Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

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Kehgrehdid
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Kehgrehdid » 03 May 2018 23:59

High Fedrelar (now archaic, used more for naming) had stress on final syllable of nouns and on the penultimate syllable of verbs. (I avoided dealing with other parts of speech by trying to cut out adjectives and making all other parts of speech one syllable only.) The variation in prosody was one factor that I had trouble keeping consistent, and I eliminated it when I made several simplifications to make the language more speakable. But maybe you all can do better? So what do you think? Nouns have ultimate stress, verbs penultimate?
"Cry me a river, build me a bridge, and get over it."

I marvel that the hardest parts of my life (fear, mistakes, guilt, sin, doubt, failure) are of man, while what I crave most (rest, hope, love, peace, forgiveness) are of God.

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Scytheria
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Scytheria » 04 May 2018 12:31

Sigh, I was looking forward to this and had some neat ideas based on the rules, but my partner got herself fired today so I'm not optimistic I'll get much done...
Bloody real world.
I went for a ride on a spaceship [O.O]

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by shimobaatar » 04 May 2018 13:46

You're perfectly welcome to take on the challenge after the 6th, of course.

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k1234567890y
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by k1234567890y » 04 May 2018 15:19

consonant:

nasals: /m n ŋ/<m n ng>
plosives: /p b t d k ʔ/<p b t d k '>(glottal stop is not expressed initially>
affricates: /t͡s/<c>
fricatives: /s z ʁ~ʕ h/<s z g h>
sonorants: /w r l j/<w r l y>

vowel:

stressed:

short: /ɑ æ ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ/<a ae e i o u>
long: /ɑ: ɛ: e: i: o: u:/< aa ei ie ii oo uu>

non-stressed: /ə ɪ ʊ/<a i u>

syllable: CV(C)(C)

stress: penultimate

word formation:

words contain either a single root, a combination of roots, or roots+derivations. Roots are monosyllabic.

morphology:

noun:

nouns with a single monosyllabic root and no derivational suffixes is type I(type I nouns may still contain prefixes); nouns created by combining two roots are type II; nouns created by using derivational suffixes are type III.

the plural form of type II nouns are formed by moving the stress from the penultimate syllable to the last syllable, with the following vowel reduction:

ɑ æ ɑ: ɛ: > ə
ɛ ɪ e: i: > ɪ
ɔ ʊ o: u: > ʊ

type I and type III nouns don't have such reductions

verbs:

verbs conjugate according to TAM and person. non-derived verbs contain a single monosyllabic root.

In the past tense, the past tense suffix -a causes the shift of the stress to the past tense suffix, and the vowel of the root is reduced with the following vowel reduction:

ɑ æ ɑ: ɛ: > ə
ɛ ɪ e: i: > ɪ
ɔ ʊ o: u: > ʊ
I prefer to not be referred to with masculine pronouns and nouns such as “he/him/his”.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by gestaltist » 04 May 2018 15:44

Kehgrehdid wrote:
03 May 2018 23:59
High Fedrelar (now archaic, used more for naming) had stress on final syllable of nouns and on the penultimate syllable of verbs. (I avoided dealing with other parts of speech by trying to cut out adjectives and making all other parts of speech one syllable only.) The variation in prosody was one factor that I had trouble keeping consistent, and I eliminated it when I made several simplifications to make the language more speakable. But maybe you all can do better? So what do you think? Nouns have ultimate stress, verbs penultimate?
I'm not sure what kind of advice you're looking for but it doesn't have to be that big of a rule. Something like "Accusative is marked by a shift in stress" would be within the rules, as well. Just think about it a bit, you'll figure something out.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by k1234567890y » 05 May 2018 13:28

more about my lang:

syntax:

- word order: free, but SOV and SVO are the most commmon
- adpositions are postpositions
- modifiers usually precede the noun they modify, but adjectives may precede or follow the noun they modify
- negation is marked by a specific negative aux verb mawa

morphology:

noun

case:

- nominative: -Ø
- genitive: -s/-as(genitive singular and plural are the same in type III nouns)
- partitive: -t/-at(partitive singular and plural are the same in type III nouns)
- accusative: -n/-an(accusative plural becomes -nta in type III nouns)
- instrumental:
- locative cases:
-- internal:
--- inessive: -mi/-ami
--- elative: -la/-ala
--- illative: -nta/-anta
-- external:
--- adessive: -sa/-asa
--- ablative: -sla/-asla
--- allative: -sta/-asta
- comitative: -ma

numbers:

- type I: (lengthenging the stem vowel)
- type II: (internal stem change as described above)
- type III: -t/-at

verbs:

Infinitive: -a(does not cause stem change)

TAM:
- present: -Ø
- past: -a(causes stem vowel change and the shift of stress)
- subjunctive: -u
- imperative: -i

There are distinctions between perfective and imperfective verbs, like Slavic languages.

person(agree with the subject):
- 1st sg: -Ø
- 2nd sg: -n/-an
- 3rd sg: -Ø
- 1st pl: -ga/-aga
- 2nd pl: -na
- 3rd pl: -a/-ya

pronouns:
- 1st sg: ka
- 2nd sg: na
- 3rd sg: mi
- 1st pl: kaa
- 2nd pl: naa
- 3rd pl: me

examples:

- me isa rozit - me es-a rozi-t-t - 3.SG.NOM eat-PST bread-PL-PART - he was eating breads.
- me es rozit - me es-a rozi-t-t - 3.SG.NOM eat-PST bread-PL-PART - he eats breads.
I prefer to not be referred to with masculine pronouns and nouns such as “he/him/his”.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Jampot911 » 05 May 2018 16:11

Consonants

Nasals /m n̺ ɳ~nʳ/ <m n n>
Stops /p t̺ ʈ~tʳ k q/ <p t t k q>
Fricatives /s̺ ʂ χ~ʀ/ <s s x>
Rhotic /ɽ~r/ <r>

Vowels
Front /i i: y y: e e: ø ø:/ <i ii y yy e ee ęę>
Central /a a:/ <a aa>
Back /o o: u u:/ <o oo u uu>

The above vowels in unstressed syllables
Front [ɪ ɪj ʏ ʏj ɛ ɛj œ œj]
Central [ә әw]
Back [ɔ ɔw ʊ ʊw]

Other allophony
The "r"-series consonants are pronounced as alveolar consonants with a trilled release when syllable-initial, they are pronounced as retroflex consonants elsewhere.
/x/ (which is uvular) becomes [ʀ] between two vowels or before an "r"-series consonant.

