Karèwaho

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Shemtov
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Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 02 Aug 2017 23:24

This is a language spoken by the exiles of Kareva forest (native name: Karèwa) in Fuhe. It is a distant relative of Fuheko-however, Kareva is sorrounded by mountains, which has led to relative isolation. It is a dying language, as Fuhean control over Karèwa increased and as Commander Ruvu expelled all inhabitants and left the forest in the care of One Forester Monk, as he sensed "a disturbance in the Ki" from Karèwa (and yes, now that I type it, I realize how Star Warsian that sounds. But I'm borrowing from the same source as Lucas did for his Force for my Ki, so whatever.) 30 years ago. It is still spoken in scattered camps around the mountains that sorround Karèwa, by around 7,000 people.

Phonology:
/p p: t t: tʰ tʰ: ts t:s tsʰ t:sʰ tɕ t:ɕ k~x k:/ <p pp t tt th tth c tc ch tch ć ćć k kk>
/ɸ s ɕ h/ <f s ś h>
/m m: n n: ɲ ɲ:/ <m mm n nn ń ńń>
/ɾ/ <r>
/j w/ <y w>
/l/ <l>

(/k/ is realized as [x] intervocally)
/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/ɛ œ ɔ/ <è ȍ ò>
/æ ɑ/ <ä a>
There is vowel harmony with /i e ɛ/ being neutral.

Phonotactics: (C)V(N)

Nouns do not decline for number or gender, but have a multitude of cases. We will use Puhè "Human being" as an example:
Nominative: Puhè
Accusative: Puhèka
Dative: Puhèha
Genitive: Puhèńu
Locative: Puhèca
Lative: Puhène
Ablative: Puhètha
Instrumental: Puhèń
Abessive: Puhènè
Comatative: Puhèma
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Nachtuil » 03 Aug 2017 01:12

I must say I admire your prolificacy, Shemtov. I like that you're still working on the Fuheko universe and the k~x allophony and that only alveolar stops have aspiration. Pretty neat!

As a general question, how does one lengthen a stop? Is it a delayed release? A doubling of the stop?

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 03 Aug 2017 01:13

Karèwaho has polypersonal agreement: There is a unique set of endings for each possible combanation of person and number for subject and object. For our purposes we'll use the verb puhu "to speak"
Third person object, also used for intrasitive verbs:
1P Sing.: Puhuńńu
1P plr: Puhummè
2p sing.: Puhutho
2P plr: Puhuttè
3P sing: Puhu
3P Plr: Puhuwa

2nd person object:
1P Sing.: Puhula
1P plr: Puhulaki
3P sing: Puhunaki
3P Plr: Puhunnaki

1P object:
2p sing.: Puhusi
2P plr: Puhuśi
3P sing: Puhuyi
3P Plr: Puhuyan

Past tense is indicated by putting -li- between the root and the S/O marker

Thus we can get sentences like:
Puhulila thȍmcä
Puhu-li-la thȍm-cä
speak-PST-1P.2P house-LOC
"I spoke to you in the house"
Last edited by Shemtov on 03 Aug 2017 07:05, edited 1 time in total.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 03 Aug 2017 01:19

Nachtuil wrote:
As a general question, how does one lengthen a stop? Is it a delayed release? A doubling of the stop?
It's a doubling of the stop, that can occur only intervocally. One could analyze that there's an unspecified stop coda phoneme /Q/ that assimilates to the following stop, but for what I have in my mind for sound changes from what I'll call Proto-Macro-Fuhekan (which are rough, it's a very rough mental draft) it's easier to present them as lengthened.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 05 Aug 2017 01:40

This post will be part of a series on Karèvaho moods
̩The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses. It can be translated as "while" "because" or "then", depending on the main verb and the verb that takes it.
It is marked by the suffix (before the S/O marker) fa in the non-past, and će in the past.

Puhulila thȍmcä thèlićemmè
"I spoke to you in the house while you ate it."
or
"I spoke to you in the house because you ate it"



The second meaning can be clarified further by the preposition happa before the conjunctive verb:

Puhulila thȍmcä happa thèlićemmè
"I spoke to you in the house because you ate it"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 08 Aug 2017 00:56

Before I talk about the next mood, I want to talk about prefixes that verbs of motion take to mark direction.
Ne-towards
Thè- away from
Fe-up to
Le-down to

So with the verb "Mèńi" "to go", we get the following verbs:
Nemèńi- "To go to"
Thèmèńi-"To leave"
Femèńi-"To ascend"
Lemèńi-"To descend"

This can be used productively. So with Luhu "To walk" we can get Leluhu "to walk down"

The second mood I want to talk about is the conditional mood. It's ending is ra/rä, and is used in the protasis of conditional sentences, with the apodeisis in the indicative.:
Puhuratho, thèmèńińńu
"If you talk, I will leave"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by qwed117 » 08 Aug 2017 03:24

Shemtov wrote:\(and yes, now that I type it, I realize how Star Warsian that sounds. But I'm borrowing from the same source as Lucas did for his Force for my Ki, so whatever.)\
So there are midichlorians, I take it, on Fuhe?
Spoiler:
My minicity is Zyphrazia and Novland
What is made of man will crumble away.

