Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
Hitsuono
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 5
Joined: 23 Jul 2017 21:47

Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Hitsuono » 25 Jul 2017 04:25

Brufosian
Lec Brefht
I've worked on this conlang for about 6 months and I think I got some interesting grammatical features, mainly involving new morphological classes, verbs' structure and use of stresses. My "results"- so to say - are as follows. I'll try to show all my results. If I was too extensive, please say so.

Phonology and Orthography
I'm not very good at phonology, so, if you find anything weird or wrong, please tell me. However, here is a simple table showing all sounds an their correct representations in brufosian:
Image

"Adjections"
Brufosian has no inflection within the noun/pronoun. Here, it is used another word to mark the grammatical aspects of the noun/pronoun. These words are called “adjections”. After the adjection, comes the noun/pronoun in a “pure and more abstract form”, with its meaning depending on the adjection used.
Adjections mark the gender, case, definiteness and number of the word (which we shall talk only about in the "Use of Stress" section). Because of this, adjections are structured in 3 main basic parts: the first indicating the case, the second indicating definiteness and the last marking gender. The following table show in details this strucutre.
Image

Some remarks are necessary. First, what I called "temporal" case is a very general case that substitutes words and expressions like "when, at the time". The following example may be useful:

Goc ane
Go-c ane
TEMP-N day
In that day

Still about cases, there's a distinction between two kinds of genitive: one where anything owns another, and one where anything is own by another.
It is also important to make clear the concepts of "unspecified" and "undetermined". "Undetermined" would be used when, translating to english, you'd use no article. "Unspecified" would be used when you do not want so specify some characteristic.

Examples:
Len ane
NOM day
Day

Lec Brefht
Le-c Brefht
NOM-N Brufosian
Brufosian

If some noun/pronoun or adjection already have been used, it is possible to unite them in an unique word (albeit to do so correctly it is necessary to understand how stresses work). It is also important to note that some cases may be united with the vocative. In this case, the vocative particle always comes first.

Basic verbs' structure
Sentences structure
All sentences follow the SVO structure. In the nominative case, all adjections come before the noun/pronoun, and- if there is some- the adjective comes after the noun. The object always comes united- i.e., in the same word- to the verb (this, as we may see, has a important pratical role). If there is an object, the verb is followed by its adjection (always as a diferent word), in the proper case. If there is an adjective describing the object, it comes immediatly after the adjective. Prepositions and exclamation words always come at the end of the sentence.
As well, what has been described applies only to the active voice.
(NOTE: even if the verb is a copula, the connected word comes together with it, followed by the proper adjective).

Example:
Lem im tinôtzon dec
Le-m im t-i-nôt-zon de-c
SG-MASC 1P AGR-IND-do-PRS-this ACC-N
I do this

If there is more than one object, the option of which shall come together with the verb is purely arbitrary- and all choices are grammatically acceptable.

Example:
Lem im tinôtzon dec j dec son
Le-m im t-i-nôt-zon de-c j de-c son
SG-MASC 1P AGR-IND-do-PRS-this ACC-N and ACC-N that
I do this and that

As well, the same rule follows if there are different objects with different cases, but still refering to the same verb.

Example:
Lem im tinôtzon dec vec son ul
Le-m im t-i-nôt-zon de-c ve-c son ul
SG-MASC 1P AGR-IND-do-PRS-this ACC-N DAT-N that for
I do this for that

As well, the following order would also be correct:

Lem im tinôtson vec dec zon ul
Le-m im t-i-nôt-son ve-c de-c zon ul
SG-MASC 1P AGR-IND-do-PRS-that DAT-N ACC-N this for
I do this for that

Fundamental Structure
The verbs, as do the adjectives, follow a rigorous structure, based in a "Fundamental Structure" made up in three parts- one not always used. In the first part, it is indicated either it is an affirmation, a negation or a mere desire, even hope. In the second one, the verb mood is marked. As we'll soon see, maybe the third and last part is the most interesting. Because of its special aspect, we'll only talk about this one in the section "Multiple Tenses".
The first and second part are marked as follows:
Image

After this basic structure, comes the verb by itself (see the examples). Note that, if the "verb by itself" starts with a vowel and the fundamental structure also does so, they're divided by a "m" (note that, if the verb by itself already starts with an "m-", then the fundamental strucutre is divided from it with an " ' "). We'll talk on how to mark tenses in the section about use of stresses in the verbs.

