴。
Nu bũ dõc ta·no.
3s see TOP man
It is the man he sees.

Post-Reform:
仉奴𤴓伮䀡。
Ta·no dõc nu bũ.
man TOP 3s see
It is the man he sees.

Pronoun Dropping
Pronouns used as objects can continue to be dropped when they are inferred from context. Additionally though, pronouns used as subjects can now be dropped when they refer to the same subject as the previous sentence or are referred to in the previous sentence with a copula (this rule also applies to responses to questions). Subject pronouns can still occur in these places but occur far less than often than they are dropped, except in sentences that would otherwise be one syllable long, where they are still employed.

Pre-Reform:
呢罖媄。伮好𠸬。伮𥐍。
Ní nãnh đơ. Nu hào lưy. Nu cỏ.
PROX COP mom | 3s like swim | 3s short
This is my mom. She likes to swim. She is short.

Post-Reform:
呢罖媄。好𠸬。伮𥐍。
Ní nãnh đơ. Hào lưy. Nu cỏ.
PROX COP mom | like swim | 3s short
This is my mom. She likes to swim. She is short.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 24 Feb 2018 06:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 21 Feb 2018 16:31

Must/Have To
The English terms must and have to are typically translated as 咍 (Xãm) and 吵 (Yãt) which translate literally as good and bad respectively. Unlike in English, the 3rd person generic form is always used instead of any use of the 2nd person in these expressions.

咍 + Positive Verb: Must/Have To
This is used for all positive meanings of must and have to, e.g:
咍𥄬 (Xãm đĩ)- You have to sleep/one must sleep (literally: it is good to sleep)
伵咍爫練習 (Hũnh xãm bưt lèn·gip)- I have to do my homework (literally: I am good to do homework)

咍 + Negative Verb: Must Not/Must Avoid/Have To Avoid
This is the negative form used when one has to do a negative verb (as opposed to not doing a positive verb)
歐利蛸咍庄𦖑空𪀄仙咭怞 (Ư·lì·sơ xãm bũ hớ ỏ chim·sen·a·dõ)- Odysseus mustn't listen to the sirens' song (literally: Odysseus is good to not hear the siren song)
咍庄𢥈空 (Xãm bũ lừ ỏ)- You mustn't worry (literally: it is good to not worry)

吵 + Positive Verb: Must Not
This form is used to tell someone not to do a positive verb (as opposed to doing a negative verb)
吵步妬 (Yãt lảt đĩ)- You must not go there (literally: it is bad to go there)
吵𢮀! (Yãt trủ!)- You must not touch it! (literally: it is bad to touch!)

吵 + Negative Verb: Don't Have To
This form is used when the implication is that one doesn't have to do something, but it would be better if they did
吵庄吏空头丿會 (Yãt bũ mãy ỏ áo pét·vày)- You don't have to come to the party (literally: it is bad to not go to the party)
伵吵庄固空 (Hũnh yãt bũ a ỏ)- I don't have to stay (literally: I am bad to not stay)
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 11 Mar 2018 06:57, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 26 Feb 2018 01:49

Common Phrases
Here are some commonly translated phrases. Those marked with * are used only in formal situations while those marked with † are only used in informal situations. 庯 (Po) and 伴 (Bàn) are only used as place holders as plenty of other titles and pronouns can take their place depending on who is being talked to.

庯劸喂? (Po sãr yớ?)- How are you?* (literally "are you healthy?")
伴劸喂? (Bàn sãr yớ?)- How are you?† (literally "are you healthy?")
劸 (Sãr)- I'm well/good
劸空 (Sãr ỏ)- I'm bad/not too good*
空 (Ỏ)- I'm bad/not too good
馬ヌ (Má·Má)- I'm alright/okay

庯囉咦𥏍? (Po éo hí ãnh?)- What is your name?* (literally "you call which name?")
伴囉咦𥏍? (Bàn éo hí ãnh?)- What is your name?† (literally "you call which name?")
伵囉... (Hũnh éo)- My name is...* (literally "I call")
倅囉.... (Cư éo)- My name is...† (literally "I call")

事罖咦? (Trừ nãnh hí?)- What’s going on?/What's happening? (literally "what is action?")

庯𧶮電話數罖咦? (Po mờ đèn·vày·xò nãnh hí?)- What is your phone number?*
伴𧶮電話數喂 (Bàn mờ đèn·vày·xò yớ?)- What is your phone number?† (literally "your phone number?")