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 09 Aug 2017 01:36

qwed117 wrote:
Shemtov wrote:\(and yes, now that I type it, I realize how Star Warsian that sounds. But I'm borrowing from the same source as Lucas did for his Force for my Ki, so whatever.)\
So there are midichlorians, I take it, on Fuhe?
No, I just meant we were both influenced by the Sinosphere idea of qi, though in practice, I was more influenced by Naruto's Chakura, but I called it Ki a.because that's more traditional Japanese and b. To avoid being accused of outright plagiarism of Naruto. I also incorporated some aspects of Uralic Shamanistic idea of the soul (after all, Fuheko is a pastichelang between Japanese and Finnish , though my interpretation of it came from a series of books that my college has, that are frankly, outdated, and a bit racist- they're in the Public domain, so if you want I can quote an especially racist statement about Austronesian myth. For Karèwaho I'm adding in a bit of Hungarian and Korean- so Saram is a suffix that means a person that works with and Ćipisaram, "Home person"- Thȍm refers to the physical structure, while Ćipi has more of an emotional meaning- means wife)

The copula:
The copula is irregular, having a unique stem for the non-past and past tenses, but otherwise are conjugated like regular intransitive verbs.
The non-past is Waći:
Puhè waćinnu
"I am a man"

The past is Wani:
Thȍm wani
"It was a house"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 11 Aug 2017 03:12

Karèwaho infinitives are formed by adding -ta/tä to the verb stem:
Puhuta "to speak"
Nemèńita "To go to"
Nesuta "To see"

Sentences with Infinitives and another verb, put that other, conjugated verb in the first place of the sentence, even though otherwise Karèwaho is a strict SOV language:
Nesuńńu tèyańka femèńita
Nesu-ńńu tèyań-ka femèńi-ta
see-1P sun-ACC ascend-INF
"I am seeing the sun rise"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by shimobaatar » 12 Aug 2017 06:11

I agree with Nachtuil; it's very impressive how much you're filling out this world. I still haven't gotten to reading all of your threads on it.

Anyway, I'm looking forward to seeing more of this language. One question, though:
Shemtov wrote:Karèwaho has polypersonal agreement: There is a unique set of endings for each possible combanation of person and number for subject and object. For our purposes we'll use the verb puhu "to speak"
(Emphasis mine.)

Nice to see some familiar roots.

How are non-third person reflexive verbs expressed? For example, if the subject and the object are both first or second person, how is that handled?

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 13 Aug 2017 05:09

shimobaatar wrote:
How are non-third person reflexive verbs expressed? For example, if the subject and the object are both first or second person, how is that handled?
Patience, I'm still working that out.
Anyway:
The idea of "and"is communicated, when talking about the subject the Comatative case is used:
Ichä iśama puhulinnaki
Ichä iśa-ma puhu-li-nnaki
medicine.man Fuhe.doctor speak-PST-3P.2P
"The Medicine man and the Fuhe Doctor spoke to you"

In other cases, the first item is followed by the suffix hathò/häthȍ, which follows all except the final item:
Farukaśu ichäkähäthȍ iśakahathò wasusaramka thawèli
Farukaśu ichä-kä-häthȍ iśa-ka-hathò wasusaram-ka thawè-li
wolf medicine.man-ACC-and Fuhe.doctor-ACC-and blacksmith-ACC eat-PST
"The wolf ate the medicine man, the Fuhe Doctor and the blacksmith"

Adding hathò/häthȍ to the end of the list means "et al.":
Farukaśu ichäkähäthȍ iśakahathò wasusaramkahathò thawèli
Farukaśu ichä-kä-häthȍ iśa-ka-hathò wasusaram-ka-hathò thawè-li
wolf medicine.man-ACC-and Fuhe.doctor-ACC-and blacksmith-ACC-and eat-PST
"The wolf ate the medicine man, the Fuhe Doctor and the blacksmith and others"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by shimobaatar » 13 Aug 2017 05:35

Shemtov wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:
How are non-third person reflexive verbs expressed? For example, if the subject and the object are both first or second person, how is that handled?
Patience, I'm still working that out.
Oh, I'm sorry. I didn't mean to sound impatient.

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 18 Aug 2017 21:34

Cardinal numbers 1-99:
Numbers, when counting, or in answer to the question "How many X are there?" take the suffix śu/śü, which is how I'll present the numbers:
1. Pitȍśü
2. Futhaśu
3. Miśu
4. Yȍśü
5. Ituśu
6. Muśu
7. Nańaśu
8. Yaśu
9. Köhȍńöśü
10.Thöśü
11. Töpitȍśü
12. Töfuthaśu
13. Tömiśü
Etc. to twenty.
After twenty, the language uses a Vigesimal system:
20. Sumuluśu
21 Sumulupitȍśü
30. Sumuluthöśü
31. Sumuluthöpitȍśü
40. Futhasumuluśu
60. Misumuluśu
80. Yȍsumuluśu
99. Yȍsumulutököhȍńöśü

