Mishero مِسْهَرو

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Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 20 May 2018 12:53

Mishero is my newest project. It's an a-priori conlang positioned somewhere in present Iraq.
It's an isolate and a minority language.
It's written with Arabic/Farsi letters.

See that the name is pronounced [ 'mis.hɛ.ro].
Last edited by Omzinesý on 26 May 2018 12:02, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 20 May 2018 12:58

Phonology and orthography

Consonants
p t k
b d g ɢ
m n ŋ
ɹ ɻ j
(f) s ʃ h*
z ʒ
l r

<
ک ت پ
ق ج د ب
غ ن م
ي ظ ذ
(ف loanwords only) ه~ح ش س*
ژ ز
ر ل
>

* /h/ is a voiceless glottal fricative syllable initially and a laryngeal voiceless fricative syllable-finally. That is also reflected in orthography so that ه is used syllable-initially while ح is used syllable finally. Syllable-final ه marks breathy voiced phonation of the syllable.

I have no idea which is the standard transliteration for /ŋ/ in languages written in Arabic orthography. I used غ just because it was free.

The glottal stop appears in vowel-initial words and between two vowels, but I don't count it as a phoneme. It's chair is always ی.


Vowels

There are three vowel qualities:
i u
ɛ ɑ

They can appear short or long.
They have one of three phonations: modal, breathy, or creaky.

/u/ has allophone [o] in absolute word ends.

Phonotaxis doesn't affect vowel qualities or lengths. The length distinction disappears in absolute word ends.

In the non(stem-)initial syllables /ɛ/ and /ɑ/ have a back-front vowel harmony, so that /ɑ/ appears in back-vocalic words while /ɛ/ appears in fron-vocalic words.


Short vowels aren't usually written. They can be written with diacritics though.

تَ tɑ
تَِ tɛ (both a and i diacritics)
تِ ti
تُ tu

Long vowels are written:

تا tɑɑ
تا tɛɛ
تي tii
تو tuu

Breathy voice is written with ه after the possible vowel letter.
Creaky voice is written with ع after the possible vowel letter.


Phonotaxis

Syllable structures are very simple:
(C)V(C)

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 20 May 2018 14:02

Nouns

Nominal inflection is suffixal.

Nouns have definite and indefinite forms.

The indefinite forms do not differentiate number (though pronouns like 'some' can be used). They have two cases: Nominative(-Accusative) and Ablative.

The definite forms differentiate two numbers: singular and plural, and threetwo cases: Nominative, Accusative, and Ablative.


The indefinite nominative is just the stem:

لم lum 'a man'
سايارا (seeyyeere) 'a car'

Ablative is formed by adding suffix /-it/ to consonant final words and /:t/ to vowel-final words.

لمت lumit 'about a man'
سايارات seeyyeereet 'about a car'


The singular nominative definite suffix (or article) is /-ha ~ -he/ and the plural nominative definite suffix is /-ni/.

لمها lumha 'the man'
لمني lumni 'the men'

سايارها seeyyeerehe 'the car'
ساياراني seeyyeereni 'the cars'


The singular Accusative definite suffix is /-hu/.

لمهو lumho 'the man ACC'
سايارهو seeyyeereho 'the car ACC'


The ablative marker is appears before the article:

لمتها lumithe 'about the man'
لمتني lumitni 'about the men'

ساياراتها seeyyeereethe 'about the car'
ساياراتني seeyyeereetni 'about the cars'
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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 20 May 2018 14:24

Adjective and genitive modifiers and N+N compounds

Modifiers of nouns usually appear in the unmarked case, Nominative.

If the possessor is definite, it also has a definite article.

لمها سايارها lum-ha seeyyeere-he 'the car of the man'

If the possessor does not have an article, the NP is usually understood as one concept.

سايارا لمها seeyyeere lum-ha 'the car man'

Adjective modifiers also precede their head in the unmarked form.

سيد لمها sayyid lum-ha 'the happy man'


Even personal pronouns have an article when genitive attributes.

لاها سايارها laa-ha saayyaara-ha 'my car'
laa meaning 'I'

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Davush » 20 May 2018 16:45

Very nice! I will be enjoying watching this, particularly since it's set in Iraq.