呢𠳒宁固咦𧶮喃字? (Ní pa·nơc a hí mờ nam·đừ ?)- How do you spell this word? (for Hanzi) (literally "this word has the Chữ Nôm of what?")
呢𠳒宁固咦𧶮羅馬字? (Ní pa·nơc a hí mờ la·má·đừ?)- How do you spell this word? (for Latin characters) (literally "this word has the Latin characters of what?")
伮固𠳒宁𧶮喃字... (Nu a pa·nơc mờ nam·đừ)- It is spelled... (for Hanzi) (literally "it has the Chữ Nôm of the word")
伮固𠳒宁𧶮羅馬字... (Nu a pa·nơc mờ la·má·đừ )- It is spelled... (for Latin characters) (literally "it has the Latin characters of the word")

庯讀呢𠳒宁牢? (Po đuc ní pa·nơc hàt)- How do you pronounce this word?* (literally "you read this word how?")
伴讀呢𠳒宁牢? (Bàn đuc ní pa·nơc hàt)- How do you pronounce this word?† (literally "you read this word how?")

庯别呐夤ヌ喂? (Po tó ha mữnh·mữnh yớ?)- Can you speak slowly please?*
夤ヌ喂? (Mữnh·mữnh yớ?)- Can you speak slowly please?† (literally "slowly?")
空吵喂 (Ỏ yãt yớ)- Sure/no problem (when granting a request) (literally "without bad")

米西 (Mè·xí)- Thank you/thanks
伵𧴱 (Hũnh xẽ)- Thank you (only used to show extreme gratitude)* (literally "I owe")
無ヌ (Mưo·mưo)- You’re welcome* (literally "not have not have")
咍喂 (Xãm yớ)- You’re welcome† (literally "good")

亞栌 (À·ló)- Hello (on the telephone)
𢇱喂 (Hù yớ)- Good morning* (literally "early")
伵嘲庯 (Hũnh pưch po)- Good afternoon/good day* (literally "I greet you")
朝 (Chão)- Good morning/good afternoon/good day/good evening/hello†
𠉞𣎀𤴓伵嘲庯 (Úy·mãm dõc hũnh pưch po)- Good evening (super formal)* (literally "tonight I greet you")
𠉞𣎀𤴓 (Úy·mãm dõc)- Good evening* (literally "tonight)
𠉞喂 (Úy yớ)- Good evening†

朱佛朱佛 (Ꞗut ꞗut)- Goodbye/bye/see ya (literally "to the Buddha to the Buddha")
𠫾𢘝朱佛 (No đù ꞗut)- Goodbye (formal in Buddhist situations)* (literally "serve the Buddha")
𠫾休息 (No nu·sưc)- Good night* (literally "rest!")
咍𥄬喂 (Xãm đĩ yớ)- Good night† (literally "it's good to sleep")

伵得 (Hũnh mat)- Welcome* (literally "I receive")
倅得 (Cư mat)- Welcome† (literally "I receive")
伵嗔吏 (Hũnh đũ mãy)- Welcome (as said by a shop employee, waiter, etc.)* (literally "please come")

下恕 (Á·punh)- Sorry or excuse me (literally "forgive")

旺盛𧶮生日 (Hừnh·gènh mờ rành·nit)- Happy birthday (literally "prosperous birthday")
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 12 Mar 2018 13:43, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 05 Mar 2018 05:58

蒌𣛤 (Yàm·Bõ)- Fruits & Vegetables
This category of words was suggested by Khemehekis. For the sake of simplicity I'm categorizing them based on the culinary categories