Syllables
CV(C m n s ʂ χ)(C)
Syllables of the types CV, CVɽ, CVs, CVʂ, and CVχ are considered to be one mora in length.
Syllables of the types CV:, CVC, and CVCC are considered to be two moras in length.
Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable, though this can be changed through morphophonological processes.
Stressed syllables either have a high (macron), rising (acute), or low pitch/tone (unmarked). Other syllables have low pitches/tones.

Tone/pitch sandhi
L=low
R=rising
H=high
F=falling

Note: The pitches/tones here could be the pitches/tones of syllables or moras. E.g. taa (which consists of one syllable but two moras) would be considered LL.

LL
RL = FL
HL = HF
LR
LH = RH
LLL
RRL = RHF
HHL = HHF
LRR = LRH
LHH = RHH
LLLL
RRLL = RHFL
HHLL = HHFL
LLRR = LLRH
LLHH = LRHH
Etc...

Case
There are 3-4 distinct cases - ergative, absolutive, and genitive/dative. While in ordinary speech, the genitive and dative cases are not distinguished, in careful speech (or when it is necessary to distinguish them), there is a separate dative form.
Nouns are divided into three declension classes. Nouns consisting of one syllable belong to Class I. Nouns consisting of one syllable but two moras belong to Class II. Finally, nouns consisting of two or more syllables belong to Class III.

Class I Declensions
Ergative: unmarked sér
Absolutive: the pitch of the syllable is raised (low becomes rising, rising becomes high, high is unchanged) se̅r
Genitive/Dative: the suffix -(r)oo is added séroo

Class II Declensions
Ergative: unmarked tę́ęxt
Absolutive: the pitch of the syllable is raised (same as Class I) tę̅ęxt
Genitive/Dative: the mora is split so that the word becomes two separate syllables (see below). Then, the suffix -(r)oo is added tęęxę́ętoo
CV: syllables: the long vowel is split into short vowels, with an epenthetic [j] or [w] added to separate them.
CVC syllables: the onset and nucleus of the syllable is inserted before the final consonant.
CVCC: the nucleus of the syllable is inserted in between the two coda consonants.

Class III Declensions
Ergative: unmarked qę̅ęta
Absolutive: the stress moves from the penultimate syllable to the final syllable, and the pitch is raised qęęta̅
Genitive/Dative: the suffix -(r)oo is added qęęta̅roo

In all examples above, the stress of the noun can be shifted to the suffix -(r)oo to mark the Dative case (as opposed to the Genitive) if clarity is desired.

Sample sentences
Word order is generally free as a result of the cases, though the default is SOV.

Ko̅o qęęta̅roo ximu̅q nii kánt
˥ko:. ˩ ˨˦qœjˈ˥ta.˦˨rɔw ˩xɪˈ˨˦ ˥muq. ˩nɪj. ˨˦ ˥kaɳʈ.
1p.ERG man.GEN/DAT book.ABS PAST give
I gave the man a book

Ko̅oroo qę̅ęta ximu̅q nii kánt
ˈ˥ko:˦˨.rɔw. ˈ˥ ˦˨qø:.˩tə. ˩xɪˈ˨˦ ˥muq. ˩nɪj. ˨˦ ˥kaɳʈ.
1p.GEN/DAT man.ERG book.ABS PAST give
The man gave me a book

First time, hope I've done this right! [xD]
What can I say? I like making stuff up.

Lofdǣdum sceal in mǣgþa gehƿǣre man geþeon.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by k1234567890y » 05 May 2018 18:37

Jampot911 wrote:
05 May 2018 16:11
First time, hope I've done this right! [xD]
nice job you have done (:
I prefer to not be referred to with masculine pronouns and nouns such as “he/him/his”.

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Creyeditor
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Creyeditor » 05 May 2018 19:47

SPX

I call this SPX for speedlang X. I will start with describing the syntax.

Syntax and Intonation


Word order is 'free'. Depending pragmatic and parsing properties of the arguments and the verb different orders occur. Different roles are distinguished by intonation (!,prosody 1). The subject/agent is marked by a preceding upstep/reset (↑) if non-initial. The verb is usually marked by a preceding extreme downstep (↘) if non-initial. The object has a usual downstep in this position (↓). At the end of the word there is a boundary tone and some creaky voice (↘̤).

The following example of an intransitive shows the extreme downstep before the verb and the last vowel is creaky voiced and illustrates a fall because of the boundary tone. This is the default order and intonation.

<Dáda kíma.>
[rálə ↘ kímə̤ ↘]
sun\SG\DEF kima\NPST.IPFV.REA
The sun shines.

If we switch the order of verb and subject around, we see a change in intonation. There is now to options. The first one is subject shift. This is most often used with very long noun phrases as a subject. In this construction, the subject is deaccented, i.e. the high tone is not realized. Additionally, the register is upstepped before the subject constituent. So, even though the pitch of all syllables of the subject is equal, each of the syllables has a higher pitch than those of the verb.

<Kíma dáda>
[kímə ↑ ralə̤ ↘]
shine\NPST.IPFV.REA sun\SG\DEF
The sun shines. or It shines, the sun.

Topicalization moves an argument, the verb or both the object and the verb to an initial position. If we topicalize the verb in an intransitive sentence, we get the same word order as above, but with a different intonation. The subject is still preceded by an upstep, but this time it is not deaccented. This means that the accented syllable in <dáda> is pronounced higher than the unaccented one.

<Kíma dáda>
[kímə ↑ rálə̤ ↘]
shine\NPST.IPFV.REA sun\SG\DEF
As for shining, the sun does it.

Topicalization is also the place where we usually see the upstep of the subject. If we have a transitive verb and topicalize the object, we arrive at a OSV word order. As above the upstep marks the subject. Note that both sentences have a NP NP V structure, but the intonation distinguishes between the two arguments.

<Píwo dáda dádo. >
[píwə ↓dádə ↘ládə̤ ↘]
girl/SG/DEF sun\SG\DEF admire/\NPST.IPFV.REA
The girl admires the sun.