Examples:
Timíle
T-i-m-íle
AGR-IND-INF-m-to love
To love

Simíle
S-i-m-íle
NEG-IND-INF-m-to love
To do not love/ to hate

Ksimíle
Ks-i-m-íle
DESIRE-IND-INF-m-to love
To hope to love


It is also good to say that many verbs express their "opposites" using the negative form.

Example:
Timúhen
T-i-m-úhen
AGR-IND-m-to unite
To unite

Simúhen
S-i-m-úhen
NEG-IND-m-to unite
To separate

No verb has a personal inflection. It is, as a final remark, important to say that verbs also have a "dynamical form". It is marked with a "-hun" after the "verb by itself". The following example mau be helpful:
Len im tímeh
Len im t-í-m-eh
NOM 1P AGR-IND-m-to be
I am

Len im timêh'hun
Len im t-i-m-êh-'hun
NOM 1P AGR-IND-m-to be-DYNAMIC
I am being

Multiple Tenses
The third part of the verbs' fundamental structure is not always used, but, when it does, it completely changes the verb meaning. We may consider it as a "response" to the first part. Considering examples may help us.

Tímih
T-í-m-ih
AGR-IND-INF-m-to think
To think

Tíemih
T-íe-m-ih
AGR-IND-NEG-IND-INF-m-to think
To think and then stop doing so

There's only one- but still relevant- difference between both examples: an "e" at the end of the fundamental structure. This marks the third part. As said, it works as a "response" to the first one. In the example, the "e" marked that what was once agreement turns into a negation: "to think" turned into "to do not think". Now, we may have the following complete table for the fundamental structure of the verbs:
Image

In the table, the third part mood is aligned with which verbal mood of the second structure ("e", for example, marks indicative; "a" subjunctive). Before the parenthesis there is the particle indicating agreement; in the first part of the parenthesis, negation; in the third a desire; in the fourth the negation of a desire.

Example:
Ksisánot
Ks-i--not
DESIRE-IND-DESIRE-NEG-INF-to do
To desire to do something and then stop desiring so

As well, all preceding examples use the infinitive. However, you may use future, present or any other tense (we'll show them when we talk about stresses and the verb). In fact, it may even be the case when the first part indicates a tense and the third another. This following example is useful:

Len im tienotêmgon
Le-n im t-i-e-not-êm-gon
SG-M 1 AGR-IND-NEG-IND-to do-PST(1part)-PRS(3part)-something
I was doing something, but now I'm stopping

However, a full understanding of this "multiple tense" structure shall be only understandable in the next section.

Use of stresses
Stresses are really important in brufosian and must be used carefully. In the next few subsections, we shall explain a bit more the role they have in each morphological class.
Verbs
In verbs, stresses are mostly used to mark tenses. In brufosian, there are the following tenses:
Present; future; perfect preterite; imperfect preterite.
The present happens when the verb is paroxytone, and so does the infinitive;
The future happens when the verb is proparoxytone;
The perfect preterite happens when the verb is oxytone;
The imperfect preterite happens when the verb is oxytone an there is a "un-" at the beggining of the word.

Examples:
Tímeh
T-í-m-eh
AGR-IND-PRS-m-to be
Is/are/am

Timêh
T-i-m-êh
AGR-IND-m-to be-PST
Was/were

Kêtimeh
-t-i-m-eh
FUT-AGR-IND-m-to be
Will be

(NOTE: The "Ke" part shall be explained in the subsection "Amendment Syllables", as will be the diacritics)

When the 1 part's and the 3 part's tenses are different, the stress is used as in the 3 part's tense, and the 1 part one is marked with a suffix after the "verb by itself"- as we're calling it.
So, if the 1 part's is in the future, we add "-am";
If it is in the present, we add "-om";
If it is in the preterite (any of them), we add "-em".