𣛤 (Bõ)- Fruits
荎至 (Ba·Chí)- Banana
𣞻 (Bãot)- Lychee
夏𣛤 (÷Bõ)- Apple (literally Summer Fruit; based on a nativized pronunciation of Apple)
𣖘𣛤 (Đã·Bõ)- Persimmon (literally Blood Fruit; elsewhere blood is spelled as 昴)
椳𣛤 (Giã·Bõ)- Guava
藍𣛤 (Lam·Bõ)- Blueberry (literally Indigo Fruit)
梨𣛤 (Li·Bõ)- Pear
榴𣛤 (Lu·Bõ)- Pomegranate
律士𣛤 (Luit·Sí·Bõ)- Avocado (literally Lawyer Fruit)
龍𣛤 (Lưonh·Bõ)- Dragonfruit
𧹦𣛤 (Mảir·Bõ)- Cherry (literally Red Fruit)
多𣳪𣛤 (Ta·So·Bõ)- Star Apple (literally Milk Fruit)
濛𣛤 (Trãy·Bõ)- Berry (literally Juicy Fruit)
橬 (Búinh)- Rambutan
柑 (Cam)- (Mandarin) Orange
柑橘 (Cam·Cúit)- Kumquat
𣔥 (Chũr)- Lime
鐄𣔥 (Cũich·Chũr)- Lemon (literally Yellow Lime)
橘 (Cúit)- Tangerine
𣜷 (Đởinh)- Durian
檽 (Khur)- Grape
㭨𠚯 (Làor·Bũt)- Coconut (literally Coconut Palm Husk)
梨𣛭 (Li·Hunh)- Papaya
𦼥 (Mả)- Pineapple
𦀴梮 (Manh·Cút)- Mangosteen
梅 (Muy)- Chinese Plum
楊梅 (Yanh·Muy)- Yangmei/Chinese Bayberry
無花果 (Mưo·Ứ·Cá)- Fig
栔 (Nảot)- Star Fruit/Carambola
桑 (Õ)- Mulberry
橷 (Pẻ)- Strawberry
波羅蜜 (Pư·La·Mit)- Jackfruit
槾 (Pưn)- (Western) Plum
𣘓 (Sõm)- Pomelo
𣘓ヌ (Sõm·Sõm)- Grapefruit (literally Pomelo Pomelo)
𣒱 (Sùoy)- Mango
𤬀 (Tíonh)- Melon
西𤬀 (Xí·Tíonh)- Watermelon (literally Western Melon)
棗 (Táo)- Jujube
桃 (Tó)- Peach
𣙧 (Vẽnh)- Longan
木莓 (Vuc·Muy)- Raspberry
楊桃 (Yanh·Đao)- Kiwi Fruit/Chinese Gooseberry

蒌ヌ (Yàm·Yàm)- Vegetable
椒 (Ảich)- (Red) Pepper
白菜 (Bàc·Tữy)- Napa Cabbage or Bok Choy
扁豆 (Bén·Đờ)- Lentil
𧷺𣘃 (Bõ·Pún)- Cabbage (literally Round Plant)
丐𡮇 (Cà·Rót)- Carrot
榔蒌 (Cãm·Yàm)- Sweet Potato
𣔠 (Cành)- Water Parsnips
蕞 (Cứnh)- Garlic
西蕞 (Xí·Cứnh)- Leek (literally Western Garlic)
䓊 (Đãy)- Coriander/Cilantro
大豆 (Đày·Dờ)- Soybean
芥 (Ghèy)- Mustard Greens
𦮲芥 (Á·Ghèy)- Beet (literally Root Mustard Greens)
蕪芥 (Vu·Ghèy)- Turnip
芹 (Gưn)- Celery
𡀲𣛤 (Hanh·Bõ)- Black Pepper (literally Spicy Fruit)
𦵠 (Kío)- Garlic Chives
𧃷𧅭 (La·Ꞗư)- Taro
落花 (Lac·Ứ)- Peanut
莕 (Lảonh)- Green Onion/Scallion
西莕 (Xí·Lảonh)- Onion (literally Western Green Onion)
𡮔 (Mảy)- Corn
烏璃腓 (O·Li·Ꞗơ)- Olive
𣎷鵸 (Pì·Mánh)- Chili Pepper
𣎷若 (Pì·Ná)- Spinach
𦷬 (Pĩr)- Pumpkin or Squash
𩇢𦷬 (Gio·Pĩr)- Zucchini (literally Grue Squash)
澟紫 (Pòm·Té)- Potato
梄荳 (Rơ·Tảc)- Bean or (Green) Pea
沙辣 (Sà·Lát)- Lettuce
紫𣘁 (Té·Gã)- Eggplant (literally Purple Nightshade)
穌得𣘁 (To·Mat·Gã)- Tomato (literally Tomato Nightshade)
㮲ヌ (Xu·Xu)- Chayote
樞嚧 (Xùp·Lơ)- Cauliflower
𩇢樞嚧 (Gio·Xùp·Lơ)- Broccoli (literally Grue Cauliflower)
䕯 (Vưy)- Gourd
𩇢䕯 (Gio·Vưy)- Cucumber (literally Grue Gourd)
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 21 Jun 2018 21:07, edited 7 times in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 06 Mar 2018 03:19

Serial Transitive-Intransitive Verbs
I apologize in advanced for the sample sentences but they were the most natural sounding sentences I could come up with that would easily explain the topic. In Ởnh·Vú, a transitive verb can be followed directly by an intransitive verb without the aid of a particle, this verb is then followed by the direct object of the transitive sentence. When these sentences are made, the direct object acts much like the subject of the intransitive verb:
忼人阿𢱏𣩂仉奴。
Kín·nin a·tõnh mãy ta·no.
solider beat die man
The solider beat the man to death.

