Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 16 Jul 2018 21:11

Khemehekis wrote:
16 Jul 2018 04:02
Speaking of Rites of Passage, how about a list of age/gender terms for Ởnh·Vú?
Here are those words below [:)]

胎兒 (Tứy·ne)- Fetus
新生 (Sin·rành)- Newborn
卑ヌ (Bé·bé)- Baby
嬰兒 (Enh·ne)- Baby (formal)
幼兒 (Ù·ne)- Toddler
穉 (Đã)- Child/kid
兒童 (Ne·đunh)- Child/kid (formal)
𡛔𡥵 (Bính·ãc)- Girl (also means daughter)
仉𡥵 (Ta·ãc)- Boy (also means son)
少年 (Xờ·nen)- Teenager/adolescent
穉ヌ (Đã·đã)- Youth/children
廿歲飫𧶮𠊛 (Nip xờy ꞗẽ mờ ởnh)- Twentysomething
三十歲飫𧶮𠊛 (Sam·gip xờy ꞗẽ mờ ởnh)- Thirtysomething
𡘯𠊛 (Sỏnh·ởnh)- Adult
成年者 (Genh·nen·chá)- Adult (formal)
𡛔 (In)- Woman
仉奴 (Ta·no)- Man
𦓅 (Tủo)- Old man/male senior (also means grandfather)
𦓅𡛔 (Tủo·in)- Old woman/female senior (also means grandmother)
𦓅ヌ𡛔 (Tủo·tủo·in)- The elderly/senior citizens (also means grandparents)
屍體 (Xi·téy)- Corpse
夫人 (Pưo·nin)- Lady
妸(Gã)/儿妸 (Ra·gã)- Guy/fellow

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 20 Jul 2018 06:47

Birth Order
You can think of these terms as an extension of the kinship terms posted earlier. Similar to other languages in the Sinosphere, it's pretty weird in Ởnh·Vú to address or refer to family members by their names. Instead, kinship terms are applied. A question arises though when you want to talk about a family member when multiple kinship terms are applied to them. When this arises, prefixes are applied to the kinship term to indicate the order of the person's birth. Below are the different prefixes.
哿 (Sa)- Firstborn
次 (Tì)- Second-born
三 (Sam)- Third-born
𦊚 (Pãt)- Fourth-born
...
崴 (Truc)- Lastborn

For those between fourth-born and last born, typically the Sinic form of the number is used. The only exceptions (which would almost never be used) are for numbers that end in four which instead use the native form of the number instead such as 𨑮𦊚 (sủ·pãt) for fourteenth born. This is due to tetraphobia (similar to how it is in Japan and China) caused by the Sinic word four, 四 (sì) having a pronunciation very similar to that for death 死 (sí). Here are samples with different family members:
哿偀 (Sa ay)- Firstborn older sibling
次仉㛪怡 (Tì ta·a·dì)- Second-born younger brother
𦊚㛪怡 (Pãt a·dì)- Fourth-born younger sibling
崴伯𡛔 (Truc ủit·in)- Lastborn aunt (on father's side)
三二𡛔𡥵 (Sam nì·bính·ãc)- Third-born step-daughter

Khemehekis
mayan
mayan
Posts: 2133
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 08:36
Location: California über alles

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Khemehekis » 22 Jul 2018 03:14

All4Ɇn wrote:
16 Jul 2018 21:11
少年 (Xờ·nen)- Teenager/adolescent
[O.O]

This never occurred to me before, but does our Xonen's name come from the Sino-Japanese word for lad/boy/youth?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 57,500 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 24 Jul 2018 07:22

Khemehekis wrote:
22 Jul 2018 03:14
All4Ɇn wrote:
16 Jul 2018 21:11
少年 (Xờ·nen)- Teenager/adolescent
[O.O]

This never occurred to me before, but does our Xonen's name come from the Sino-Japanese word for lad/boy/youth?
It very well might! Maybe they'll see your message and we'll know for sure [:)]

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 31 Jul 2018 05:53

Vocative Particle 唉 (Si)
This particle is almost unused in everyday speech but is very common in speeches, poetry, law, prayers, and literature where they are commonly used in set phrases. In everyday speech it's far less likely to be encountered as it usually sounds patronizing. The patronizing can be seen in the phrases 唉㛪怡 (si a·dì) and 唉偀 (si ay) which are both used to rudely call out to a woman. Because of this, it’s far more common to use job titles and kinship terms based on the age of the person in question instead of the vocative. Some common expressions which use the vocative are the following:

