Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

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All4Ɇn
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 21 Mar 2018 23:03

The Counter 个 (Cà)
This is just a small addition to the information about the counter 个 on page 6. When the counters that begin with 个 (个𣇞, 个杯, 个國, 个仔, 个𣎃, 个語, 个屍, 个數) are used more than once in a sentence or a series of related sentences, it is far more common to drop the second element and simply use 个 (Cà) as the counter in order to avoid repetition:

伵抷𠯼三个𣇞於茹、仍抷𠯼二个於商場。
Hũnh pơ khanh sam cà·đrả đi sãnh, sơnh pơ khanh nì cà đi xanh·đranh.
1s.FORM CAUS pass three CLASS PREP home CONJ CAUS pass two CLASS PREP mall
I spent three hours at home and two at the mall.

四个國離開聯合、 仍三个𠱊遶𣋽。
Sì cà·quoc lè·cứy lứn·hup, sơnh sam cà sả tuy sửm.
four CLASS leave alliance CONJ three CLASS expected follow soon
Four countries will be leaving the alliance and three others are expected to follow suit shortly after.

一个仔被斂、仍二个跌場𣗓。
It cà·tứ đram dữ, sơnh nì cà đrãp·đranh dõc.
one CLASS PASS find CONJ two CLASS missing still
One child found, two others still missing

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 22 Mar 2018 03:19

So you don't use a word for "hour", "country" or "child", even in the first clause?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 24 Mar 2018 04:41

Khemehekis wrote:
22 Mar 2018 03:19
So you don't use a word for "hour", "country" or "child", even in the first clause?
Not in this case as all 3 counters provide enough information. 个𣇞 is exclusively the counter for hours, 个國 is exclusively the counter for countries, and 个仔 is exclusively a counter for children.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 25 Mar 2018 03:42

Second Grade Chữ Nôm
Another follow up to an earlier post. Here is the complete list of 220 characters that would be learned in 2nd grade in Ởnh·Vú speaking schools:

茹丁爸媄母偀㛪怡侶木金土曜𤎜𣎀夜瞂𢇱乃𢖱今每終昨週𣋚浬𠉞𣈕欺𣊿晚𩠘个種夏春秋𣛤蒌菛漗東西北南喃城都首京𠌨遶自間𤳄雖壯白黰烏紫鐄黃𧹦灲萡銅阿身體估足手𩈘腮媽𪖫𩅘毛賴沛哪左右𣷷海水𦲿𥿗片色𣘃園林動𡐙𣋀星粓穭槹米呐語言越沁泥㵋芻新𧷸當𠚐𡎥子王公會𤯩垺作畫侈變𥄬𢪀信𧯶𦖑𡗅𡓃𦤾𨖲𠖤割咭怞結束哭囉爾留李呂𧿑𡮪曳徐仚𡊲入㪯出口提𣩂死𠁀賒𡚢𡮣難易𪆤相反孟菭狹𧁷䏜飭力𣦍實实曩茶𦓅嫩未教師音樂和役工道街路度形角平圓數掂歲𣞄前交㐱啊𩵜魚𪀄鳥㹥猫鴝𡓋𦑃馭戺馬𤞼圃蜅
Spoiler:
茹Sãnh- House
丁Tenh- Person or A Given Name
爸Ã- Father
媄Đơ/Dơ- Mother
母Mé/Mứ- Mother
偀Ay- Elder Sibling
㛪A- Younger Sibling
怡Dì- Phonetic Character
侶Lú- Friend
木Vuc/Mo- Tree
金Ghim- Metal or A Given Name
土Túo- Earth
曜Yè- Weekday
𤎜Gữ- Morning
𣎀Mãm/Ba- Night
夜Yà- Night
瞂Pá- Days
𢇱Hù- Early
乃Ơm- Last
𢖱Yut- Late
今Gim- Now
每Mưy- Every
終Chunh- All
昨Đac- Last
週Chu- Week
𣋚Tũ- Yesterday
浬Rí- Phonetic Character
𠉞Úy- Today
𣈕Pa- Tomorrow
欺Khì- Phonetic Character
𣊿Sảm- Afternoon
晚Mứn- Evening
𩠘Yúy- Last Year
个Cà- Counter
種Chónh/Chònh- Kind
夏Ã/Á- Summer
春Chún- Spring
秋Trú- Autumn
𣛤Bõ- Fruit
蒌Yàm- Vegetable
菛Yàm- Food
漗Sỏnh- River
東Nò/Tunh- East
西Yủ/Xí/Ga- West
北Pơc- North
南Nơm- South
喃Nam- South
城Genh- City
都Tuo- City
市Gí- City
首Xù- Head
京Gưnh- Capital
𠌨Pá- Towards
遶Tuy- According To
自Đì- Since
間Ghen/Ghèn- Space
𤳄Cúy- So
雖Suy- Although
壯Có- White
白Bàc- White or A Given Name
黰Tam- Black
烏O- Black
鐄Cũich- Yellow
黃Ả/Vánh- Orange or A Given Name
𧹦Mảir- Red
灲Cỏ- Bright
萡Nan- Silver
銅Đunh- Copper
阿A- Phonetic Character
身Xí/Xin- Body
體Téy- Body
估Tứy- Neck
足Troc- Foot
手Xú- Hand
𩈘Bò- Face
腮Linh- Ear
𪖫Yùnh- Nose
𩅘Vo- Hair
毛Mao- Hair
賴Yo- Left
沛Ha- Right
哪Nừ- Phonetic Character
左Tá- Left
右Hú- Right
𣷷Ta- Ocean
海Hứy- Ocean
水Xúy- Water
𦲿Xa/Vã- Leaf
𥿗Bãr- Paper
片Pẽn- Thin
色Sưc- Color
𣘃Pún/Bè/Cay- Plant
園Ván/Hưn- Garden
林Lim- Forest or A Given Name
動Đúnh- Move
𡐙Lơn- Earth
𣋀Bi- Star
星Senh- Star
粓La/Mỡnh/Hứ- Cooked Rice
穭Day- Paddy
槹Vã- Rice
米Mè/Mét- Meter
呐Ha- Say
語Vú- Language
言Vưn- Speak
越Yư/Hưt- Surpass
沁Ma- Bathe
泥Ní- Phonetic Character
㵋Bã- New
芻Ro- Phonetic Character
新Sin- New
𧷸Ví- Buy
當Tanh/Tành- Continue
𠚐Tảo- Grow
𡎥Đõc- Sit
子Tứ/Chỏ- Child
王Hưnh- King or A Given Name
公Cunh- Just
會Vày- Meet
𤯩Dip- Live
作Tà- Do
畫Vèc/Vẽ- Stroke (Of A Character)
侈Da- Happen
變Bèn- Become
𥄬Đĩ- Sleep
𢪀Sainh- Think
信Sìn- Trust
𧯶Ha- Open One’s Mouth
𦖑Hớ- Hear
𡗅Gac- Return
𡓃Nao- Exit
𦤾Tơr- Arrive
𨖲Đì- Climb
𠖤Pơr- Fly
割Tá- Cut
咭A- Sing
怞Dõ- Phonetic Character
結Ket- Knot
束Xoc- Bind
哭Khúc- Cry
囉Éo- Call
爾Né- So
留Lù/Lứ- Hold or A Given Name
李Lứ- A Given Name
呂Lứ- A Give Name
𧿑Ma- Move
𡮪Khì- Phonetic Character
曳Dỡ- Awake
徐Chãnh- Wait
仚Xàm- Bedroom
𡊲Ờ- Room
入Nip- Enter
㪯Banh- Door
出Chúit- Exit
口Cữ- Mouth
提Đí- Carry
𣩂Mãy- Die
死Sí- Death
𠁀Nãy- Life
賒Đõ- Far
𡚢Gõnh- Tall
𡮣Bì- Small
難Nan- Difficult
易Ꞗưc/Ỳ- Heron
𪆤Dũ- Happy
相Sưnh/Sừnh- Each Other
反Pứn- Opposite
孟Cãnh- Strong
菭Bap- Full
狹Gãit- Narrow
𧁷Bũnh- Poor
䏜Cãr- Thick
飭Sảr- Strength
力Lưc- Strength
𣦍Pat- Straight
實Git- Real
实Bừ- Maybe
曩Trãp- Heavy
茶Đra- Tea
𦓅Tủo- Old
嫩Vu- Young
未Mừy/Bu- Never
教Gào- Teach
師Ri- Teacher
音Ìm- Sound
樂Vơc/Lac- Pleasure
和Hư- Peace
役Geoc/Vữ- Job
工Cunh- Work
道Đáo- Way
街Ghèy/Cay- Street
路Lùo- Road
度Đùo- Degree
形Rủo/Henh- Shape
角Guc- Side
平Bành- Flat
圓Yúin- Circle
數Xò- Number
掂Yãp- Count
歲Xờy- Age
𣞄Gũ- End
前Đen- Before
交Gao- Deliver
㐱Hưc- Fear
啊Á- Interjection
𩵜Yãnh- Fish
魚Vu- Fish
𪀄Chim- Bird
鳥Téo- Bird
㹥So- Dog
猫Mưo- Cat
鴝Cu- Owl
𡓋Y- Tail
𦑃Sãp- Wing
馭A- Horse
戺Xĩ- Phonetic Character
馬Má- Horse
𤞼Bũy- Pig
圃Láo- Cow
蜅Rưy- Bug
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 12 Oct 2018 02:47, edited 19 times in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 29 Mar 2018 03:48