<Dáda píwo dádo. >
[dádə ↑píwə ↘ládə̤ ↘]
sun\SG\DEF girl/SG/DEF admire/\NPST.IPFV.REA
The sun, the girl admires.

Polar questions are distinguished by a rising intonation at the end of the sentence. Additionally, all downsteps are deleted. The creaky voice of the last vowel is kept.

<Píwo dáda dádo? >
[píwə dádə ládə̤ ↗]
girl/SG/DEF sun\SG\DEF admire/\NPST.IPFV.REA
Does the he girl admire the sun?

<Dáda píwo dádo? >
[dádə ↑píwə ládə̤ ↗]
sun\SG\DEF girl/SG/DEF admire/\NPST.IPFV.REA
As for the sun, does the girl admire it?

In the spoiler are the possible combinations I envision.
Spoiler:
In the following, creaky voice will be noted after the last constituent to indicate its position on the last vowel. Deaccented consituents are marked with a mid tone mark.

Declarative sentences
SOV = NP ↓NP ↘V ↘̤ (default)
OSV = NP ↑NP ↘V ↘̤ (topic=object)
SVO = NP ↘ V ↓N̄P̄ ↘̤ (object shift)
OVS = NP ↘V ↑NP ↘̤ (topic=verb+object)
OVS = NP ↘V ↑N̄P̄ ↘̤ (subject shift)
OVS = NP ↘V ↑N̄P̄ ↘̤ (subject shift)
VOS = V ↓NP ↑N̄P̄ ↘̤ (topic=verb, subject shift)
VOS = V ↓N̄P̄ ↑N̄P̄ ↘̤ (object shift, subject shift)
VSO = V ↑N̄P̄ ↓N̄P̄ ↘̤ (subject shift,object shift)
VSO = V ↑NP ↓NP ↘̤ (topic=verb)
VSO = V ↑NP ↓N̄P̄ ↘̤ (topic=verb,object shift)

Wh-Questions
SOV = wh ↓NP ↘V ↘̤ (wh=subject)
OSV = wh ↑NP ↘V ↘̤ (wh=object)

Polar question
SOV = NP NP V ↗̤ (default)
OSV = NP ↑NP ↘V ↗̤ (topic=object)
SVO = NP V N̄P̄ ↗̤ (object shift)
OVS = NP V ↑NP ↗̤ (topic=verb+object)
OVS = NP V ↑N̄P̄ ↗̤ (subject shift)
OVS = NP V ↑N̄P̄ ↗̤ (subject shift)
VOS = V NP ↑N̄P̄ ↗̤ (topic=verb, subject shift)
VOS = V N̄P̄ ↑N̄P̄ ↗̤ (object shift, subject shift)
VSO = V ↑N̄P̄ ↓N̄P̄ ↗̤ (subject shift,object shift)
VSO = V ↑NP ↓NP ↗̤ (topic=verb)
VSO = V ↑NP ↓N̄P̄ ↗̤ (topic=verb,object shift)
Morphology

Morphology almost exclusively manipulates the length and pitch of the penultimate syllables (prosody2). Vowels and consonants can be long or short. I will use the term accent and high tone interchangeably here. Nouns decline for numbers and definiteness. Number distinguished between singular, dual and plural. Definitness includes unique definite, anaphoric definite and indefinite. Unique definites can be used when the referent is already in the common ground and is uniquely identified. The anaphoric definite is used if the referent has been mentioned before. Here is an example declension. The vowels act differently in this case, because the word is underlyingly /raila/.

<dáda> - the sun
<dáida - the two suns
<dádaa - the suns

<daddá - the aforementioned sun
<daiddá> - the aforementioned two suns
<daddáa> - the aforementioned suns

<dadá> a sun
<daidá> two suns
<dadáa> some suns

Additionally, there is a suffix -u, which is used to mark focus. This suffix can overwrite the last vowel, if it occurs in a category that requires the last vowel is short. Compare the following to forms:

<dadú> it's a sun
<dadaú> it's some suns

Verbs can be marked for tense, aspect, mood and negation. Negation is the only segmental prefix that exists in conjugation. It can never change its tone or length because it can never occur later than the penultimate.

<kíma> to shine
<tikíma> to not shine

Aspects distinguished between perfective, imperfective and habitual. Habitual aspect is used for actions that happen repeatedly with some longer intervalls in between where the action does not happen. The whole time span of the action extends before and after the reference time. Imperfective aspect is used when the time span one is talking about is a sub-part of the time span of the action. The perfective is used in all other cases. As for tenses, past and non-past are distinguisged. In the irrealis mood, no tense distinctions are made, but aspect is still distinguished. A full conjugation is the following:

<kíma> it shines
<kímma> it has shone
<kíimaa> it usually shines

<kimá> it was shining
<kímaa> it shone
<kíimma> it used to shine

<kímmaa> it would shine
<kíimmaa> it would have shone
<kiimmáa> it would use to shine

In the spoiler is a list of morphological categories
Spoiler:
NOUNS
Number
plural: lengthen last vowel (...VCVː#)
dual: lengthen penultimate vowel (...VːCV#)

Definitness
definite: accent penultimate vowel (...V́ːCV#)
anaphoric definite: accent last vowel and lengthen last consonant (...VCːV́#)
indefinite: accent last vowel (...VCV́#)

Focus: suffiix -u

VERBS
Tense, aspect, mood
past.perfective.realis: lengthen last vowel and high tone on penultimate (...V́CVː#)
past.imperfective.realis: high tone on the last vowel (...VCV́#)
nonpast.imperfective.realis: high tone on penultimate vowel (...V́CV#)
nonpast.perfective.realis: lengthen last consonant, high tone on penultimate vowel (...V́CːV#)
past.habitualis.realis: lengthen penultimate vowel and high tone on penultimate (...V́ːCV#)
nonpast.habitualis.realis: lengthen penultimate vowel and last vowel, high tone on penultimate vowel (...V́ːCːV#)
irrealis.perfective: lengthen penultimate, last consonant and last vowel, high tone on penultimate (...V́ːCːVː#)
irrealis.imperfective: lengthen last consonant and last vowel and high tone on penultimate vowel (...V́CːVː#)
irrealis.habitualis: lengthen penultimate, last consonant and last vowel (...VːCːV́ː#)

negation: prefix ti-
Phonology

All words have at least two syllables. Underlyingly, there is no tonal specification for the last two syllables, but every preceding syllable can be specified as either high or low. Syllables are always open, but there are geminate consonants and long vowels in every position of the word. Additionally diphthongs exist, but these often neutralize with short vowels, because of the requirements of certain morphological categories.

