Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

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esoanem
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Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

Post by esoanem » 22 Mar 2018 16:59

So I've got this to a stage where I'm reasonably happy to talk about it here. The initial seed was to make a Germanic language in which weak verbs were remodelled as strong verbs (rather than the reverse which happened in the irl Germanic languages). The phonology's mostly pretty uninteresting and similar to most other Germanic languages but, obviously, the morphology is the main unusual aspect.

Phonology:

/p t k/ <p t k>
/b d g/ <b d g>
/v ð ʒ ɣ/ <v ð ʒ ɣ>
/f þ s ʃ h/ <f þ s ʃ h>
/w l j/ <w l j>
/m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
/ɾ r/ <r rr>

/i i: y y: u u:/ <i ī y ȳ u ū>
/e e: ø ø: o o:/ <e ē ø ø̄ o ō>
/æ æ: a a:/ <æ ǣ a ā>

/eɐ̯ ɒɑ̯/ <ēa ōa>
/ɑɪ̯ æɪ̯ eɪ̯ ɒɪ̯ uɪ̯ yɪ̯/ <āi ǣi ēi ōi ūi ȳi>
/ɑʊ̯ eʊ̯ iʊ̯ ɒʊ̯ øʊ̯/ <āu ēu īu ōu ø̄u>

The phonological history can be sketched as: i, a, and u-mutation, although nasal vowels, j, or w (later v) block mutation; this resulted in some new diphthongs forming; nasals in clusters tend to assimilate to following consonants (and lengthen the preceding, nasalised, vowels, reminiscent of the ingvaeonic nasal spirant law); we have a form of holtzman’s law; w>v but hw>w; there’s lots of loss and reduction of medial syllables (but this generally doesn’t affect inflection too much because of analogy) as well as reduction of consonant clusters to two or three elements (compounds can get up to about five although I imagine most speakers would drop some of the consonants in the middle of the clusters); final short vowels are dropped; we lose j before high front vowels and v & w before rounded ones; and lastly we get some palatalisation of k to tʃ, g to dʒ, and ɣ to j (sk does not palatalise separately so is either preserved unpalatalised or becomes stʃ).

Morphology:

Nouns have three genders (masculine, neuter, feminine), two numbers (singular, plural), and four cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative). They are divided into 6 declension classes each of which can appear in any of the genders: āssr (derived from a and ō stems), īsr (derived from the i stems), ūrr (derived from the u stems), nōuðr (derived from all the Vn stems), rǣiðō (derived from the r and z stems), and daɣr (derived from the consonant stems).

Adjectives have a single declension paradigm descending from the weak declension (except the feminine which is identical to the nōuðr declension to reduce syncretism). They only distinguish gender in the singular.

The dual pronouns are retained but reinterpreted as a form of clusivity. The first person dual is inclusive, and the plural is exclusive; the second person dual is used iff all referents are present, the second person plural is used if at least one referent is not present. The pronouns (in the nominative) are iʃ (I), vit (we inclusive), vir (we exclusive), þū (thou), jut (you 'inclusive'), jūr (you 'exclusive'), sū (reflexive), ir (he), it (it), sī (she), ijō (they).

The indefinite article is a reduced form of the number ǣinā "one" and has the forms ān, ānt, ānō, ānāur (in m, n, f, pl respectively), the definite articles are þa, þat, þō, þāur. The demonstratives are hir, hit, hānō, hijō "this/these", jānr, jānt, jānō, jānjō "that/those". Having both the *iz and *hiz forms (albeit retained in different senses) is unattested but, well, I liked it.

All weak verbs have been folded into the strong verbs with their class being chosen depending on their tonic vowel. Preterite-present verbs retain their original present tense but with a new past tense using the same ending but with an analogical stem derived from that of the past participle. Reduplication is retained a eCV in class 7 verbs and generalised to all past tense stems; in classes 1-6, the preverb g(e)- is added in the past tense instead of a reduplicated syllable. The dual inflections are retained for the 'inclusive' pronouns. We have two tenses (present and past), and two moods (indicative, and subjunctive/imperative/optative/cohortative) with the expected 1s, 2s, 3s, 3p inflections as well as 1inclusive, 1exclusive & 2inclusive, 2exclusive inflections. There are two participles (one for each tense) as well as two infinitives (with the present infinitive descending from the PGm infinitive, and the past infinitive being formed analogically from the stem of the past participle).