I would say perhaps consider using گ for /g/, since a lot of Iraqis use this informally for Iraqi-Arabic /g/. It's probably worth pointing out that in the southern half of Iraq, /aː/ is backed to /ɑː/ in all positions (I don't think /aː/ > /ɛː/ is that prevalent in Iraq in general), so sayyāra would probably be /sɛjjɑːrɛ/ or /sɛjjɑːrɑ/ if it's borrowed?

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 10:28

Davush wrote:
20 May 2018 16:45
Very nice! I will be enjoying watching this, particularly since it's set in Iraq.

I would say perhaps consider using گ for /g/, since a lot of Iraqis use this informally for Iraqi-Arabic /g/.
Yes, I know Farsi uses it and now I also know Iraqi Arabic uses it. I just personally like the letter. It's too close to کَ (k-letter + a-letter).
Davush wrote:
20 May 2018 16:45
It's probably worth pointing out that in the southern half of Iraq, /aː/ is backed to /ɑː/ in all positions (I don't think /aː/ > /ɛː/ is that prevalent in Iraq in general), so sayyāra would probably be /sɛjjɑːrɛ/ or /sɛjjɑːrɑ/ if it's borrowed?
My original idea was that /aj/ is seen as a diphthong in Mis.hero and that Arabic /ai/ is therefore interpreted as /ɛː/. But I don't know if it's a good idea.
But the main thing of Mis.hero vowels is the vowel harmony between /ɑ/ and /ɛ/.
So the word must be either /sɑjjɑ:rɑ/ or /sɛjjɛ:rɛ/.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 10:54

Verb Morphology

Verb inflection is mainly prefixal and agglutinative.

The pattern is:

[1 subject clitic][2 tense][3 progressive aspect or negation][4 stem][5 plural subject]


The only obligatory prefixes are [2 tense] and [4 stem].

The tense markers are:
e- 'non-past'
u - 'past'

(Some mood suffixes maybe appear in this slot too, I'm not sure yet.)

The progressive aspect prefix or negation is:
n- 'progressive'
Edit: r- or rrar- 'negation'
The subject clitics are:

š- '1st person'
b- '2nd person (indicative)'
biš- '1st and second person (dual) (indicative)' *

p- '2nd person imperative' **
piš 'ist and 2nd person (dual) imperative' * **

y - '3rd person'


All of the subject clitics can be pluralized bu the plural subject suffix
-ul 'plural subject'



* The exclusive 1st person dual as a part of the singular paradigm is actually typical for some aboriginal languages.
** Imperative mood is expressed by subject prefixed different from the indicative ones.


Questions still to be decided

What other affixes will appear in the tense slot 2?
- If there will be synthetic grammatical voices (a passive or an antipassive), they will appear there.
- If there will be moods of subordinate clauses (subjunctives etc.), they will appear there.
- Are there future tenses?

Are there non-finite verb forms (if there is not or not many subordinate moods)?
- They will appear in the subject prefix slot 1.
- Or they may be suffixes and appear in the slot 5.

Are there object affixes?
- That depends on the voice system.
- If there are object affixes, do they have to co-appear with subject prefixes or can they take the same slot 1.
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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 11:32

The tense-aspect system

So, there are two tenses (Past and Non-Past) and two aspects ("Non-Marked aspect" and Progressive).
There is no perfective-imperfective distinction typical to Arabic and Farsi. The system quite well corresponds to that of English. The most remarkable difference between the systems of English ans Mishero is that English has a productive future (will, shall, is going to) while Mishiro does with the Non-Progressive non-past (1). So Non-Progressive aspect can either mean habitual-iterative action or telic action that has no time span. An extra means of expressing the habitual aspect is using a copular construction with an actor noun, which is quite grammaticalized.

(1)
شَنپ
š-e-∅-nip
SG1-NPAST-NPROG-swim
'I swim ~ I will swim.'

(2)
شُنپ
š-u-∅-nip
SG1-PAST-NPROG-swim
'I swam.'

(3)
شَننپ
š-e-n-nip
SG1-NPAST-PROG-swim
'I am swimming.'

(4)
شُننپ
š-u-n-nip
SG1-PAST-PROG-swim
'I was swimming.'