All4Ɇn wrote:
24 Mar 2018 04:41
Khemehekis wrote:
22 Mar 2018 03:19
So you don't use a word for "hour", "country" or "child", even in the first clause?
Not in this case as all 3 counters provide enough information. 个𣇞 is exclusively the counter for hours, 个國 is exclusively the counter for countries, and 个仔 is exclusively a counter for children.
Sounds as if you have a lot of counters! Are there any Asian natlangs whose counters get that specific and numerous?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 29 Mar 2018 05:09

Khemehekis wrote:
29 Mar 2018 03:48
Sounds as if you have a lot of counters! Are there any Asian natlangs whose counters get that specific and numerous?
From my understanding Japanese and plenty of varieties of Chinese have a number of fairly specific counters, such as the Chinese counter 匹 for horse-like animals, along with a number of fairly wide-reaching ones. Ởnh·Vú is fairly similar in that regard. I wouldn't say there's that many counters in comparison to Chinese or Japanese, just that there's a number of specific counters much like in those languages. So for instance one specific counter in Ởnh·Vú would be 雙 (Runh) which is the counter for pairs of chopsticks. By contrast, there's also counters like 𦲿 (Vã) which is the counter for leaves, sheets of paper, and all other thin items made out of paper. Like Chinese and Japanese sometimes nouns might use counters based on older interpretations that don't make as much sense in the modern age. So for instance, even though albums are more often on CDs or MP3s nowadays, they are still counted with 𦲿 (Vã) as they used to be sold in paper sleeves.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 29 Mar 2018 05:38

All4Ɇn wrote:
29 Mar 2018 05:09
Khemehekis wrote:
29 Mar 2018 03:48
Sounds as if you have a lot of counters! Are there any Asian natlangs whose counters get that specific and numerous?
From my understanding Japanese and plenty of varieties of Chinese have a number of fairly specific counters, such as the Chinese counter 匹 for horse-like animals, along with a number of fairly wide-reaching ones. Ởnh·Vú is fairly similar in that regard. I wouldn't say there's that many counters in comparison to Chinese or Japanese, just that there's a number of specific counters much like in those languages. So for instance one specific counter in Ởnh·Vú would be 雙 (Runh) which is the counter for pairs of chopsticks. By contrast, there's also counters like 𦲿 (Vã) which is the counter for leaves, sheets of paper, and all other thin items made out of paper. Like Chinese and Japanese sometimes nouns might use counters based on older interpretations that don't make as much sense in the modern age.
Wow! I guess I need to read up some more on counters! They've always seemed a delightful thing to me, since they pop up in some languages I enjoy (and that includes your conlang as well as natlangs!)
So for instance, even though albums are more often on CDs or MP3s nowadays, they are still counted with 𦲿 (Vã) as they used to be sold in paper sleeves.
I love that detail! It's like saying "dial" when we're talking about pushing buttons on a cellphone.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 30 Mar 2018 03:03

Khemehekis wrote:
29 Mar 2018 05:38
Wow! I guess I need to read up some more on counters! They've always seemed a delightful thing to me, since they pop up in some languages I enjoy (and that includes your conlang as well as natlangs!)
If you're interested I can share the full list of counters I have right now [:)]