The verbs byvan "to be", gan "to go", dan "to do", viljan "to want", stan "to stand" are suppletive or have other irregularities. A few other verbs have somewhat unpredictable stems (this is particularly true of verbs formed from a vowel-initial root with a vowel-final preverb).

Tables are a bit of a pain but I might post screenshots of the actual tables from my word document later if people want more details.

Sample:

Anyway, here's Babel:

Dʒenses 11:1-9 - Babelas Tyrr

Nu þō hǣilī verdr hehævj ǣinȳn tyŋgȳn and gamǣinȳn srēkō. Als ōusvardr guŋgun þāur lȳðīr, gefyþþun ijō ānt felþ in ſina and þar gwylun.

Ijō gesrø̄kun sir, “kvemāuv, dāuv and þurbakāuv tȳɣlȳnūrr.” Ijō genutun tȳɣlȳnūrr ne stǣinārr and tørv als lēm.

And gesrø̄kun, “kvemāuv, ānō burɣ and ān tyr būvejāuv þessēnr toppr byvēn in þāmm himnǣ sōþess dāuv vit sir ānt namā, jav uŋk verþāuv maɣham frasresrovejanr yvr allȳn þō verd.”

Fyrhet þa DRYHNR niþgekvam þō burɣ and þa tyr þessiʃ hehuvjun þāur mankundīr barnō gebuvejanr.

And þa DRYHNR gesrak “ijō allōnō sind ǣinā folk and ijō allōnō hævand ǣinȳn tyŋgȳn and ijō hævand hit bigjinnanr dan; nedīðr skul ānō dīð þessiʃ hævand ijō bigjinnanr gahaldan.

Niþgaŋgō and er tyŋgȳn umbverrō sōþess ne kūnnīn ijō orhāþþirirr srēkō forstan.”

Þa DRYHNR sresrovej ijō yvr allȳn þō verd þarav and ijō gahehuldun þō burɣ būvejan.

Fyrhet hǣitþ Babel, fyrþess umbgvarr þar þa DRYHNR ællīnr þārōr verdīr tyŋgȳnūrr, and þarav sresrovej þa DRYHNR ijō yvr þō hǣlȳn verd.
Last edited by esoanem on 23 Mar 2018 01:39, edited 1 time in total.
My pronouns are they/them/their

:gbr: native | :esp: advanced | :deu: intermediate | :fra: intermediate | :rus: basic | :ell: lapsed | :navi: lapsed | :con: making a bunch

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Re: Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

Post by Creyeditor » 22 Mar 2018 21:26

I would really like to see the GMP (i.e. the sound changes) and maybe a comparison between a verb that is weak in all other Germanic natlangs but strong in your conlang.
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Re: Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

Post by esoanem » 22 Mar 2018 23:02

Not sure what GMP stands for, but I can definitely give the sound changes.

The SCA2 annotated code is in the spoiler:
Spoiler:

Code: Select all

V=aeiouæøy-^~123
U=aeiouæøy
I=æiiøyeyy
A=aeeooæøø
O=oøyouøøy
C=ptkbdgfþsʃhvðzʒɣlrmnŋjw
P=pbfvm
T=tdþsðzlrn
K=kghɣŋ
N=mnŋ
J=ij
W=uw
X=123
Z=-^~
Y=aeeooeoe
Q=fþshvðzɣlrmnŋjw