As seen in the examples at the top of this post, utterance final vowels become creaky voiced. Utterance initial stops are aspirated. Short, non-accented vowels are reduced to a shwa (prosody3).

<kíma> /kíma/ [kímə] it shines
<kíimaa> /kíːmaː/ [kíːmaː] it usually shines
<kimá> /kimá/ [kəmá] it was shining

Post-alveolar consonants only occur before front vowels. We do not find alveolar consonants in this position. One could thus say that the latter are allophones of the former. This also happens if the vowel is reduced.

<qóolii> /ʔóːliː/ [ʔóːl̠iː] It usually rains.
<lóti> /lóti/ [lótʃə] It is sparkling.

The vowel inventory has four vowels, each occuring in long and short versions. This would make only eight vowels [O.O] But the diphthongs save me. Note that the distinction between diphthongs is neutralized in morphological categories, where a vowel needs to be short.

/i i: u u:/ <i ii u uu>
/o o: ou/ <o oo ou>
/ai a a: au/ <ai a aa au>

The consonant inventory features the glottal stop as a post-velar consonant. There are no fricatives. The difference between /r/, /l/ and /d/ is not written. Post-alveolars are the second coronal POA. Nobody said it needs to be phonemic [}:D]

/m n n̠/<m n n>
/b t d tʃ dʒ k ʔ/<b t d t d k q>
/r~l r̠~l̠/ <d d>
/w j/<w y>
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Davush » 06 May 2018 14:53

Well, I had hoped to get more done than this but oh well. Here is a measly sketch of 'Ozeze. I generally don't like making languages which I can't pronounce easily, so tone + coronal distinctions is quite outside my comfort zone, which is what Gestaltist hoped, I think! Anyway, I will probably use this in my conworld and maybe develop it further. It is semi-inspired by tonal African languages, but I hope that it also has its own interesting aesthetic.

'Ozeze
'Ozeze is probably an isolate, spoken just South of the world's largest mountain range, in an inland region which sees long, very cold winters.

Phonology

Vowels:
Vowels feature ATR harmony within words. This is not distinguished in the orthography with <i u e o a> being used for both sets.

+ATR /i u e o ə/
-ATR /ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ ɑ/

Diphthongs do not occur, and a glottal stop occurs between vowels in hiatus.

Consonants
The most interesting feature of the consonantal system is the lamino-dental and apico-alverolar distinction in the coronals. Roots often feature 'coronal' harmony, in that all coronals within a root must be either apical or laminal.

/p t̻ t̺ k ʔ/ <p t rt k '>
/b d̻ d̺ g/ <b d rd g>
/m n̻ n̺/ <m n rn>
/s̻ s̺/ <s x>
/r̻ r̺ ʁ/ <z r gh>
/j~w/ <y>

Unvoiced stops do not appear in low-tone syllables. Voiced stops do not appear in high-tone syllables. All stops are contrastive with mid-tone syllables.

Laminal /r/ is similar to the Czech <ř> in that it is raised and there is more friction.
Apical /r/ is an alveolar trill. It may also be a tap or /l/. /l/ is considered a feminine realization.

/ʁ/ varies in realization from /ɣ~ʁ~ɰ~ʕ/.

/w/ can be considered an allophone of /j/ before back rounded vowels.

All unvoiced stops and nasals can be geminated.

Tone
Tone is quite complex in 'Ozeze being both lexical and also used for certain grammatical purposes. It has 5 tones: 3 level and 2 contour. Using numbers 1-5 to mark relative pitch, they are:

High: 55
Mid: 33
Low: 11
Rising: 35
Falling: 31

Rising and falling tones do not appear in roots, and can be considered 'modified' tones for grammatical purposes.

'Ozeze orthography is very deficient, and only the high tone and contour tones are indicated in the orthography (and even then, not always).

High tone is marked by an acute. The contour tones double the vowel, and rising has an acute and falling a grave. Example of possible values for orthographical forms:

/kə.5/
ka /kə.3/ or /kə.1/
kaá /ka.35/
kaà /ka.31/

Disyllabic words are the most common, with HL being the default pattern. This is unmarked. LH is the second most common, with the final H being marked. Of the possible 9 combinations, 7 occur. HM and LM do not occur.

In trisyllabic words, a falling contour HLM is the default and unmarked. A rising contour LMH is the second most common, with final H being marked. The same tone cannot occur over 3 adjacent syllables, i.e. HHH, MMM, LLL are not valid. No trisyllabic words end in MM.

karnaxa /kɑ5.n̺ɑ3.s̺ɑ1/
karnaxá /kɑ1.n̺ɑ3.s̺ɑ5/

Words longer than 3 syllables are rare. The exact number and distribution of tonal patterns has yet to be discovered.

Nouns
The plural is formed by changing the tone of the final syllable.
H > Falling
L > Rising
M > H or L (lexically determined)

E.g.
/nə5/ boy
naà /nə31/ boys

no /nɔ1/ girl
noó /nɔ35/ girls

nu /nu3/ child
nu /nu1/ children

The oblique case which must be used with a following modifier makes use of tone reversal whereby the pattern of the word reverses. This often also causes reversal of voicing.
E.g.:
HL > LH
LH > HL
HML > LMH
LMH > HLM
etc.

kada /kə5.də1/ > gatá /gə1.tə5/ 'mat'
ughú /ʊ1.ʁʊ5/ > ughu /ʊ5.ʁʊ1/ 'basket'
xaxarna /sɑ5.sɑ3.nɑ1/ > xaxarná /sɑ1.sɑ3.nɑ5/

When used with the particle me /mɛ3/, the oblique functions as an accusative. When used with /bi1/ it functions as a genitive.

ughu bi noó /ʊ5.ʁu1 bi1 nɔ35/ 'the girls' basket'

Default word order is SVO. O does not take overt marking in this position.

rte /tɛ3/ 'to drink'
'anege /ʔə5.ne3.ge1/ 'water'

rdo 'arteyá 'anege
/dɔ3 ʔɑ1.tɛ3.ja5 ʔə5.ne3.ge1/
1sg drink-DECL water
'I drink water'

An emphasised object can move before the verb in the oblique + particle me /mɛ3/.