Examples:

Tiemêhem
T-i-e-m-êh-em
AGR-IND-NEG-IND-m-to be-PRS(3part)-PST(1part)
It was, but isn't anymore

Lem em tiemile'êmem des
Le-m em t-i-e-m-ile-'êm-am de-s
SG-NOM-MASC 3P AGR-IND-NEG-IND-m-to love-PST(1part)-PRS(3part)-3P SG-ACC-FEM
He loved her, but not anymore

Lem em tienôtomzon dec vem am ul
Le-m em t-i-e-nôt-om-zon de-c ve-m am ul
SG-NOM-MASC 3P AGR-IND-NEG-IND-to do-FUT(3part)-PRS(1part)-this SG-ACC-N SG-DAT-MASC 2P for
He does it for you, but futurely will stop

Adjections, nouns and pronouns
In adjections, stresses are used to mark number. So, if an adjection marks singular, it'll be oxytone; if it marks plural, it is paroxytone. To see how to construct paroxytone adjections, please see the "Amendment Syllables" subsection. Because adjections already mark the number, there are no specific rules to stresses in nouns and pronouns.

Examples:
Hêgec ane
-ge-c ane
PL-TEMPORAL-N day
In those days

Têlem am
-le-m am
PL-NOM-MASC 2P
You (plur.)

As well, the same rule is applied when adjection and noun/pronoun are united.

Gecáne
TEMPORAL-N-PL-day
In those days

Gecanê
TEMPORAL-N-day-SNG
In that day

Adjectives
Stresses also are very important when talking about adjectives. In fact, if the adjective's stress is oxytone, therefore the adjective is in the comparative form; if it is paroxytone, we're using the positive form; if it is proparoxytone, we're using the superlative form. The following examples involving the base "lui" (beautiful) may be helpful.

Nílui
-lui
Beautiful

Lui
More beautiful

Lúnilui
-ni-lui
The most beautiful

(If you want to understand better how we got "nílui" or "lúnilui" from "lui", please read the "Amendment Syllables" subsection.
Adverbs
Adverbs are marked with an "-os" at the end of an adjective. As well, adverbs follow the same rules of stress we described on the previous subjection. The following examples shall be helpful:

Vôluios
-lui-os
In a beautiful way

Luios
In a more beautiful way

Nívoluios
-vo-liu-os
In the most beautiful way

In the next subsection I hope it'll be clear how we got "núvoluios" and "vôluios" from "luios".

Amendment Syllables
Sometimes, words in brufosian don't have sufficiently many syllables to be paroxytone or even proparoxytone. I.e., we do not have the necessary syllables to use the stresses in the way we want. When this happens, we add a (or some) new syllables to the beggining of the word. These syllables are called "Amendment syllables", and are really useful.
Amendment syllables' structure is simple. They always start with a consonant, followed by a vowel. If it is the first amendment syllable, then the vowel is the same as the last one; if it is the second, it'd be the penultimate (if it doesn't exist, use the first vowel); if it is the third (a rare thing), it'd be the antepenultimate (if it doesn't exist, use the first vowel).
About the consonant, the consonant used in the amendment is the "opposite" of the last one. In brufosian, all consonants have an opposite one, which is used in the amendment syllable.
As well, if it is the second amendment, use the opposite of the penultimate consonant (if it doesn't exist, use the opposite of the first one); if it is the third (rare), then it'd be the antepenultimate (if it doesn't exist, use the opposite of the first one).

The following table specifies each opposite of each consonant (please note that if, for example, B is the opposite of P, therefore P is the opposite of B)
Image

Examples:
Lui (more beautiful)----> Nílui (beautiful), because "N" is the opposite of "L" and "i" is the last vowel of "lui";

Tímeh (is/are/am)---> Kêtimeh (will be), because "K" is the opposite of "h" and "e" is the last vowel of "tímeh";

Vhem im ul (For myself [masc.])---> Têvhem im ul (For ourselves [masc.]), because "T" is the opposite of "m" and "e" is the last (and unique) vowel of "vhem".


Diacritics
Diacritics are used to mark where the stress is in a word- like it works in portuguese, for example. They aren't, however, obligatory, and are used when it is not always clear where the stress should be. This is the reason why they're much used in verbs, adjectives and adverbs (which really need to be clear when talking about stresses), but no in nouns or pronouns (where they aren't really necessary)- expect when they're united with the adjection. In adjections, they're only used when it is a paroxytone.