̄/-/_
̂/^/_
̨/~/_

/~/V_NC  %more nasal vowels
~//~_
/1/_J    %is going to i-mutate preceding vowel
/2/_a    %is going to a-mutate preceding vowel
/3/_W   %is going to u-mutate preceding vowel
CX/\\/_
CX/\\/_
CX/\\/_
CX/\\/_
CX/\\/_
CX/\\/_  
X//~_
-X/\\/_
^X/\\/_ %pushes mutators back to the preceding vowel
X/\\/X_ %just realised this line doesn't do anything, I had meant XX/\\/_ but, well, it doesn't matter too much, just means if there are multiple mutation conditions met the first applies not the last
1/4/UU_
2/5/UU_
3/6/UU_
1/4/UXU_
2/5/UXU_
3/6/UXU_
1/4/UZU_
2/5/UZU_
3/6/UZU_
1/4/UXZU_
2/5/UXZU_
3/6/UXZU_
1/4/_^
2/5/_^
3/6/_^   %this is just setup for properly mutating diphthongs and overlong vowels
U/I/_1
U/A/_2
U/O/_3  %mutates monophthongs
X//_

z/r/_    %rhotacism

/./U_
.//_-
.//_^
.//_~

a.a/a-/_    %big load of stuff for merging vowels in hiatus into diphthongs
a.e/a-i/_
æ.i/æ-i/_
a.o/a-u/_
o.u/o-u/_
a.a-/a-i/_
a.e-/a-i/_
æ.i-/æ-i/_
a.o-/a-u/_
o.u-/o-u/_
a.a^/a-i/_
a.e^/e-i/_
æ.i^/e-i/_
a.o^/a-u/_
o.u^/o-u/_
a-a/a-i/_
a-e/a-i/_
æ-i/æ-i/_
a-o/a-u/_
o-u/o-u/_
a-a-/a-i/_
a-e-/a-i/_
æ-i-/æ-i/_
a-o-/a-u/_
o-u-/o-u/_
a-a^/a-i/_
a-e^/e-i/_
æ-i^/e-i/_
a-o^/a-u/_
o-u^/o-u/_
a^a/a-i/_
a^e/a-i/_
æ^i/a-i/_
a^o/a-i/_
o^u/a-i/_
a^a-/a-i/_
a^e-/a-i/_
æ^i-/a-i/_
a^o-/a-i/_
o^u-/a-i/_
a^a^/a-i/_
a^e^/a-i/_
æ^i^/æ-i/_
a^o^/a-u/_
o^u^/o-u/_

e.a/e-a/_
e.e/e-/_
i.i/i-/_
e.o/e-u/_
ø.u/ø-u/_
e.a-/e-a/_
e.e-/e-i/_
i.i-/e-i/_
e.o-/e-u/_
ø.u-/ø-u/_
e.a^/a-i/_
e.e^/e-i/_
i.i^/e-i/_
e.o^/a-u/_
ø.u^/o-u/_
e-a/e-a/_
e-e/e-i/_
i-i/e-i/_
e-o/e-u/_
ø-u/ø-u/_
e-a-/e-a/_
e-e-/e-i/_
i-i-/e-i/_
e-o-/e-u/_
ø-u-/ø-u/_
e-a^/a-i/_
e-e^/e-i/_
i-i^/e-i/_
e-o^/a-u/_
ø-u^/o-u/_
e^a/e-i/_
e^e/e-i/_
i^i/e-i/_
e^o/e-i/_
ø^u/e-i/_
e^a-/e-i/_
e^e-/e-i/_
i^i-/e-i/_
e^o-/e-i/_
ø^u-/e-i/_
e^a^/e-a/_
e^e^/e-i/_
i^i^/e-i/_
e^o^/e-u/_
ø^u^/ø-u/_