'aneké me (rdo) 'arteyá
/ʔə1.ne3.ke5 mɛ3 dɔ3 ʔɑ1.tɛ3.jɑ5/
'It is the water that I drink'

Pronouns seem to have fused with a lot of clitics indicating TAM.

rdozóko 'aneké me rteká?
/dɔ̄.ɾ̻ɔ́.kɔ̄ ʔə́.nē.ké mɛ̄ tɛ̄.kɑ́/
1sg.INTER water.OBL ACC drink.INTER
Should I drink the water?

muru 'orte 'anege
/múrù ʔɔ̀tɛ̄ ə́nēgè/
1sg.PAST PAST-drink water
I drank the water

murúko 'aneké me 'órte?
/mūrúkō ʔə̀nēké mɛ̄ ʔɔ́tɛ̄/
1sg.PAST.INTER water.OBL ACC PAST-drink
Was it water that I drank?

That probably as much as I'll get done sadly!

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by spanick » 06 May 2018 17:32

I spent too much time trying to come up with a cool prosody system then finally just said “F it” and went a little ridiculous but it was way more fun haha. I’ve never really done an ergative-absolutive language before so I didn’t get around to things like the anti-passive but I think there’s enough of the basics here to get going. I just wanted to post.

Once I got going, I think I spent cumulatively 3-4 hours on this.

————————
Poma Šanera

Phonology
/p t k/ <p t k>
/s ʃ/ <s š>
/ts tʃ/ <c č>
/m n/ <m n>
/ʁ/ <r>

Vowels
/i e u o a/ <i e u o a>
All vowels can be lengthened. Length is not indicated in writing.

Ex.
čanta /tʃa:nta/ “apple”
čanta /tʃanta/ “to give”

CV(V/N)(C)
N = any of <m n r>

Four tones: high, low, rising, falling.
Tones mark for grammatical case of nouns and pronouns: ergative, absolutive, genitive, dative. Tone is only marked on the first syllable. The “dictionary” or reference form is always given in the low tone.

Ex: manat “house”
E mānat
A manat
G mánat
D mànat

The tone always falls on the first syllable. In multisyllable words, the final pitch spreads across the remaining syllables. This means that with high and rising tone the remaining syllables will take high tone. With low and falling tone the remaining syllables are all low tone.

The tones continue to plateau until a noun, adjective, or verb is met.

Tone Sandhi:
- when a low tone is followed by a high tone the low tone becomes a rising tone
- when a high tone is followed by a low tone the high tone becomes a falling tone
- When a rising tone is followed by a low tone or a rising tone it becomes a low tone.
- When a falling tone is followed by a high tone or a falling tone it becomes a high tone.

Nouns mark for that plurality by reduplication of the onset. Onsets with long vowels reduplicate long vowel and shorten the original onset: CVVCV > CVVCVCV

Ex. šurent “young man” > šušurent “young men”

Adjectives mirror the tone of the noun they modify.

Ex.
manat maka “large house”
mānat māka
Etc.

Similarly, verbs take on the tone of the grammatical subject, regardless of the position in the sentence. For intransitive verbs this would be the low absolutive tone and for transitive verbs it would be the high ergative tone.

Šūrent čanta nāme. “The young man eats the apple.”
Sūrent nāme čanta.
Nāme čanta šūrent.

Čanta kalompe. “The apple rots.”

Pronouns function like nouns.
1S mana
1P mamana
2S tonte
2P totonte
3S kerši
3P kekerši

Verbs do not mark for number or person but take TAM endings. Unmarked verbs are gnomic.

Tense
Past -pon
Recent Past -cant
Near Future -čara
Future -kera

Aspect
Perfective -mu
Imperfective -sati

Mood
Conditional -sač
Opative -kinta
Subjunctive -kata
Imperative -te
Interrogative -ma

Syntax
Word order is free but there is a preference for the grammatical subject to precede the verb. Adjectives follow the nouns they describe and post positions immediately follow their noun.

I won’t go through all the possible combinations but placement towards the beginning of the sentence indicates topicality m.

Šūrent čāntacantmu pùša čanta roši maka mànat na.
HH HHHH FL LL LL LR FL L
“The young man gave the girl a big, red apple in the house”

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Nachtuil » 07 May 2018 04:33

Geepers, I didn't finish this in time. Oh the sad irony but real life got in my way too. This is as far as I got though. I had to restart because my first phonology and orthography was driving me up the wall so I went with something simpler and visually would resemble latin a bit. I saw "Laitoin" in the akwords list and it was obviously the perfect name for it. Hopefully I can "finish" this up later in the week and make some example sentences.

Laitoin

Phonemes:
/m n/ <m n>
/p t tʃ k q/ <p t c c q>
/f s ʃ/ < f s s>
/l j w/ <l i v>

/i ʉ u/ <i v v>
/e o/ <e o>
/a/ <a>
/eu oi ai au/ <ev oi ai av>

Phonotactics:
C : any consonant
V: Any vowel
N: /n s t/
(C) V(V) (N)

Special exemptions to above:
/tʃ ʃ/ only appears before /i e u ʉ/.
/q/ only appears after and before /e o a/
/ʉ/ only appears after /tʃ ʃ k/

Phonological processes:
/i e o a u ʉ / become /ĩ ẽ ɔ̃ ã ʊ̃ ʊ̃/ if the coda of a syllable is the end of a lexical unit and is an /n/
/t/ is silent word finally unless the voweling word starts with a vowel
If a vowel ends a word before another vowel starts a word, [h] is inserted.
/n/ assimilates to place of articulation of any following consonant within a single word

Stress:

Generally, nouns have their first syllable stressed and verbs will have their last syllable stressed. If a verb is turned into a noun, the stressed syllable changes appropriately.