Before nouns, the śu/śü suffix is dropped:
Ichä mi iśama puhulinnaki
"The medicine man and four Fuhe doctors spoke to you"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 18 Aug 2017 21:56

Pronouns are usually dropped, except for emphasis. However, they do exist, and are used when the subject or object need to be emphasized, or for other cases:
1P Singular:
Nominative: Im
Accusative: Inka
Dative: Inha
Genitive: Imńu
Locative: Imńa
Lative: Imne
Ablative: Imna
Instrumental: Imńi
Abessive: Imnè
Comatative: Imma

1P plural:
Nominative: Mi
Accusative: Mika
Dative: Miha
Genitive: Mińu
Locative: Mica
Lative: Mine
Ablative: Mitha
Instrumental: Miń
Abessive: Minè
Comatative: Mima

2P Singular:
Nominative: Te
Accusative: Teka
Dative: Teha
Genitive: Teńu
Locative: Teca
Lative: Tene
Ablative: Tetha
Instrumental: Teń
Abessive: Tenè
Comatative: Tema

2P Plural:
Nominative: Ti
Accusative: Tika
Dative: Tiha
Genitive: Tińu
Locative: Tića
Lative: Tińe
Ablative: Titha
Instrumental: Tiń
Abessive: Tińè
Comatative: Tima

3P Singular:
Nominative: Ö
Accusative: Ökä
Dative: Öhä
Genitive: Öńü
Locative: Öcä
Lative: Öne
Ablative: Öthä
Instrumental: Öń
Abessive: Önè
Comatative: Ömä

3P Plural:
Nominative: Öki
Accusative: Ökka
Dative: Ökiha
Genitive: Ökińu
Locative: Ökića
Lative: Ökińe
Ablative: Ökitha
Instrumental: Ökiń
Abessive: Ökińè
Comatative: Ökima

Examples:

Im puhulila thȍmcä
"It was I who talked to you in the house"

Teka puhulila thȍmcä
"It was to you I spoke to in the house"

Ichä imma puhulinnaki
"A medicine man and I spoke to you"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 25 Aug 2017 01:32

Questions:
Polar questions are formed in two ways: The -kka- infix and the ha particle. The difference between them depends on dialect, though some dialects use both with the ha particle being more of a surprised polar question or used with 3P on 3P verbs.

The -kka- infix is formed by infixing -kka- between the tense suffix or verb stem and the personal suffix:
Puhulikkala thȍmcä
"Did I speak to you in the house?"

The ha particle is formed by putting the particle ha at the end of the sentence:
Puhulila thȍmcä ha
"Did I really speak to you in the house?!"

Ichä iśaka puhu ha
"Is the medicine man speaking to the Fuhe doctor?"

Intterogative pronouns replace the noun they are questioning:
Mi: What
Hu: Who
Mića: Whom/ What (acc)
Miha: To whom/ To what
Mićè: Where
Mińe: To where
Mitha: From where
Miń: With what/ With whom

Hu puhulinnaki
"Who spoke to you?"

Mi ichäkähäthȍ iśakahathò wasusaramka thawèli
"What ate the medicine man, the Fuhe Doctor and the blacksmith?"

Puhulila mićè
"Where did I speak to you?"

The question word Mińen is unique, as it has to come after a noun in genetive case, and before a quality of the noun:

Farukaśuńu mińen makaśaku waći
Farukaśu-ńu mińen makaśaku waći
wolf-GEN how.much height COP
"How tall is the wolf?"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Omzinesý » 29 Aug 2017 13:31

Oh, this is an interesting project! How haven't I seen it before. Simultaneously so familiarly Finnish and not at all.
There is vowel harmony with /i e ɛ/ being neutral.
Isn't this a bit boringly simple? What about the Hungarian vowel harmony where /e/ alternates with several back vowels depending on the suffix?

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by MrKrov » 29 Aug 2017 21:34

Shemtov wrote:The -kka- infix is formed by infixing -kka- between the tense suffix or verb stem and the personal suffix:
It's really not an infix if it isn't splitting up a single morpheme.
Omzinesý wrote:Isn't this a bit boringly simple? What about the Hungarian vowel harmony where /e/ alternates with several back vowels depending on the suffix?
What's so interesting about doing what Hungarian already does?

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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Shemtov » 29 Aug 2017 22:42

Omzinesý wrote: Isn't this a bit boringly simple? What about the Hungarian vowel harmony where /e/ alternates with several back vowels depending on the suffix?
This is supposed to be a distant relative of my other conlang Fuheko, and I felt that keeping a similar vowel harmony system would show that relationship. I have taken other pieces of grammar from Hungarian, though, as this language is a mix between Finnish, Hungarian, Japanese and Korean.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Karèwaho

Post by Omzinesý » 30 Aug 2017 11:32

MrKrov wrote:
Omzinesý wrote:Isn't this a bit boringly simple? What about the Hungarian vowel harmony where /e/ alternates with several back vowels depending on the suffix?
What's so interesting about doing what Hungarian already does?
Because it's (nearly) impossible to invent anything really new.

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