i.e/i-e/_
i.o/e-u/_
y.u/y-/_
i.e-/i-e/_
i.o-/i-u/_
y.u-/y-/_
i.e^/e-i/_
i.o^/a-u/_
y.u^/o-u/_
e-a/e-a/_
i-e/i-e/_
i-i/e-i/_
i-o/i-u/_
y-u/y-/_
e-a-/e-a/_
i-e-/i-e/_
i-i-/e-i/_
i-o-/i-u/_
y-u-/y-/_
e-a^/a-i/_
i-e^/e-i/_
i-i^/e-i/_
i-o^/a-u/_
y-u^/o-u/_
e^a/e-i/_
i^e/e-i/_
i^i/e-i/_
i^o/e-i/_
y^u/e-i/_
e^a-/e-i/_
i^e-/e-i/_
i^i-/e-i/_
i^o-/e-i/_
y^u-/e-i/_
e^a^/e-a/_
i^e^/i-e/_
i^i^/e-i/_
i^o^/i-u/_
y^u^/y-/_

o.a/o-a/_
o.e/o-i/_
ø.i/ø-i/_
o.o/o-/_
o.a-/o-a/_
o.e-/o-i/_
ø.i-/ø-i/_
o.o-/a-u/_
o.a^/a-i/_
o.e^/e-i/_
ø.i^/e-i/_
o.o^/a-u/_
o-a/o-a/_
o-e/o-i/_
ø-i/ø-i/_
o-o/a-u/_
o-u/o-u/_
o-a-/o-a/_
o-e-/o-i/_
ø-i-/ø-i/_
o-o-/a-u/_
o-u-/o-u/_
o-a^/a-i/_
o-e^/e-i/_
ø-i^/e-i/_
o-o^/a-u/_
o-u^/o-u/_
o^a/a-u/_
o^e/a-u/_
ø^i/a-u/_
o^o/a-u/_
o^u/a-u/_
o^a-/a-u/_
o^e-/a-u/_
ø^i-/a-u/_
o^o-/a-u/_
o^u-/a-u/_
o^a^/o-a/_
o^e^/o-i/_
ø^i^/ø-i/_
o^o^/a-u/_
o^u^/o-u/_

u.e/u-i/_
y.i/y-i/_
u.o/o-u/_
u.u/u-/_
u.e-/u-i/_
y.i-/y-i/_
u.o-/o-u/_
u.u-/o-u/_
u.e^/e-i/_
y.i^/e-i/_
u.o^/a-u/_
u.u^/o-u/_
o-a/o-a/_
u-e/u-i/_
y-i/y-i/_
o-u/o-u/_
u-u/o-u/_
o-a-/o-a/_
u-e-/u-i/_
y-i-/y-i/_
o-u-/o-u/_
u-u-/o-u/_
o-a^/a-i/_
u-e^/e-i/_
y-i^/e-i/_
o-u^/a-u/_
u-u^/o-u/_
o^a/o-u/_
u^e/o-u/_
y^i/o-u/_
u^o/o-u/_
u^u/o-u/_
o^a-/o-u/_
u^e-/o-u/_
y^i-/o-u/_
u^o-/o-u/_
u^u-/o-u/_
o^a^/o-a/_
u^e^/u-i/_
y^i^/y-i/_
u^o^/o-u/_
u^u^/o-u/_

.//_


a^/a-i/_       %breaking of overlong vowels
e^/e-i/_
i^/e-i/_
o^/a-u/_
u^/o-u/_
æ^/a-i/_
ø^/e-u/_
y^/i-u/_
^/-/_

i/i/_4       %remaining mutations
u/u/_4
a/a/_4
e/i/_4
i-i/e-i/_
i/u/_6
u/u/_6
a/u/_6
e/u/_6
y-u/i-u/_
æ-u/a-u/_
u-u/o-u/_
4//_
5//_
6//_

N/1/U~_Q        %pseudo-ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, lengthen preceding vowel and following consonant, broader conditions than in ingvaeonic
/-/_1
C/C²/1_
1//_
~//_
C//C_C

jj/-jj1/_          %holtzmann's law, jj>gj, ww>gw plus lengthens adjacent vowels
ww/-ww1/_
-//-_
1U/\\/_
1-//_
1//_
jj/gj/_
ww/gw/_

hw/1/_        %self-explanatory
w/v/_
1/w/_

/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U-U_    %introduces a vowel-reducing trigger after the initial syllable
/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U_C
/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U-_C
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_               %passes it back through the world until it reaches a vowel
1//_U(-)#            %if that vowel is final, it doesn't reduce
1a-U/a/_             %reduction of diphthongs
1e-U/e/_
1i-U/e/_
1o-U/o/_
1u-U/o/_
1æ-U/e/_
1ø-U/o/_
1y-U/o/_
U/Y/1_               %reduction of monophthongs