If a word is compound, generally the first syllable that isn’t a prefix will be stressed.
Stress is indicated by a lengthening of the vowel and a slight rise in pitch. If a syllable in a polysyllabic word stressed, its onset becomes voiced if it is not already voiced. This is not reflected at all in orthography.


Pronouns, listed in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person.
Absolutive singular: lut kaus nai
Absolutive plural: lutẽ kauẽ sunaĩ
Ergative singular: uta noti ʃeu
Ergative plural: utã notẽ tʃeʊ̃
Genitive: te noi sut

Case suffixes:
Absolutive singular- Ø
Absolutive plural- n or na (first if last syllable lacks code, second if it has a coda)
Ergative singular - set
Ergative plural - sẽ
Genitive - leu


Verbal affixes:
Verbs mark for subject.
Present Imperfective suffixes:
1st singular- ki <ci>
1st plural - kĩ <cin>
2nd singular- kʉ <cv>
2nd plural - kʊ̃ <cvn>
3rd singular- la
3rd plural - lã

Past Imperfective suffixes:
1st- lus
2nd- luki
3rd - lus

Past perfective suffix: seki

Perfect prefix: fen
“fen” is used with the imperfective forms.

Infinitive suffix: kes
The infinitive suffix essentially causes the verb to be treated like a noun and may take case marking but is always treated as plural.

Noun Phrase Components:
Prepositions - definite or indefinite articles - (possessive article) noun - adjectives - (possessing noun)

Prepositions:
Accusative: po
Allative and benefactive: kʉs
Ablative and malefactive: tʃus
Adhesive case (on top or attached to): ai
Locative (at, by or with): ane
Between or inside: teja
Last edited by Nachtuil on 07 May 2018 23:17, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by gestaltist » 07 May 2018 11:34

I love everybody's entries. :) I must say this is exactly the kind of languages I wanted to see when I set the rules. Hope to see some more still. I also made a sketch and will post it when I have some time to clean it up.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Davush » 07 May 2018 12:27

gestaltist wrote:
07 May 2018 11:34
I love everybody's entries. :) I must say this is exactly the kind of languages I wanted to see when I set the rules. Hope to see some more still. I also made a sketch and will post it when I have some time to clean it up.
Thanks for making me go outside my comfort zone, even if it did just comfort how much I dislike making languages like this. [xD]

My comments on everyone's languages:

@k1234...
I like the stress movement and vowel reduction. Interesting vowel system. It somehow seems kind of Indo-European, although hard to tell from the example sentences.

@Jampot911
Nice consonant inventory! Retroflexes with front rounded vowels are always unusual to me. The language looks nice in its orthographical form. It reminds me of East African languages.

@Creyeditor
Interesting use of down/upstep, although it makes my head hurt thinking about trying to learn to speak such a language. Also the extreme use of prosody and tone for morphological reasons was cool - is there any natlang inspiration behind this?

@Spanick
This also feels quite IE. (in a good way) to me, kind of minimalist Baltic meets Punjabi somehow.

@Nachtuil
Interesting phonology and orthography, especially /ʉ/. Are the case markers all particles? I can't say how much it resembles Latin without an example sentence though [;)].

This was fun - interesting how a few of us used tone in a kind of similar manner.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Creyeditor » 07 May 2018 13:41

Davush wrote:
07 May 2018 12:27
@Creyeditor
Interesting use of down/upstep, although it makes my head hurt thinking about trying to learn to speak such a language. Also the extreme use of prosody and tone for morphological reasons was cool - is there any natlang inspiration behind this?
It was particulary based on Chimiini (Bantu; Somalia), Nuer (Nilotic; Sudan, Ethiopia) and Afar (Afro-Asiatic; Ethiopia) [:)]
Edit: And some Basque dialects, I forgot to mention that.
Last edited by Creyeditor on 07 May 2018 17:22, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by k1234567890y » 07 May 2018 16:23

Davush wrote:
07 May 2018 12:27
gestaltist wrote:
07 May 2018 11:34
I love everybody's entries. :) I must say this is exactly the kind of languages I wanted to see when I set the rules. Hope to see some more still. I also made a sketch and will post it when I have some time to clean it up.
Thanks for making me go outside my comfort zone, even if it did just comfort how much I dislike making languages like this. [xD]

My comments on everyone's languages:

@k1234...
I like the stress movement and vowel reduction. Interesting vowel system. It somehow seems kind of Indo-European, although hard to tell from the example sentences.

@Jampot911
Nice consonant inventory! Retroflexes with front rounded vowels are always unusual to me. The language looks nice in its orthographical form. It reminds me of East African languages.

@Creyeditor
Interesting use of down/upstep, although it makes my head hurt thinking about trying to learn to speak such a language. Also the extreme use of prosody and tone for morphological reasons was cool - is there any natlang inspiration behind this?

@Spanick
This also feels quite IE. (in a good way) to me, kind of minimalist Baltic meets Punjabi somehow.

@Nachtuil
Interesting phonology and orthography, especially /ʉ/. Are the case markers all particles? I can't say how much it resembles Latin without an example sentence though [;)].

This was fun - interesting how a few of us used tone in a kind of similar manner.
you can say so (:

and I already have a recent language outside of the speedlang challenge that uses tones for noun cases...
I prefer to not be referred to with masculine pronouns and nouns such as “he/him/his”.

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spanick
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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by spanick » 07 May 2018 17:01

Davush wrote:
07 May 2018 12:27

My comments on everyone's languages:

@Spanick
This also feels quite IE. (in a good way) to me, kind of minimalist Baltic meets Punjabi somehow.
Huh, interesting! I can’t say either of those entered into my mind. For the tone system I was inspired actually more by pitch accent systems in Africa. The phonology, syllable structure, and verb marking were mostly inspired by Native American languages, particularly Yokutsan languages but much more minimalist and simplified. It started to take on an aesthetic quite different than my normal conlangs, so I’m pleased with the result.