唉陛下 (Si béy·á)- Your Highness/your Majesty/sire
唉朋友 (Si bơnh·hú)- Friends
唉父 (Si bứo)- Father (catholicism)
唉佛 (Si but)- Buddha
唉主 (Si chó)- God
唉主席 (Si chó·rec)- Honorable Mr(s). Chairman
唉公民 (Si cunh·min)- Fellow citizens
唉同胞 (Si đunh·bào)- Fellow countrymen/fellow compatriots/brethren
唉同志 (Si đunh·chừ)- Comrades
唉同業 (Si đunh·nưp)- Fellow colleagues
唉全世界𧶮無產者 (Si giuin·xè·ghèy mờ mưo·rén·chá)- Workers of the world
唉閣下 (Si nừy·á)- Your Excellency
唉𠊛ヌ (Si ởnh·ởnh)- Everyone
唉庯唄庯女 (Si po nanh po·vú)- Ladies and gentlemen
唉𠏥 (Si pão)- Sir (very formal)/your Honor/master/sire/my Lord
唉總統 (Si túnh·tũonh)- Mr(s). President
唉議長 (Si vè·tránh)- Mr(s). Chairman or Mr(s). Speaker
唉聖母 (Si xènh·mứ)- Hail Mary
唉首相 (Si xù·sừnh)- Mr(s). Prime Minister

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 03 Aug 2018 13:40

Cham vs. Ởnh·Vú
Considering how many changes Ởnh·Vú has undergone from proto-Chamic, I figured it'd be a good idea to compare it to another Chamic language. Below are samples from Cham alongside romanized Ởnh·Vú. Cognates are color-coded while Ởnh·Vú words from Chinese are colored gold.

My family has ten members
Kruusaa roboh lɨn hou samaceh haploh rang
family POSS 1s have member one-ten CL

Hũnh mờ sãnh·tenh a sủ nin genh·quon
1s POSS house-people have ten CL member


This car, I wash
Laan ni kaw rang raw
car DEM 1s CL wash

Ni chéy dõc, ro
DEM car TOP 1s wash



Did you hear the dog bark?
Həɨ mata mɨt saw kroh raj?
2s have hear dog bark Q

Hanh hớ so yớ?
2s hear dog bark Q



Who gave him that banana?
Hay rang praj pataj nɨn naaw kɨt?
who CL give banana DEM go 3s

đĩ ba·chí lảt cơ nu?
who give DEM bananaí go PREP 3s



Two green apples
Poh pɔɔm poa caaw toa poh
CL apple color green two CL

Đư gio mờ ã·
two CL green PREP summer-fruit



The man I saw yesterday works at the post office
Lakaj kɔng lɨn boh maproj ɲaʔ pruʔ tɔɔʔ presni
man REL 1s see yesterday do work PREP post.office

Hũnh tũ·rí mờ ta·no vữ đi hu·gưoc
1s see yesterday PREP man work PREP post.office
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 10 Aug 2018 22:37, edited 10 times in total.

User avatar
k1234567890y
runic
runic
Posts: 2965
Joined: 04 Jan 2014 04:47
Contact:

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by k1234567890y » 03 Aug 2018 13:43

wow

that's really a big change.

I hope I can be as persistent as you in making threads of conlangs, btw.
私のアツい人工言語活動!言カツ!始まります!!

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 03 Aug 2018 13:50

k1234567890y wrote:
03 Aug 2018 13:43
wow

that's really a big change.

I hope I can be as persistent as you in making threads of conlangs, btw.
Thanks so much! Really appreciate it [:)]. I myself didn’t realize how big the changes were until I started to compare the languages. Some dialects of Cham seem to be more similar to it than others.