Ur/\\/_#              %final r moves to before the preceding vowel, this can interrupt dipthongs e.g. āir>āri
1U//VC_CU          %loss of medial vowels
1U//VCC_CU
1U//VC_CCU
1//_
C//C_C               %reduction of consonant clusters

/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U-U_        %all that vowel reduction stuff
/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U_C
/1/#(C)(C)(C)(C)U-_C
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1C/\\/_
1//_U(-)#
1a-U/a/_
1e-U/e/_
1i-U/e/_
1o-U/o/_
1u-U/o/_
1æ-U/e/_
1ø-U/o/_
1y-U/o/_
U/Y/1_

Ur/\\/_#              %final r moves to before the preceding vowel, this can interrupt dipthongs e.g. āir>āri
1U//VC_CU          %loss of medial vowels
1U//VCC_CU
1U//VC_CCU
1//_

U//V(C)(C)(C)_#      %loss of final vowels
C//C_C                   %consonant cluster reductions

j/1/C_i        %j lost before high front vowels
j/1/C_e
j/1/C_y
v/1/C_u       %v lost before rounded vowels
v/1/C_o
v/1/C_ø
v/1/C_y
j/1/#_i
j/1/#_e
j/1/#_y
v/1/#_u
v/1/#_o
v/1/#_ø
v/1/#_y
w/1/_u        %w lost before rounded vowels
w/1/_o
w/1/_ø
w/1/_y
1U/\\/_        %following vowel is lengthened
1/-/_
-//_-

k/tʃ/_i         %palatalisation
k/tʃ/_e
k/tʃ/_y
k/ʃ/i(-)_#
kj/tʃ/_
g/dʒ/_i
g/dʒ/_e
g/dʒ/_y
g/ʒ/i(-)_#
ɣ/j/_i
ɣ/j/_e
ɣ/j/_y
ɣ/-/i_
ɣ//i-_/_U
ɣ/g/i-_
gj/dʒ/_

^/̂/_          
-/̄/_ 
For a weak verb, let's go for wardaną "to ward/guard" with German for comparison
Spoiler:
vardan- present infinitive "to ward" - this is a class 7c verb in a with its four (unmutated) stems being vard, vevard, vevurd, and vevard - German warten
vevardan - past infinitive "to have warded" - German haben gewartet
vardandr - present participle "warding" - German wartend
vevardanr - past participle "said" - German gewartet

vardō - I ward - German warte
værdir - thou wardest - German wartest
værdið - he/she/it wards - German wartet
vardōr - we (inclusive) ward - German warten
vardamr - we (exclusive) ward - German warten
vardæðr - you ('inclusive') ward - German wartet
værdið - you ('exclusive') ward - German wartet
vardand - they ward - German warten

vevard - I warded - German wartete
vevardt - thou warded - German wartetest
vevard - he/she/it warded - German wartete
vevurdū - we (inclusive) warded - German warteten
vevurdum - we (exclusive) warded - German warteten
vevurdyðr - you ('inclusive') warded - German warteten
vevurduð - you ('exclusive') warded - German warteten
vevurdun - they warded - German warteten

vardō - I ward, I'll ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German warte
vardǣr - thou ward, ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartest/warte
vardǣ - he/she/it ward, may he ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German warte
vardāuv - we (inclusive) ward, let's ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German warten
vardǣim - we (exclusive) ward, let's ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German warten
vardǣiðr - you ('inclusive') ward, ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartet
vardǣið - you ('exclusive') ward, ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartet
vardǣin - they ward, may they ward! (subjunctive/imperative) - German warten