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 04 Apr 2018 03:30

Verbs with Different Meanings in the Causative
A large number of verbs can have fairly different meanings when used in the causative. Here are some of the more common ones. On the left is the normal meaning of the verb while the right is the meaning in the causative.
固病 (A bữnh)- Sick / get sick
固㐱 (A hưc)- Scared / scare
固喃字𧶮𠳒宁 (A nam·đừ mờ pa·nơc)- Spelled (of Hanzi) / spell (of Hanzi)
下恕 (Á·punh)- Forgive / apologize
平安 (Bành·an)- Peaceful / pacify
𥐍 (Cỏ)- Short / shorten or cut off
廣 (Cứnh)- Wide or extensive / extend or expand
𤯩 (Dip)- Live / give birth
𠳙 (Dư)- Take the place of / replace or substitute
𤎏 (Dừ)- Hot / heaten
䋃ヌ (Đrã·đrã)- Fast / increase (in speed)
跌 (Đrãp)- Missed or missing / miss or lack
在校 (Đừy·ão)- Attend school / make compulsory (as a noun means compulsory education)
𢀭䈫 (Gã·nap)- Rich or wealthy / enrich
𦖑 (Hớ)- Hear or listen / show (music etc.)
𠯼 (Khanh)- Pass (of time) / spend (time)
𠃣 (Kit)- Few / decrease (in number)
兀尸 (Lơ·ꞗẽ)- A lot / increase (in number)
流產 (Lu·rén)- Miscarry / abort
難 (Nan)- Feel down / discourage
且 (Sả)- Escape / release or let loose
𡘯 (Sỏnh)- Big / increase (in size)
色 (Sưc)- Have the color / color or colorize
𩛂 (Trí)- Full (from food) / satiate
𦓅 (Tủo)- Old / age
𧷸 (Ví)- Buy / sell
滀 (Xóc)- Shocking / shock
異ヌ (Ỳ·ỳ)- Different / differentiate

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 10 Apr 2018 18:56

If anyone has any ideas for posts feel free to let me know. In the meantime here's a sentence I made using a randomized list of words [:)]
昴魔專業錯西𡙦𤾟、能夠車只𣎀䀡至。
Đã·mư chuin·nưp tác·xí·xò·hớ, nơnh·cứ chéy sỏ mãm bũ·chì.
blood-ghost good.at taxi, capable drive only night CONJ
The vampire was good at being a taxi driver, even though he could only drive at night.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 12 Apr 2018 15:07, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by k1234567890y » 10 Apr 2018 19:03

the base form and the causative form of a verb don't usually differ?
私のアツい人工言語活動!言カツ!始まります!!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 10 Apr 2018 23:47

All4Ɇn wrote:
30 Mar 2018 03:03
Khemehekis wrote:
29 Mar 2018 05:38
Wow! I guess I need to read up some more on counters! They've always seemed a delightful thing to me, since they pop up in some languages I enjoy (and that includes your conlang as well as natlangs!)
If you're interested I can share the full list of counters I have right now [:)]
I am interested!
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Apr 2018 04:15

k1234567890y wrote:
10 Apr 2018 19:03
the base form and the causative form of a verb don't usually differ?
Oh sorry. The form on the left is the base form. Information on the causative is on page 2. Most verbs use a particle to form their causatives while a few undergo an initial consonant change. [:)]
Khemehekis wrote:
10 Apr 2018 23:47
I am interested!
Posting them in the next post [:D]