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Aug 2018 03:06

Pronunciation of /ʂ~s/ and /ʐ~z/
In my first post in this thread, I mentioned that the phonemes written with <s r> are pronounced as /ʂ~s/ and /ʐ~z/, but I never went into specifics as to when to pronounce them in these ways. I've finally gotten around to figuring out (for the most part) all the complications of these 2 phonemes. The pronunciation of these sounds is the biggest difference between the typical phonology between men and women. Generally the pronunciations [ʂ ʐ] are associated with men while the pronunciations [s̪ z̪] are associated with women. Because of this, in media these pronunciations may occasionally be used in places outside of their normal distribution to stress the femininity/masculinity of the speaker. The different pronunciations below are the ones that would typically occur in spoken language and are sorted by the medial vowel following the sound.

/i/
M: [s͇ z͇]
F: [s̪ʲ~s̪ z̪]

/e ɨ ə/
M: [s͇ z͇]
F: [s̪~s͇ z̪~z͇]

/a u/
M: [s͇~ʂ z͇~ʐ]
F: [s͇ z͇]

/o/
M: [s͇~ʂ z͇~ʐ]
F: [s̪~s͇ z̪~z͇]

/u̯o/
M: [s͇ z͇~ʐ]
F: [s̪~s͇ z̪~z͇]

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 16 Aug 2018 23:10

This will probably be my last post for awhile as I'm heading back to college soon. Just a small grammar note that's popped up [:)]
兼 (Kem)
兼 is a Chinese borrowed term and works as both a verbal prefix and a noun connecting particle, but only in a very specific circumstance. It is used to connect 2 or more jobs, identities, or positions that the one person does concurrently. It appears in the following 2 constructions:
Noun + 兼 (Kem) + Noun
兼 (Kem) + Verb + Noun + 唄 (Nanh) + Noun

Sample sentences:
倅罖學生兼𤐛家於茹丁𧶮菛店
Cư nãnh ớc·rành kem tả·ga đi sãnh·tenh mờ yàm·tèm
1s be student PART cook PREP family PREP restaurant
I’m both a student and a cook at my family’s restaurant

𥪝英國政府、Churchill兼擔當首相唄國防大臣
Đrãm ừnh·quoc·chènh·pứo, Churchill kem tam·tanh xù·sừnh nanh quoc·bừnh·đày·gin
prep England-government Churchill PFX serve prime.minister PART nation-defense-minister
In the British government, Churchill served concurrently as prime minister and minister of defence


In addition to this, 兼 is also the Ởnh·Vú word for cream, serving as a phonetic approximation of French crème. This usage occurs in compounds as well such as 牙兼 (va·kem) meaning toothpaste

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 03 Sep 2018 21:24

起 (Kí)- Start/Begin/About To
This is another very common Sinic word used in Ởnh·Vú. When used on its own it appears before a verb, and gives it the meaning of either starting/beginning to do something or being about to do something. Two cases where this verb is very important are when occurring before the verbs 𣩂 (Mãy) and 戈 (Tãy), both of which mean to die. I cannot think of any other instances of this (although I'm sure there are some), but both of these verbs refer to a instantaneous action, unlike in English where they can be progressive. For instance one can say "I'm dying" in English, whereas in Ởnh·Vú this sentence wouldn't be possible. This is further complicated by Ởnh·Vú's lack of tenses. As a result, the closest direct translation from "I'm dying" which is "倅𣩂 (cư mãy)", in fact is probably closer to meaning "I'm dead" or "I've died". In order to say someone is dying, one has to say someone is about to die i.e: 起𣩂 (kí mãy) or (起戈 kí tãy).

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 10 Sep 2018 06:11

Verbal Complements
Roughly 7 different verbs can occur adverbially to show the direction that the verb takes. They are always placed after the object they refer to.
步 (Lảt)- Go/walk
Used to show movement away from a certain location
倅芒哥包步
Cư bà ca·ꞗì lảt

1s carry bag go
I took the bag away

吏 (Mãy)- Come
Used to show movement towards a certain location
倅芒哥包吏
Cư bà ca·ꞗì mãy

1s carry bag come
I brought the bag over (here)

𠓨 (Tã)- No longer used as a verb on its own
Used to show movement into a certain location
倅哥趂於𣷮㘭𠓨
Cư ca·do đi lưy·sã tã

1s jump PREP pool enter
I jumped into the pool

𦋦 (Xẻ)- Take out/get out
Used to show movement out of a certain location
倅哥趂外𣷮㘭𦋦
Cư ca·do nio lưy·sã xẻ

1s jump PREP pool take.out
I jumped out of the pool

𨑜 (Gỡ)- Fall
Used to show movement down to a certain location
倅步𤲂岱𨑜
Cư lảt ã chơt gỡ