vevyrdī - I were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartete
vevyrdīr - thou were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartetest
vevyrdī - he/she/it were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartete
vevyrdȳv - we (inclusive) were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German warteten
vevyrdīm - we (exclusive) were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German warteten
vevyrdīðr - you ('inclusive') were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartetet
vevyrdīð - you ('exclusive') were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German wartetet
vevyrdīn - they were warding (subjunctive/imperative) - German warteten
And here's skulaną "shall"
Spoiler:
skolan - present infinitive "to shall" - this is a class 2b modal verb in u with its four (unmutated) stems being skul, skōl, skul, and geskul - German sollen
geskolan - past infinitive "to should" - German haben gesollt
skolandr - present participle "shalling" - German sollend
geskolanr - past participle "should" - German gesollt

skōl - I shall - German soll
skōlt - thou shalt - German solist
skōl - he/she/it shall - German soll
skulū - we (inclusive) shall - German sollen
skulum - we (exclusive) shall - German sollen
skulyðr - you ('inclusive') shall - German sollt
skuluð - you ('exclusive') shall - German sollt
skulun - they shall - German sollen

geskul - I should - German sollte
geskult - thou shouldt - German solltest
geskul - he/she/it should - German sollte
geskulū - we (inclusive) should - German sollten
geskulum - we (exclusive) should - German sollten
geskulyðr - you ('inclusive') should - German solltet
geskuluð - you ('exclusive') should - German solltet
geskulun - they should - German sollten

skylī - I should (subjunctive/imperative) - German solle
skylīr - thou should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollest
skylī - he/she/it should (subjunctive/imperative) - German solle
skylȳv - we (inclusive) should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollen
skylīm - we (exclusive) should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollen
skylīðr - you ('inclusive') should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollet
skylīð - you ('exclusive') should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollet
skylīn - they should (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollen

geskylī - I were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollte
geskylīr - thou were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German solltest
geskylī - he/she/it were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollte
geskylȳv - we (inclusive) were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollten
geskylīm - we (exclusive) were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollten
geskylīðr - you ('inclusive') were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German solltet
geskylīð - you ('exclusive') were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German solltet
geskylīn - they were shalling(?) (subjunctive/imperative) - German sollten
Last edited by esoanem on 23 Mar 2018 01:39, edited 1 time in total.
My pronouns are they/them/their

:gbr: native | :esp: advanced | :deu: intermediate | :fra: intermediate | :rus: basic | :ell: lapsed | :navi: lapsed | :con: making a bunch

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Creyeditor
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Re: Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

Post by Creyeditor » 23 Mar 2018 00:21

Wow, your Grand Master Plan looks really nice. I like how you dealt with the mutations. I have another question though. To what extend did Thyydhsk (sorry for ASCIIing the name) reduce vowels? And how much of that is reflected in the orthography?
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esoanem
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Re: Þȳðsk - a Germanic Language without Weak Verbs

Post by esoanem » 23 Mar 2018 01:37

Monophtongs in reduced syllables are reduced to a (a), e (e, i, æ, or y), or o (o, u, or ø), diphthongs reduce their first (syllabic) element but the non-syllabic part is unaffected. This is reflected in the orthography.

In general words can't end in short vowels so long vowels in final open syllables reduce to short vowels, this is not reflected in the orthography. Monosyllables can end in either short or long vowels so do not reduce in length. I don't actually have a minimal pair yet (seeing as open monosyllables are rare and my lexicon is currently only 600 entries long right now) but ja and jǣ (both variants of yes, I'm still working on the exact details of the yes/no response system but will probably have a 3-part system à la German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, French, etc.) are close.