Other interesting points
Pronouns
Brufosian has the following pronouns:
Im= First person
Am= Second person
Em= Exclusive third person
Om= Non-exclusive third person
Um= Undefinite (nor exclusive or non-exclusive) third person

On non-personal pronouns, the following table (based on the one made by "The Language Construction Kit"):
Image

It is also important to note that, in brufosian, there is no word "it". Instead, it is used some form of "that" (zun, zeit, zon, etc.). Also talking about non-personan pronouns, it's good to say that they come after adjections only if they're subject or object (or if they are being connected by a copula) of some action.
Numerals
Brufosian numerals are as follow:
0=ne
1=ha
2=un
3=re
4=aka
5=tin
6=sem
7=hef
8=hosh
9=tínli

Most other numbers are formed from an union between these. In all "unions", the fewer number comes first. So, it's always "hatin", never "tinha". To denote, however, which digit comes first when writing it (like 25,52,64,71...), it is used a stress. Example:

tin=15

Hatín=51

The negative symbol is marke with a "z-" in the beggining of the word.

Examples:
Hêfhosh=71
Zhêfhosh=-71
Hefhôsh=17
Zhefhôsh=-17

For integers bigger than 99 and less than -99, however, another system works, this one being more usual.

Genders
Masculine and feminine are used only when we're talking about singular human beings and their natural genders are known, or if we're talking about a group of humans of only one gender and this gender is known. In all other cases, it is used the neuter or the unspecified form.
Pronounciation and Vulgar Form
Besides being written separately, singular adjections and nouns/pronouns are pronounced as the same thing (expect if the noun/pronoun is united with the verb), being always paroxytone.

Example:
Lem im---> Spelled like if it was "lêmim"

In fact, brufosian has even a vulgar, colloquial, form. In this form, things are written just like they're spelled. The vulgar form, however, also uses diacritics to make clear the stresses.
Some translations
Here are two translations I've done to give you some idea of the style of brufosian. If you want to me explain the translation, please say so.
Ode to joy

Ode to Joy
Joy, beautiful spark of the gods,
Daughter from Elysium,
We enter, drunk with fire,
Heavenly One, thy sanctuary!
Your magic joins again
What convention strictly divides;
All people become brothers,
Where your gentle wing abides.

Turns into:

Lec Irun vec Shun ul
Nec shun, nílui çec azih fon hícuiuh,
Nçec imu fec Elision,
Hêlec om timêlan, úlom tchec fus,
Nêcus Iho, fen am çekiksú!
Çecuisá timúhen aik
Doc non loc mote simúhen krítuos,
Lec poa lun timúsxosh hêdec,
Nais çecãm fecvás núshul tímaot.

Here's an audio on it: https://vocaroo.com/i/s0tMA0DPJbmS.

WW2 Propaganda
Image
Image
(sorry for bad photoshoping skills [:S])
Final Remarks
Please, tell me if you liked some aspects of my language. If you have observations, please tell me- they're important for a begginer. As alyways, if you think some aspect was unclear, please request me to explain it.
I've been also working in a own script- designed specially for the language-, so, if you want, I may show it when it becomes ended.
Last edited by Hitsuono on 10 Nov 2018 23:57, edited 4 times in total.
:bra:/ :por: [:D]| :gbr: [:)]| :esp: [:)] | :deu: [:(]| :con: [:D]

User avatar
Lao Kou
korean
korean
Posts: 5661
Joined: 25 Nov 2012 10:39
Location: 蘇州/苏州

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Lao Kou » 28 Jul 2017 14:13

It looks like a lot of amazing work has gone into this! And I do hope you keep us up to date. One wonders if, by using the non-personal pronoun table (which you yourself say was inspired by the "Language Construction Kit"), you were seduced by the sirens' song of the Esperanto "Table of Correlatives". Unless you're going for an international auxlang (and I don't get that vibe from what you've thus far described), you could afford to shake up these grammatical pick-up-sticks into something less uniform, and no one would fault you. [:)]

Too, love the graphics at the end (and from a Géarthçins perspective, a 7x7 table is a joy forever).
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名

User avatar
lsd
roman
roman
Posts: 920
Joined: 11 Mar 2011 21:11
Contact:

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by lsd » 28 Jul 2017 18:11

give some background is always interesting, thank you for this poster...
to eye and ear it reminds me of a mix of Vietnamese and Dutch...