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Apr 2018 05:05

More Counters
As requested. Here's the full list of counters at the moment
Counters using native numbers
咘 (Áonh)- Bunches/bundles
百分 (Bac·Pun)- Percents
𣘃 (Bè)- Long/thin/stick-like objects (bottles, rivers, ties, roads, sticks, etc.)
品 (Bím)- Articles of clothing (in general) and pens/pencils/writing utensils
𧷺 (Bõ)- Round objects
步 (Bùo)- Steps
棵 (Cá)- Plants/fungi
丐 (Cà)- Any inanimate object without its own counter
𥟌 (Cả)- Bovids/deer
隻 (Chec)- Boats/ships
串 (Cõn)- Skewers/items that are strung up on something (e.g: balloons)/put on a pole
卜 (Cup)- Handful
臺 (Đuy)- Machines
座 (Đừ)- Buildings/statues
架 (Gà)- Aircraft
鉗 (Ghém)- Fish/invertebrates
階 (Ghey)- Steps (on a staircase)/rungs (on a ladder)
級 (Ghip)- Ranks/levels/flights (of stairs)
群 (Gun)- Groups
户 (Húo)- Families
輪 (Luin)- Wheels
𢠩 (Lum)- Dreams
面 (Mèn)- Flat and smooth surfaces (e.g: flags, mirrors, walls)
任 (Nìm)- Terms of office
人 (Nin)- People
瞂 (Pá)- Days
片 (Pẽn)- Thin/flat objects not made of paper (e.g: CDs, slices, movies, DVD’s)
幅 (Puc)- Photos/pictures/paintings/anything drawn
雙 (Runh)- Pairs of chopsticks
𦑃 (Sãp)- Birds/bats
𡋥 (Tanh)- Grains/granules/particles/stars/planets
點 (Tém)- Points
通 (Túnh)- Telephone calls
甕 (Unh)- Pots/jars
𦲿 (Vã)- Leaves, sheets and other thin items made out of leaves/paper
畫 (Véc)- Character strokes
回 (Vi)- Number of times/occurrences
𡓋 (Y)- Animals
神 (Yãnh)- Gods/spirits/holy people/weather phenomena

Counters using Chinese numbers
倍 (Bứy)- Number of times something is multiplied
个𣇞 (Cà·đrả)- Hours (as a length of time)
个杯 (Cà·puy)- Cups/glasses of drinks
个國 (Cà·quoc)- Countries
个仔 (Cà·tứ)- Children (mostly used in legal situations and reporting. 人 is more used)
个𣎃 (Cà·van)- Months
个語 (Cà·vú)- Languages
个屍 (Cà·xi)- Corpses/dead bodies
个數 (Cà·xò)- Numbers
章 (Chanh)- Chapters
種 (Chónh)- Kinds/types/sorts
週 (Chu)- Weeks
句 (Cừo)- Sentences
題 (Đey)- Questions
層 (Đơnh)- Stories/floors/strata
𣇞 (Đrả)- Hours (o’clock)
冊 (Đréc)- Books
克 (Gám)- Gram
毫克 (Hao·gám)- Milligram
毫升 (Hao·lít)- Milliliter
毫米 (Hao·mét)- Millimeter
斤 (Kír)- Kilogram
升 (Lít)- Liter
釐克 (Lư·gám)- Centigram
釐升 (Lư·lít)- Centiliter
釐米 (Lư·mét)- Centimeter
米 (Mét)- Meter
之 (Mớ)- Seconds
丿 (Pun)- Minutes
本 (Pứn)- Volumes (of books and movies)/issues (of magazines)/tv show episodes
半 (Pừn)- Halves
世 (Xè)- Generations/dynasties/ordinal number in names
首 (Xù)- Songs/poems
夜 (Yà)- Nights/overnight stays
曜 (Yè)- Days of the week
維 (Yuy)- Dimensions

Counters using Chinese numbers and 廿 for 20
尺 (Chéc)- Chi
丈 (Đrành)- Zhang
銅 (Đunh)- Đồng
里 (Lứ)- Kilometer/li
年 (Nen)- Years
歲 (Xờy)- Years of age
圓 (Yúin)- Yuan
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 02 May 2018 06:29, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 24 Apr 2018 08:13

All4Ɇn wrote:
11 Apr 2018 05:05
More Counters
As requested. Here's the full list of counters at the moment
Wow! 82 counters (and the language still isn't even complete)!

Do any of these fuse with the number word (the way ichi becomes ippon with the -hon counter in Japanese, etc.)?

You said "cà·tứ" for children is used for legal situations. Does the legal system where Ởnh·Vú is spoken consider children less than "normal humans"? Is there also a counter for adolescent minors?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 24 Apr 2018 22:56

Khemehekis wrote:
24 Apr 2018 08:13
Do any of these fuse with the number word (the way ichi becomes ippon with the -hon counter in Japanese, etc.)?
Counters are simply followed by the needed number, there's no fusion involved.
Khemehekis wrote:
24 Apr 2018 08:13
You said "cà·tứ" for children is used for legal situations. Does the legal system where Ởnh·Vú is spoken consider children less than "normal humans"? Is there also a counter for adolescent minors?
It doesn't have anything to do with the legal system as much as it does with the word sounding too formal for everyday conversation. Compare the following sentences:

伵固𠀧人𡥵。
Hũnh a sỏ nin ãc.
I have three kids

伵監護三个仔。
Hũnh gam·hừ sam cà·tứ.
I have custody of three kids.