I've also worked out a fuþark (mostly a hybrid between the Norse younger fuþark and the Anglo-Saxon fuþorc but with some conservative forms or unique innovations) for it but am having a hard time working out the best way of posting it here seeing as I can't upload pics here. Using forms available in unicode it's roughly:
Spoiler:
ᚠ - føh - wealth - f
ᚢ - ūrr - aurochs - u, ū
ᚦ - þurnr - thorn - þ
ᚭ - āssr - god - a, ā, æ, ǣ - (the branches should arc down making this an upside-down ᚠ)
ᚱ - rǣiðō - ride - r, rr
ᚴ - kenr - torch - k

ᚸ - gæstr - guest - g - (this ought to be a circle around a ᚷ rather than just filling the side gaps)
ᚹ - verdr - world - v, w
ᚺ - haɣlr - hail - h
ᚾ - nōuðr - need - n - (this actually ought to have ᚴ-style arcs not meeting in the middle in the top-left and bottom right)
ᛁ - īsr - ice - i, ī, j
ᚷ - laɣ - law - l

ᛦ - ȳrðr - fate - y, ȳ - (here an adaptation of AS ᚣ but this form is also found in medieval Scandinavia)
ᛈ - perþr - peartree - p - (this has been adapted somewhat with the zig-zags replaced with ᚴ-style arcs again)
ᚢ ́ - dʒevō - gift - dʒ, ʒ - (but reflected in the vertical line, origin from a bindrune of ᚷᛁ, its origin by removing the bottom right leg of the ᚷ)
ᛋ - sōvlō - sun - s, ʃ
ᛏ - tȳvr - Týr - t
ᛒ - birtʃō - birchtree - b

ᛖ - erþō - earth - e, ē - (the lines from the stems should start horizontal and arc down forming a cusp)
ᛘ - mānnā - man - m
ᛚ - loɣr - lake - l - (the branch should start horizontal and arc down)
ᛝ - iŋvr - Yngvi - ŋ - (this should be written rounded like ȣ but with two u-style loops)
ᚮ - ōþl - inheritance - o, ō, ø, ø̄ - (the branches should be arcs making this a turned ᚠ)
ᛞ - daɣr - day - d, ð - (this should be rounded like two D's arc-to-arc)

Numerals follow the same system as Roman numerals (I'm imagining it as a kinda-calqued system) with:

ᛁ for Roman I (except for 1 which appears as ᚭ from ǣin "one")
ᚠ for Roman V (from fīff "five")
ᛏ for Roman X (from tøhon "ten")
a bindrune of ᚠ+ᛏ for Roman L (from fīff "five" and tøhon "ten", or well, strictly their PGm roots)
ᚺ for Roman C (from hunrad "hundred")
a bindrune of ᚠ+ᚺ for Roman D (from fīff "five" and hunrad "hundred", or well, strictly their PGm roots)
ᚦ for Roman M (from þūsond "thousand")
as well as a bindrune of ᚾ+ᚭ for 0 (from nēan "none" itself from ne "not" and ǣin "one")
This fuþark orthography is less faithful (mostly because the latin orthography is the one I used to derive the language so needs to reflect at least every phonemic distinction), not marking vowel length, the distinction between a & æ, r & rr. v & w, i & j, ʒ & dʒ (ʒ only appears independently at the end of a word so this doesn't lose us much), s & ʃ, o & ø, or d & ð (this is different from Old Norse which merges ð with þ in its fuþark).

If I work out a good way of getting pics up here, I'll post pics from my notebook which should be able to clarify. I can also post the Babel story in the fuþark orthography which I managed to write out with only nine mistakes that I needed to cross out (most of which were me accidentally looking at the wrong verse as I was copying and so mixing verses) so now I feel like I understand better why, even with literate monks, the usual way of copying texts in a scriptorium was with one monk dictating and the other(s) writing it down. It's also been a big enough text that I've now got the fuþark well embedded in my brain and don't need to look up the orthography any more.

(there were also several times I saw good opportunities for bindrunes which I think also helps understand the world of a runic carver)
My pronouns are they/them/their

:gbr: native | :esp: advanced | :deu: intermediate | :fra: intermediate | :rus: basic | :ell: lapsed | :navi: lapsed | :con: making a bunch

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