User avatar
Thrice Xandvii
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3722
Joined: 25 Nov 2012 10:13
Location: Carnassus

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Thrice Xandvii » 28 Jul 2017 22:33

I see <fh> used a bunch, but I can't seem to find where that romanization is given a phonemic meaning...
Image

Hitsuono
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 5
Joined: 23 Jul 2017 21:47

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Hitsuono » 29 Jul 2017 00:19

Thrice Xandvii wrote:I see <fh> used a bunch, but I can't seem to find where that romanization is given a phonemic meaning...
<fh> would sound just like /fʁ/. Should I put it into the list of phonemes?
lsd wrote:give some background is always interesting, thank you for this poster...
to eye and ear it reminds me of a mix of Vietnamese and Dutch...
I can understand why it sounds like vietnamese, but why dutch? At least when I speak it, it really looks like a vietnamese trying to speak arabic [xD]. Maybe because brufosian's metric sounds like vietnamese when talking about adjections, nouns, pronouns- and maybe adjectives and adverbs-, but gets quite fast on verbs.
Lao Kou wrote:It looks like a lot of amazing work has gone into this! And I do hope you keep us up to date. One wonders if, by using the non-personal pronoun table (which you yourself say was inspired by the "Language Construction Kit"), you were seduced by the sirens' song of the Esperanto "Table of Correlatives". Unless you're going for an international auxlang (and I don't get that vibe from what you've thus far described), you could afford to shake up these grammatical pick-up-sticks into something less uniform, and no one would fault you. [:)]

Too, love the graphics at the end (and from a Géarthçins perspective, a 7x7 table is a joy forever).
Thank you for your support! I didn't know this table until your commentary, but I saw it and they're really similar. Maybe the creater of "Language Construction Kit" took some insipiration from it.
About doing "something less uniform", I'm trying to do so. First, however, I'll try to create a history of the brufosian language, and then start creating uniformities based on its own history.

Thank you all for your support, I'll give updates when new interesting things get made [:)] !
:bra:/ :por: [:D]| :gbr: [:)]| :esp: [:)] | :deu: [:(]| :con: [:D]

User avatar
Thrice Xandvii
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3722
Joined: 25 Nov 2012 10:13
Location: Carnassus

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Thrice Xandvii » 30 Jul 2017 17:18

Hitsuono wrote:
Thrice Xandvii wrote:I see <fh> used a bunch, but I can't seem to find where that romanization is given a phonemic meaning...
<fh> would sound just like /fʁ/. Should I put it into the list of phonemes?
I wouldn't think so... unless it patterns together as a single consonant. I just saw a few other digraphs with "h" and thought that might have been another.
Image

Hitsuono
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 5
Joined: 23 Jul 2017 21:47

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Hitsuono » 10 Aug 2017 22:38

Just a quick news: I think I'm finally done creating a script specially for brufosian and its grammatical aspects! Soon I'll post about it, please tell me if you liked its design [:D]
Preview: http://imgur.com/gallery/xSV8d
:bra:/ :por: [:D]| :gbr: [:)]| :esp: [:)] | :deu: [:(]| :con: [:D]

User avatar
alynnidalar
roman
roman
Posts: 1035
Joined: 17 Aug 2014 03:22
Location: Michigan, USA

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by alynnidalar » 11 Aug 2017 16:04

Looks complex! I would be very interested in an explanation of all the bits and pieces and how they work together.

Hitsuono
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 5
Joined: 23 Jul 2017 21:47

Re: Brufosian/ Lec Brefht

Post by Hitsuono » 11 Aug 2017 23:48

alynnidalar wrote:Looks complex! I would be very interested in an explanation of all the bits and pieces and how they work together.
Thank you for your feedback! I promise it is not really hard nor complex, and soon everything will be clear when published [:)]
:bra:/ :por: [:D]| :gbr: [:)]| :esp: [:)] | :deu: [:(]| :con: [:D]

Post Reply