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All4Ɇn
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 25 Apr 2018 15:23

Adverbs
A fair number of commonly used adverbs are not followed by the adverbial particle 䘹 (Bừ), which follows most adverbs made from adjectives. Many of these are purely adverbs, while others can function as adjectival verbs as well. Below are the adverbs (as of right now) that aren't followed by 䘹 (Bừ).

Purely Adverbial
实 (Bừ)- Maybe/may/possibly/perhaps/I'd say
㫻 (Bừ)- Often
㫻ヌ (Bừ·bừ)- Always
飫 (Ꞗẽ)- More/another or any more (used with negative verbs) or much/a lot (stresses a comparative verb)
飫𠬠回 (Ꞗẽ sa vi)- Again (the prefix 徠 (Lac) also carries this meaning)
飫ヌ (Ꞗẽ·ꞗẽ)- Next time
果然 (Cá·nen)- Indeed
至極 (Chì·gưc)- Extremely (the prefix 極 (Gưc) also carries this meaning)
至死 (Chì·sí)- Till death
𣗓 (Dõc)- Still/yet
窒 (Đay)- Very/really/so
窒ヌ (Đay·đay)- Really really
險ヌ (Ém·Ém)- Rarely/not very often/only on occasions
較前 (Gào·đen)- Unlike previously/compared to the past
甚至 (Gìm·chì)- Even
全面 (Giuin·mèn)- Completely/totally/entirely/in all aspects (the prefix 全 (Giuin) also carries this meaning)
一切 (It·Tèy)- Absolutely/wholly/entirely/completely
先 (Khỏ)- First/ahead of time/beforehand
連ヌ (Len·len)- Continuously/repeatedly/one after the other
卞 (Lo)- And thus/and so
物 (Mut)- Nothing (used with negative verbs)
夤ヌ (Mữnh·mữnh)- Slowly (of speaking)
未 (Mừy)- Never (used with positive verbs)
爾後 (Né·hứ)- Henceforth
悲 (Ỡ)- Now
𠊛ヌ (Ởnh·ởnh)- Nobody/no one (used with negative verbs)
炩 (Sỏ)- Surely/certainly/assuredly/of course
𣋽 (Sửm)- Soon/shortly/soon after/shortly after
多个年 (Ta·cà·nen)- Many years/a long time
𢆥ヌ (Tún·tún)- Sometimes/every so often/every now and then
約 (Ưc)- About/approximately/more or less
偶爾 (Vứ·né)- From time to time/now and then
萬ヌ (Vừn·vừn)- Absolutely/certainly/definitely (only used with negative verbs)
买ヌ (Xonh·xonh)- Forever/eternally
史上 (Xứ·giánh)- Historically/in history
依然 (Y·nen)- As it was before
以下 (Ý·á)- Following/as follows/mentioned below/below
以前 (Ý·đen)- Previously/before/at an earlier time
以上 (Ý·giánh)- Aforementioned/above-mentioned/above
以後 (Ý·hứ)- From now on/afterwords
兮 (Yỡ)- Not at all (used with a negative verb)
There are also a large variety of time based adverbs (last month, this year, etc.) that I’ll go into in a later post

Formed From Adjectives Without The Use Of 䘹 (Bừ)
𨑗 (Ả)- Up/above
㵋芻 (Bã·ro)- Just now/right now
耒 (Húy)- Already
𨑜 (Gũ)- Down/below
沛哪 (Ha·nừ)- Right
右下 (Hú·á)- Bottom right
右上(Hú·giánh)- Upper right/top right
兀尸 (Lơ·ꞗẽ)- Much/a lot/a great deal
了兀尸 (Lu·lơ·ꞗẽ)- Too much
樓𨑗 (Lư·ả)- Upstairs
樓𨑜 (Lư·gũ)- Downstairs
爾 (Né)- So/such/like this
馬ヌ (Má·má)- Alright/so-so/okay/neither good nor bad
只 (Sỏ)- Only/just
左下(Tá·á)- Bottom Left
左上 (Tá·giánh)- Upper left/top left
賴 (Yo)- Left
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 21 Sep 2018 22:18, edited 9 times in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 04 May 2018 22:34