However, when this serial verb is placed in the passive voice, both actions refer to the subject of the clause:
伵别被阿𢱏𣩂在忼人𧶮仉奴。
Hũnh tó đram a·tõnh mãy mơnh kín·nin mờ ta·no.
1s.FORM know PASS beat die PREP soldier PREP man
I know the man who was beaten to death by the soldier.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 06 Mar 2018 23:52, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » 06 Mar 2018 11:43

Wow this is interesting. Can there also be such constructions with more than two verbs?
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 06 Mar 2018 17:51

Creyeditor wrote:
06 Mar 2018 11:43
Wow this is interesting. Can there also be such constructions with more than two verbs?
Thanks [:)]. I'm not sure how this construction could work with more than two verbs though. Could you give a theoretical example?

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » 11 Mar 2018 01:20

What about a slight modification of your example?

Instead of:

solider beat die man
The solider beat the man to death.

You could have:

solider beat fall die man
The solider beat the man, so he fell and died.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Mar 2018 02:22

Creyeditor wrote:
11 Mar 2018 01:20
What about a slight modification of your example?
The solider beat the man, so he fell and died.
Ah! This is definitely possible but it requires the serial verb particle 唄 (Nanh)

忼人阿𢱏𨑜唄𣩂仉奴。
Kín·nin a·tõnh gỡ nanh mãy ta·no.
soldier beat fall PART die man
The solider beat the man, so he fell and died.

Khemehekis
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 15 Mar 2018 06:13

Yay! You did my idea! [:D] [:D] [:D] [:D] [:D]

Some good fruit and vegetables names. No grapefruit, watermelon, kiwifruit, or cilantro?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Omzinesý » 15 Mar 2018 12:49

All4Ɇn wrote:
06 Mar 2018 03:19
Serial Transitive-Intransitive Verbs
I apologize in advanced for the sample sentences but they were the most natural sounding sentences I could come up with that would easily explain the topic. In Ởnh·Vú, a transitive verb can be followed directly by an intransitive verb without the aid of a particle, this verb is then followed by the direct object of the transitive sentence. When these sentences are made, the direct object acts much like the subject of the intransitive verb:
忼人阿𢱏𣩂仉奴。
Kín·nin a·tõnh mãy ta·no.
solider beat die man
The solider beat the man to death.

However, when this serial verb is placed in the passive voice, both actions refer to the subject of the clause:
伵别被阿𢱏𣩂在忼人𧶮仉奴。
Hũnh tó đram a·tõnh mãy mơnh kín·nin mờ ta·no.
1s.FORM know PASS beat die PREP soldier PREP man
I know the man who was beaten to death by the soldier.
How is the first clause modified to say that the soldier died?

How is the second clause analysed. Is "PASS beat die PREP soldier PREP" a relative clause? What does the PREP do?

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 16 Mar 2018 22:39

Khemehekis wrote:
15 Mar 2018 06:13
Yay! You did my idea! [:D] [:D] [:D] [:D] [:D]

Some good fruit and vegetables names. No grapefruit, watermelon, kiwifruit, or cilantro?
Just added them [:)]

Omzinesý wrote:
15 Mar 2018 12:49
How is the first clause modified to say that the soldier died?
You'd have to add another clause using the conjunction 耒 (Húy):
忼人阿𢱏仉奴、耒𣩂。
Kín·nin a·tõnh ta·no, húy mãy.
soldier beat man CONJ die
Omzinesý wrote:
15 Mar 2018 12:49
How is the second clause analysed. Is "PASS beat die PREP soldier PREP" a relative clause? What does the PREP do?
That section is in fact a relative clause. The passive voice is most commonly encountered in relative clauses in Ởnh·Vú. The first preposition marks the agent of the passive voice while the second marks a verb used attributively. As relative clauses are treated simply as any other attributive verb, that preposition is used there as well. Hopefully that answered your questions [:)]

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