1s go PREP hill fall
I walked down the hill

𨖲 (Đì)- Climb
Used to show movement up to a certain location
倅步𨕭岱𨖲
Cư lảt ả chơt đì

1s walk PREP hill climb
I walked up the hill

𡗅 (Gac)- Return
Used to show movement back to a certain location
倅步茹𡗅
Cư lảt sãnh gac

1s go home return
I walked back home
Last edited by All4Ɇn on 11 Sep 2018 06:17, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4493
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 18:32

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » 10 Sep 2018 22:04

Nice [:)] So Onhvu is a verb framing language? Also, could you remind us how these verbs are used in serial verb constructions? Do they always appear last in such a chain?
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Sep 2018 04:54

Creyeditor wrote:
10 Sep 2018 22:04
Nice [:)] So Onhvu is a verb framing language?

Definitely. Although it does still have a fair share of prepositions.
Creyeditor wrote:
10 Sep 2018 22:04
Also, could you remind us how these verbs are used in serial verb constructions? Do they always appear last in such a chain?
Thanks for bringing this up. You've put me in a bit of conundrum as I'm not sure how languages with this sort of grammar would handle it. I'd assume that in Ởnh·Vú which I'm starting to think about anglicizing as Ongwu) they'd simply appear at the end of the chain and whether it applied to the first verb or the second would have to be determined based on context, however I'm not too sure if that would be the case. If anyone can provide me how any other East Asian languages with similar grammar would handle this I'd love to hear it!

User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4493
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 18:32

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » 14 Sep 2018 22:18

I know you asked for an East Asian language, but here's a South East Asian one. Sorry for the very long post. I guess I just don't fully understand how it works.
Indonesian (or at least Papuan Malay), which is kind of verb framing, has some serial verb contructions. I feel like the general order is a bit different though. Here are some examples. Indonesian is AFAIK verb framing for some motions (like masuk enter) and satelite framing for others (ke luar to (the) outside). I will use verb framing examples.

Papuan Malay
Sa bawa masuk tas.
1SG bring enter bag
I brought the bag inside

Sa lompat masuk laut.
1SG jump enter sea
I jumped into the sea.

From these examples you can see that there is no difference in verb ordering depending on the argument that undergoes movement. In the first example it is the object, in the second example it is the subject that undergoes the motion. Interestingly though, there is a difference in alternative orderings. It is possible to inverse the verb ordering in the first example, yielding an alternative interpretation where the subject undergoes movement. The second example on the other hand cannot be reordered.

Sa masuk bawa tas.
1SG enter bring bag
I entered carrying a bag.

*Sa masuk lompat laut.
1SG enter jump sea
I jumped into the sea.

For some verb combinations Papuan Malay has uninterrupted verbal complexes like pukul mati beat die beat to death. This sentence can be combined with the verb masuk enter. It can also take a location as its argument.

De masuk pukul mati orang.
3SG enter beat die human
He entered (somewhere) beating someone to death.

De masuk rumah pukul mati orang.
3SG enter house beat die human
He entered the house beating someone to death.

IINM, the order cannot be reversed here, so the directional verb always is the first one. This is then similar in a way to your idea, where the verb is always the last one. On the other hand, if we modify our first sentence with the verb lari run, the verb masuk enter stays in its position. The order of lari and masuk is variable however, if they are adjacent.

Sa lari bawa masuk tas.
1SG run bring enter bag
I brought the bag inside running.

Sa masuk lari bawa tas.
1SG enter run bring bag
I entered running, carrying a bag.

Sa lari masuk bawa tas.
1SG run enter bring bag
I ran into somewhere, carrying a bag.

I am not a native speaker of Papuan Malay though and I might be missing some important differences somewhere.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 15 Sep 2018 09:02

Creyeditor wrote:
14 Sep 2018 22:18
I am not a native speaker of Papuan Malay though and I might be missing some important differences somewhere.
Wow! This was definitely a great post! If you don't mind me asking, how did you come to learn the Papuan Malay versus standard?

Given the order of serial verbs of the intransitive-transitive type, it's clear that in Ởnh·Vú the verbal complement would come after both verbs and their object:
伮阿𢱏𣩂𠊛𠓨。
Nu a·tõnh mãy ởnh tã.
3s beat die human enter
He entered (somewhere) beating someone to death.