Agent Noun Suffixes
Ởnh·Vú has a number of agent noun suffixes, some native and some borrowed from Chinese. All of the ones I can think of are listed below with a few example words for each

者 (Chá)
讀者 (Đuc·chá)- Reader
獨裁者 (Đuc·đưy·chá)- Dictator
成年者 (Genh·nen·chá)- Legal adult
著者 (Trù·chá)- Author/writer
愛国者 (Ừy·quoc·chá)- Patriot

工 (Cunh)
Used occasionally for workers
建設工 (Cừn·xet·cunh)- Construction worker
修理工 (Su·lứ·cunh)- Mechanic

家 (Ga)
政治家 (Chènh·đrì·ga)- Politician
專家 (Chuin·ga)- Specialist/expert
起業家 (Kí·nưp·ga)- Entrepreneur
史家 (Xứ·ga)- Historian

民 (Min)
公民 (Cunh·min)- Citizen
難民 (Nan·min)- Refugee
島民 (Táo·min)- Islander
漁民 (Vu·min)- Fisherman

人 (Nin)
Probably the most common of all of these kinds of suffixes
匈人 (Hưonh·nin)- Hun
忼人 (Kín·nin)- Soldier/warrior
農場人 (Nuonh·đranh·nin)- Farmer
𢞅人 (Rãm·nin)- Lover
外人 (Vày·nin)- Foreigner/outsider

奴 (No)
Very uncommon
啞奴 (÷no)- Idiot
農奴 (Nuonh·no)- Serf

𠊛 (Ởnh)
啞𠊛 (÷ởnh)- Mute person
𡘯𠊛 (Sỏnh·ởnh)- Adult

員 (Quon)
𠰺穌員 (Ba·to·quon)- Teacher
隊員 (Đừy·quon)- Group member
店員 (Tèm·quon)- Shop assistant/salesperson
議員 (Vè·quon)- Congressman

師 (Ri)
Mostly used for people who are considered to have mastered a skill
教師 (Gào·ri)- Professor
技師 (Ghẽ·ri)- Engineer
魔術師 (Mư·giuit·ri)- Magician
恩師 (Ơn·ri)- Mentor

士 (Sí)
Mostly used for people who are considered to have mastered a skill
歌士 (Ca·sí)- Singer
律士 (Luit·sí)- Lawyer
武士 (Mứo·sí)- Samurai
鬥士 (Từ·sí)- Gladiator
畫士 (Vẽ·sí)- Painter

洘 (Sỡt)
Mostly used for artisans
𣘃洘 (Cay·sỡt)- Carpenter
工洘 (Cunh·sỡt)- Worker/laborer
𦁼洘 (Giảich·sỡt)- Tailor
餅洘 (Pénh·sỡt)- Baker
手工洘 (Xú·cunh·sỡt)- Artisan

仉 (Ta)
Very uncommon
𣷷仉 (Ta·ta)- Sailor
夷仉 (Y·ta)- Barbarian

丁 (Tenh)
Very uncommon
園丁 (Hưn·tenh)- Gardner
茹丁 (Sãnh·tenh)- Family

長 (Tránh)
Used for people in charge of something
機長 (Cưy·tránh)- Pilot
隊長 (Đừy·tránh)- Captain/team leader
市長 (Gí·tránh)- Mayor
國長 (Quoc·tránh)- Head of state
店長 (Tèm·tránh)- Manager

手 (Xú)
Fairly uncommon except for the names of sport players and musicians
助手 (Đrừ·xú)- Assistant
琴他手 (Ghì·tá·xú)- Guitarist
𢵰球 (Gop·gu·xú)- Golfer
美亙𩃳手 (Mí·cãy·mờch·xú)- Football player

儿 (Ra)
This word is a remnant of Proto-Chamic syntax, in which adjectives come after the noun they refer to. As a result, 儿 (Ra) is a prefix instead of a suffix and when used as one only appears before a single syllable native Chamic word like the examples below
儿𡼹 (Ra·gay)- Degar/montagnard
儿𣩂 (Ra·mãy)- The dead
儿𡘯 (Ra·sỏnh)- Giant
儿𨓐 (Ra·tữy)- Stranger

女 (Vú)
The majority of agent nouns are the same for both sexes, however some are prefixed or suffixed with 女 (Vú). When suffixed it replaces any previous agent nouns.