Yours was actually my favorite of the Speedlangs. The tone reversal and voicing inversion was especially cool. Was that inspired by a natlang? I also liked the change in tone to indicate plurality
gestaltist wrote:
07 May 2018 11:34
I love everybody's entries. :) I must say this is exactly the kind of languages I wanted to see when I set the rules. Hope to see some more still. I also made a sketch and will post it when I have some time to clean it up.
Thanks for the interesting rules! Prosody is probably my favorite part of phonology but by having to make it grammatical, it added an extra dimension to the challenge. Well done. This was very fun and I definitely want to participate in more.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Jampot911 » 07 May 2018 17:20

spanick wrote:
07 May 2018 17:01

Thanks for the interesting rules! Prosody is probably my favorite part of phonology but by having to make it grammatical, it added an extra dimension to the challenge. Well done. This was very fun and I definitely want to participate in more.
I could agree more! This was my first speedlang event, and I can't wait for future ones. Thanks for putting the rules up (and the comments on my entry) Davush, and I love the experimentation in all of the other entries. They really pushed me to try out things that I'd never really thought about for my conlang before!
What can I say? I like making stuff up.

Lofdǣdum sceal in mǣgþa gehƿǣre man geþeon.

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by shimobaatar » 07 May 2018 20:26

Rsagiimabut

Phonology:
  • At least ten phonemic vowels (including diphthongs and long vowels).
  • At least two coronal POAs.
  • At least one post-velar consonant.
  • At least one prosodic element that fulfills an important grammatical function.
  • Mora-based prosody.
  • At least one morphophonological process motivated by prosody.
  • Underspecified romanization.
/b t ʈ k q/ <b t rt k q>
/θ s ʂ h/ <ð s rs h>
/m n ɳ ŋ/ <m n rn g>
/ɾ ɽ/ <d rd>

/i˧ i˥ iː˧ iː˥˧ iː˧˥ æ˧ æ˥ æː˧ æː˥˧ æː˧˥/ <i í ii íi ií a á aa áa aá>
/u˧ u˥ uː˧ uː˥˧ uː˧˥/ <u ú uu úu uú>

/iʊ̯˧ iʊ̯˥˧ iʊ̯˧˥ uɪ̯˧ uɪ̯˥˧ uɪ̯˧˥/ <iu íu iú ui úi uí>
/æɪ̯˧ æɪ̯˥˧ æɪ̯˧˥ æʊ̯˧ æʊ̯˥˧ æʊ̯˧˥/ <ai ái aí au áu aú>

Basic syllable structure is (C)V(N), where N = /t s n/. Sequences of two syllable nuclei are not allowed, but word-initially, onset-less syllables can occur. /h/ is inserted between two adjacent vowel nuclei. Long vowels and diphthongs consist of two morae, whereas short vowels and coda consonants are both one mora each. Syllables can therefore be up to three morae. Stress is assigned to the "heaviest" syllable in a word, that with the most morae. If two or more syllables are equally "heavy", the first "heavy" syllable from the right is assigned stress, unless that syllable is final, in which case the second "heavy" syllable from the right is assigned stress. Underlying long vowels are shortened in unstressed syllables. If a long vowel carrying falling or rising tone is shortened, the resulting short vowel is one carrying high tone. Different morae in the same word may be assigned higher pitch based on that word's role in a sentence. Most morae, however, carry mid tone, which tends to be lowered around high tone morae.

When following a coda consonant from a preceding syllable, /h/ assimilates completely. The sequences /tɾ sɾ nɾ tɽ sɽ nɽ/ become [tt ss nn ʈʈ ʂʂ ɳɳ]. Coda /t n/ assimilate to following onset consonants in POA. Coda /s/ does as well, but remains /s/ before non-coronal consonants. The sequences [ʈʈ ʈʂ ʈɳ ʂʈ ʂʂ ʂɳ ɳʈ ɳʂ ɳɳ] are spelled <rtt rts rtn rst rss rsn rnt rns rnn>. [ɴq] is written as <gq> The clusters /tb sb/ are realized as [bb zb]. Fricatives are also often voiced when adjacent to nasals. For some speakers, stops may be as well. Word-initially, voiceless stops are aspirated, and /b/ is closer to [p~b̥]. Word-finally, /t n/ tend to be realized as [t̚ ɴ]. Vowels are often nasalized before a coda nasal, and may be slightly lengthened before coda /s/. In some areas, /θ/ may tend to be realized as labial. High vowels are lowered to their mid counterparts around /q/.

In an alternate, underspecified romanization, pitch and length are not marked, and reflecting consonant assimilation orthographically is optional.

Morphosyntax:
  • At least one prosodic element that fulfills an important grammatical function.
  • Moderately flexible word order.
The language has tripartite alignment. It tends to be head-final within phrases, and unmarked word order is typically SOV, although case marking generally allows for more flexible word order, which is used for emphasizing certain arguments or perhaps things like topicalization or focus. Oblique arguments tend to follow verbs, but again, word order is rather flexible.

All nominal roots are bimoraic or longer. The intransitive case, taken by the single argument of an intransitive verb, is unmarked. The ergative case, taken by the agent of a transitive verb, is marked by the presence of higher pitch on the penultimate vocalic mora of the noun's root. The accusative case, taken by the patient of a transitive verb, is marked by the presence of higher pitch on the ultimate vocalic mora of the noun's root. Other cases are marked with prefixes. The vocative case is formed from the intransitive stem, the genitive case is formed from the ergative stem, and the postpositional case is formed from the accusative stem.

Here are some examples, using baha "water":

(Case abbreviation: Standard orthography / Broad transcription / Narrow transcription / Underspecified orthography)

INTR: baha /bæ˧hæ˧/ [ˈb̥æ˧hæ˧] baha
ERG: báha /bæ˥hæ˧/ [ˈb̥æ˥hæ˩] baha
ACC: bahá /bæ˧hæ˥/ [ˈb̥æ˩hæ˥] baha
VOC: iibaha /iː˧bæ˧hæ˧/ [ˈiː˧bæ˧hæ˧] ibaha
GEN: ubbáha /ut˧bæ˥hæ˧/ [ˈub˩bæ˥hæ˩] utbaha
POST: kibahá /ki˧bæ˧hæ˥/ [kʰi˧ˈbæ˩hæ˥] kibaha

The pronouns, which can also act as possessive prefixes on nouns and agreement markers on verbs, are:

saa 1s / muu 1p
gudi 2s / bai 2p
tiu 3s / rsui 3p

Pronouns decline for case in exactly the same way nouns do. However, possessive prefixes are always the unmarked form of a pronoun. Some examples:

muhubbáha /muː˧ut˧bæ˥hæ˧/ [mu˧ˈhub˩bæ˥hæ˩] "of our water (1p-GEN-ERG\water)"
rsuí /ʂuɪ̯˧˥/ [ʂuɪ̯˧˥] "them (ACC\3p)"

Nominal number is usually determined through context, but a system of counters does exist for use with numerals.