As for the other cases, Ởnh·Vú wouldn't use serial verbs but rather verbs followed by conjunctions:
倅𧼋、仍芒哥包𠓨。
Cư đưc, sơnh bà ca·ꞗì tã.
1s.FAM run and carry bag enter
I brought the bag inside running.

倅芒哥包𠓨、間於𧼋。
Cư bà ca·ꞗì tã, ghen·đi đưc.
1s.FAM carry bag enter while run
I brought the bag inside running.

User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4493
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 18:32

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » 15 Sep 2018 16:20

Nice, I like how this gives the directional verbs a kind of sentence-final-particle-like kind of touch.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 17 Sep 2018 01:44

同訓異字 (Đunh·Hùn·Ỳ·Đừ)- Doukuniji
This term refers to characters which are pronounced the same and have the same etymology, but are written with two different hanzi. There are a variety of reasons why this may occur. Some of the more common ones being that Vietnamese made a distinction between the words, the words were perceived as having different etymologies, or that one character was chosen for aesthetic reasons. Below are all of the ones (aside from those for Bõ discussed earlier) that I’ve been able to find so far of this occurrence. I know for a fact there are more and hopefully I’ll be able to update this post with more of them as I find them. [:)]

Ả: 𨕭 vs 𨑗
The spelling 𨕭 is used as a preposition and means roughly “on/above” whereas the spelling 𨑗 occurs as a noun/adjective/adverb and means “up/upper/above/etc”. The reason for this word’s having 2 hanzi is due to the preposition for “under/below”, 𤲂 (ã), being different from the word for “down/lower/below/etc” which is 𨑜 (gũ). Additionally, by spelling the non-prepositions for these words as 𨑗 & 𨑜, an easy dichotomy between the terms can be observed just from looking at them.

Cá: 果 vs. 棵
果 is the most common spelling of this word and has the general meaning of “fruit”. 棵 is only used as a counter for plants. Its hanzi was chosen as both Mandarin and Vietnamese (only in Chữ Nôm) make the same distinction between these two characters.

Cà: 丐 vs. 个 vs. 個
丐 is the most common spelling of this word and is used as a counter alongside native numerals. By contrast, 个 is used as a counter alongside Sinic numerals and 個 is used practically only in word for "individual", 個人 (cà·nin) and its derivatives. The reason for this distinction is due to Vietnamese having a distinction between 丐 and 個. The simplified 个 became used in counters due to its simplicity while 個 remain used in 個人 due to it not taking too long to write in the compound, 个人 looking a bit odd in context, and later on due to a perceived difference in etymology.

Cã: 𩷛 vs. 犀
𩷛 is the usual spelling for this term and is the Ởnh·Vú word for “scale”. The hanzi 犀 (which is also the hanzi for rhinoceros) is only used with this pronunciation in the word for “pangolin”, 犀獸 (cã·đrí) due to the fact that the Vietnamese term for pangolin is written with this hanzi.

Chãy: 𦵙 vs. 𥑂
When written 𦵙, this word means either “sap/resin” or “plastic”. When written 𥑂, it instead has the meaning of “pitch/tar”. The reason for the split in hanzi is due to Vietnamese making a distinction between them.

Cuich: 𤿦 vs. 𦡮
𤿦 is the most commonly used hanzi for this term. It means “skin/hide/leather” and is used in the vast majority of compounds. The hanzi 𦡮 only occurs in the term for “lung”: 𦡮𥐈 (cuich·só). This hanzi was chosen as it was presumed to have a different etymology than the word for skin.

Dõc: 𣗓 vs. 𤴓
𣗓 is the word for “still/yet” whereas 𤴓 is the topic marker. These two terms were perceived as having a different etymology and so were written with two different characters.

Gữ: 𤎜 vs. 畑
𤎜 is the word for “morning” and is the most common spelling of the term in compounds. 畑 occurs in the Ởnh·Vú word for “light”: 畑光 (gữ·canh). Originally the word for light was simply gữ and was written with 畑 to distinguish it from 𤎜. 光 was added later on in the language’s development to further distinguish the two in speaking.