王 (Hưnh)- King
女王 (Vú·hưnh)- Queen

魔士 (Mư·sí)- Wizard/warlock/mage/sorcerer
魔女 (Mư·vú)- Witch/sorceress

庯 (Po)- Mister
庯女 (Po·vú)- Missus

仙子 (Sen·tứ)- Fairy (♂)
仙女 (Sen·vú)- Fairy (♀)

貞士 (Trenh·sí)- Virgin (♂)
貞女 (Trenh·vú)- Virgin (♀)

演員 (Yén·quon)- Actor
演女 (Yén·vú)- Actress

神 (Yảnh)- God/deity/spirit
女神 (Vú·gin)- Goddess
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 20 Sep 2018 22:57, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 04 Jun 2018 04:02

Alienable Nouns vs. Inalienable Nouns
Similar to Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Ởnh·Vú makes a vague distinction between alienable nouns and inalienable nouns

Alienable Nouns
The vast majority of nouns are alienable and as a result simply use the preposition 𧶮 (Mờ) to connect the possessor and the possessed. The possessor can be dropped when context is clear. Here are some sample sentences with alienable nouns

伮𧶮𨔈ヌ𢯏
Nu mờ màinh·màinh yõ
3s PREP toy break
His toy is broken (possessed noun as subject of the sentence)

倅抷𢯏伮𧶮𨔈ヌ
Cư pơ yõ nu mờ màinh·màinh
1s.FAM CAUS break 3s PREP toy
I broke his toy (possessor and possessed as object of the sentence)

伮𤴓倅抷𢯏𨔈ヌ
Nu dõc cư pơ yõ màinh·màinh
3s TOP 1s.FAM CAUS break toy
I broke his toy (possessor as topic of the sentence)

Inalienable Nouns
Inalienable nouns fall into 4 groups:
1. Body parts
2. Family members
3. People with a close relationship to someone. Mostly used with the following words: 伴侶 (Bàn·lú: friend), 仉伴 (Ta·Bàn: boyfriend), 𡛔伴 (Bính·Bàn: girlfriend), and 梗朋友 (Gã·Bơnh·Hú: best friend)
4. Places with a close relationship to someone. Mostly used with the following words: 茹 (Sãnh: house/home), 校場 (Ão·Đranh: school), 囻 (Nãr: country), 企業 (Ghé·Nưp: business/company), 公司 (Cunh·Sư: company), 圭鄉 (Sản·Hưnh: hometown), 仚 (Xàm: bedroom)

These nouns are not typically used with 𧶮 and instead require either context or topicalization to connect the possessor and the possessed. If context isn’t clear and the possessor isn’t topicalized, 𧶮 can be used in this case.

(伮𤴓)𢬣𢯏
(Nu dõc) tãnh yõ
(3s TOP) arm break
His arm is broken (possessor as topic and possessed as subject of the sentence)

倅抷𢯏(伮𧶮)𢬣
Cư pơ yõ (nu mờ) tãnh
1s.FAM CAUS break (PREP 3s) arm
I broke his arm (possessor and possessed as object of the sentence)

伮𤴓倅抷𢯏𢬣
Nu dõc cư pơ yõ tãnh
3s TOP 1s.FAM CAUS break arm
I broke his arm (possessor as topic of the sentence)



This alienable/inalienable distinction can be quite important in certain cases such as the example below:
Alienable
伮𧶮穉ヌ展
Nu mờ đã·đã tảo
3s PREP children grow
Her children have grown (as 穉ヌ refers not to one’s own children but to a group of children in general, we can assume she must be a teacher, nurse, etc.)

Inalienable
伮𤴓𦙏ヌ展
Nu dõc đã·đã tảo
3s TOP breast grow
Her breasts have grown

Between these sentences, the only difference in terms of pronunciation is the use of 𧶮 vs. 𤴓, which depends on whether a noun is animate or inanimate. The distinction in usage between these two words is one of the most infamous mistakes made by Ởnh·Vú beginners.
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 13 Jul 2018 23:19, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by eldin raigmore » 05 Jun 2018 13:13

I don’t think that’s how the alienable vs inalienable opposition works IRL mostly.
As far as I know that’s OK though.

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