Adjectives agree with their head nouns in case.

Aside from agreement markers, verbs do not take any affixes, and things like TAM tend to be marked adverbially when they cannot be inferred from the context. The forms of the pronouns that act as verbal agreement markers are determined by the case of the argument they agree with. For example, transitive verbs are prefixed with ergative and accusative forms of pronouns. Some examples of inflected verbs, using rtaima "to see":

ságudírtaima /sæː˥˧ŋu˧ɾi˥ʈæɪ̯˧mæ˧/ [sæ˥ŋu˩ɾi˥ˈʈæɪ̯˩mæ˧] "I see you (ERG\1s-ACC\2s-see)"
bairtaima /bæɪ̯˧ʈæɪ̯˧mæ˧/ [b̥æɪ̯˧ˈʈæɪ̯˧mæ˧] "you all see (2p-see)"

Finally, a full sentence as an example:

Múu ðiiqú bahá mútiúrtaima.
/muː˥˧ θiː˧qu˥ bæ˧hæ˥ muː˥˧tiʊ̯˧˩ʈæɪ̯˧mæ˧/
[muː˥˧ ˈθeː˩qo˥ b̥æ˩hæ˥ mu˥tiʊ̯˧˥ˈʈæɪ̯˩mæ˧]
We see the clear water.

Or, exhibiting word order's flexibility:

Ðiiqú bahá múu mútiúrtaima.
/θiː˧qu˥ bæ˧hæ˥ muː˥˧ muː˥˧tiʊ̯˧˩ʈæɪ̯˧mæ˧/
[ˈθeː˩qo˥ b̥æ˩hæ˥ muː˥˧ mu˥tiʊ̯˧˥ˈʈæɪ̯˩mæ˧]
It is the clear water that we see.

I had my doubts going in, but I'm actually pretty satisfied with this! Although, of course, like all the languages I make for these challenges, this is far from complete. I hope to revisit it at some point.

This took me around 2 hours, I'd say. Well, anyway, I look forward to #9 in a few months!

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Re: Speedlang VIII (May 4, 5, 6)

Post by Creyeditor » 09 May 2018 00:32

Here are my reviews:

@k12's:
I like the very subtle interpretation of non-phonemic orthography. Not writing the glottal stop word initially makes totally sense. I feel like there is a lot of interesting stuff going on with the compound vs. non compound distinction, but I somehow cannot help but to mix up your types. Was the terminology inspired by any natlang? Btw, having stress shift as plural marking only for compounds is a really cool idea. Also I like how the theme appears again in the past tense. Your second post for was most interesting for me, because isolated roots have lengthening as plural marking. Syllable counting allomorphy is kind of a hot topic [:)] Maybe also having two different -a suffixes that are different morphophonologically is definitely cool. I feel like you could have explained your grammatical categories a bit more.

@Jampot:
I was really suprised by the sheer quality of your speedlang. It looks very exotic and naturalistic at the same time. The unusual orthographic choice <ę> strengthens this impression. I like your allophonic rules, they are very unique, still they seem to make sense phonetically. /x/ -> [ʀ] is also cool. It adds to the Vanuatu vibe that I get from your language. I like the detail of your syllable structure description and the pitch accent system you chose. Tonal distinction only in the stressed syllable is rare in conlanging, IINM. Unfortunately, I had trouble understanding your tonal sandhi. Some description text would have helped. Does it only apply to adjacent (stressed) syllables? Or to tones in adjacent words? I found that difficult to get. Some examples would have also been fabulous. Interestingly you also have syllable counting allomorphy, just as k12 had. Btw, tę̅ęxt looks so sexy [:)] Also your stress and tone changing morphology looks a bit baroque, especially in combination with the declension classes, I like that. Also, the aesthetics of your examples sentences really impressed me.

@Davush: 'Ozeze
You really rocked the 'at least two coronal POA' condition, lamino-dental and apico-alverolar, that's really cool. I think that's not the only interesting thing. Three rhotics is also kind of nice. Also, tone consonant interaction is pretty dope. Coronal harmony another bonus point. I also enjoyed the description of the realization of your phonemes. That's so much better than just giving a phoneme inventory. I did not get some of the tonal processes. What repair strategy is used against the tonal constraint, e.g. the constraint against a sequence of three like tones. Tone reversal is a pretty cool rule, though. The syntax section is also reasonably elaborated, definitely and advantage.

@Spanick: Poma Šanera
The first and foremost thing I enjoy about your speedlang is the general feeling. It has a very cohesive and uniform note to it, which I like. And you managed to accomplish this with a really standard inventory. The tone to case correpondence is a bit to cookie-cutter for me, but I like how you did a very natural tone system. Tonal spreading, plateauing and Sandhi. Nice! This would have really benefitted from more examples and maybe a discussion of the interaction of these processes. Reduplication really supports the general feeling. Tone mirroring is a new concept to me. It looks very unique. Were you inspired by any specific natlang? It definitely allows for free word order [:)]

@Nachtuil: Laitoin
Nice idea for the non-phonemic orthography. This really fits the language name [;)] /ʉ/ is that certain je ne sais quoi. Nouns and verb distinction by stress is a nice idea, and I think ANADEW is true for that one. Voicing in the onset of a stressed syllable is unusual. Do you know of any natlang that does something similar? I would have loved to see your grammatical categories in actual use in examples. I understand that you ran out of time, though.

@shimobaatar: Rsagiimabut
What a vowel system! Tones and vowels yield 30 vowels? Is that true? Wow. I also like your general stress system. Weight-based stress, leftmost heavy syllable, very common and still a unique feeling. I had some problems getting the difference and connection between pitch, stress and tone. There seems to be some neutralization of tonal distinctions in unstressed syllables. What exactly does 'adding the presence of high pitch' mean? Tripartite and double marking is definitely a good way to do free word order. A very Northern American feel, maybe because the orthography is inspired by Americanist notation?
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