Hãnh: 炭 vs. 碳
炭 is the spelling of the word for “charcoal”, whereas 碳 is the spelling of the word for “carbon”. This difference in hanzi is due to Mandarin having the same distinction.

Hãnh: 邊 vs. 坡
邊 is by far the most common spelling of this term and means “riverbank”. 坡 only occurs in the expressions 𨕭坡 (ả hãnh), meaning “ashore”, and 𨖲坡 (đì hãnh), meaning “stranded/beached”. Originally hãnh, when written as 邊, had the meaning of edge whereas 坡 was used for the meaning of shore. Over time the spelling 邊 became more and more common. Eventually the Sinic pronunciation of 邊, pen, became used for the meaning of edge, while the pronunciation hãnh became used to mean almost exclusively riverbank. 坡 became used for the two terms it is, as both of these terms can refer to other shores/banks aside from those of rivers.

Pun: 丿vs. 分
The hanzi 丿 is used exclusively for the word for “minute” and its derivatives, while 分 occurs in all other words. Minute came to be written as 丿due to the term being written with the character in Chữ Nôm, in addition to the character being extremely easy to write.

Sả: 𠅎 vs.除
When spelled as 𠅎 this term means “to lose”, whereas the spelling 除 is used for the term “except”. The use of two different hanzi is due to Vietnamese having 2 different words for these terms.

Sữm: 摀 vs. 𠑋
摀 is the word for “umbrella” and is overwhelmingly the most common spelling of this term. The hanzi 𠑋 only occurs in the term 神𠑋 (yảnh·sữm) which is the Ởnh·Vú word for “lọng dù”, which is a kind of Vietnamese umbrella with a long stem used in certain royal/religious ceremonies. The difference in hanzi is due to Vietnamese maintaining a difference between these two terms.

Tã: 𠓨 vs. 𨤔
As discussed in the posts above, 𠓨 is a verbal complement meaning “enter”. 𨤔 on the other hand means “to look like”. The use of different hanzi is due to the terms being perceived as having different etymologies.

Tãc: 招 vs. 尞
招 is the generic Ởnh·Vú word for "to hang/hoist/raise/put up/fly" but also means to hang a criminal. 尞 has the same meaning of "to hang/hoist/raise/put up/fly" but only refers to flags. The reason for this distinction is due to Vietnamese having this distinction in Chữ Nôm, despite not having this distinction in pronunciation.

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 27 Sep 2018 04:38

Verbs Meaning "Wear"
Ởnh·Vú has 5 different verbs that can be translated as "wear". What verb is used depends on what kind of item is worn

芒 (Bà)
In addition to being the main Ởnh·Vú word for "to carry", it's also the main verb for "to wear" and is used for anything that wouldn't fall into the categories below. In general, it refers to items worn below the waist or over the full body
Items that are used with this verb: pants, underwear, shorts, shoes, socks, dresses, skirts, suits, uniforms, swimwear

粧面 (Chanh·Mèn)
This word is the Ởnh·Vú noun for "makeup" but is also used as a verb to mean "to wear makeup".
Items that are used with this verb: makeup, lipstick, rouge, eyeliner

紩 (Chap)
This verb's main meaning is "to tie/fasten" and is used for a few items that relate back to this meaning.
Items that are used with this verb: belts, neckties, scarves, necklaces, watches

㧅 (Đư)
This verb has the main meaning of "to carry on the head" and as a result means "to wear" when talking about items that can be worn on the head.
Items that are used with this verb: hats, hoods, glasses, contacts, turbins, hijabs, earrings

𦠰 (Gãom)
This verb's main meaning is "to carry on the shoulders" and by extension can be used for a variety of items that are supported on the shoulders.
Items that are used with this verb: shirts, t-shirts, aprons, bags, purses, shoulder pads, bras, bikini tops, waistcoats, jackets, overcoats

User avatar
All4Ɇn
mayan
mayan
Posts: 1789
Joined: 01 Mar 2014 07:19

Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » 11 Oct 2018 22:57

Just realized something amazing that has led the perfect phono-semantic matching. Ởnh·Vú has the word 陪 (bõy), a French borrowing meaning servant, and the word 㺏 (cão), which is the native word for buffalo. Because of this I think it's obvious that the Ởnh·Vú word for cowboy has to be 㺏陪 (cão·bõy) or "buffalo servant" [xD] .

Post Reply