The interpretation of the aspects depends on the semantics of the particular verb (Aktionsart).

Verbs that can be seen perfective/telic - lite nip 'to swim' -, usually have the perfective interpretation primary.
Stative verbs, on the other hand, don't differ that much by aspect, (5) vs. (6).

(5)
شَوهم
š-e-∅-uhm *
SG1-NPAST-NPROG-sit
'I sit.'

(6)
شَنهم
š-e-n-uhm
SG1-NPAST-PROG-sit
'I am sitting.'

*uhm is a vowel-initial stem, so the tense marker is merged with the stem and both 'I sit' and 'I sat' are pronounced [ʃu:m] (with breathy voice whose mark I couldn't type) but written شَوهم and شُوهم respectively, if the diacritic vowels are written, which is usually done when the vowels are tense markers.
Edit: Because the negative prefix r- or rarr- appear in the same slot, negative clauses do not make distinction between Pregressive and Non-Progressive.

(7)
شَرّرنپ
š-e-rrar-nip
SG1-NPAST-NEG-swim
'I don't swim. ~ I will not swim. ~ I am not swimming.'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 26 May 2018 12:40, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 11:55

Copular Constructions


Mishero, like Arabic, is a zero-copula language.

The predicate noun appears without article. In the present, it has the nominative case.

(1a)
لاَ ئتها
Laa-∅ atha-∅
me-NOM boy-NOM
'I am a boy.'

(2a)
ئتهانی شيّد
atha-ni šayyid
boy-PL.DEF happy
'The boys are happy.'

In the past tense, the predicate noun has the ablative tense *.

(1b)
لا ئتهات
Laa-∅ atha-it
me-NOM boy-ABL
'I was a boy.'

(2b)
ئتهانی شيّدت
atha-ni šayyid-it
boy-PL.DEF happy-ABL
'The boys were happy.'

* The historical motivation of such an Ablative use is 'I come from [the state of being] happy.' where the verb is left out in this abstract copular sense.
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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 12:26

Uses of Ablative Case

1) To express contrastive topic, (1b).

(1a)
بيل ماظی ئذک
bil me:ɻi e-ɹak
B M NPAST-love
'Bill loves Mary.'

(1b)
بيلت ماظی يَذک
bil-it, me:ɻi y-e-ɹak
B-ABL M he-NPAST-love
'Bill as for, he loves Mary.'

Nominative in that position expresses contrastive focus.
(3c)
بيل ماظی يَذک
bil me:ɻi y-e-ɹak
B M he-NPAST-love
'It's Bill who loves Mary.'

2) To appear with postpositions to make them express source (2b) instead of location or goal (2a)

(2a)
هارهو ن
he:r-hu n
house-DEF.SG in(to)
'in the house ~ (in)to the house'

(2b)
هارتهو ن
he:r-it-hu n
house-ABL-DEF.SG in(to)
'from the house'

3) To appear as a complement of some verbs, especially mental ones

شايتهو پوب
ša:y-it-hu š-e-ub
thing-ABL-SG.DEF SG1-NPAST-think
'I will think about the issue.'

4) To appear as the past predicate of copular clauses
See the message above.

5)I may make it appear with some quantifiers.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 26 May 2018 13:04

Corrections of phonology and orthography

ʔ glottal stop is not a phoneme but is pronounced as hiatus sound between two vowels (when they are not merged) and word-initially before a vowel (if the word is not pronounced as one intonational unit with the preceding word).

The chair of hanza is usually < ئ > (the y-letter). But in the beginning of verbs in the past tense, the chair is < ؤ > (the u-letter). If there is a subject clitic, the glottal stop is neither pronounced or written.
الله‌و 'God' is the only word where the glottal stop appears as ا <a-letter>, but it always appears in the Arabic form anyway.


The phonology allowes two "emphatic" consonants in Arabic loan words and even some native words have adopted them.

They are /tˠ/ and /dˠ/, <ط> and <ض> respectively.
The words that have them, do not allow the phoneme /ɛ/ but are always "back-vocalic".

Arabic sˠ is nativized as /ʃ/. /ʃ/ has, however, much allophonic variation and appears as [ɕ] before front vowels and [ʃˠ] elsewhere.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 29 May 2018 20:07

On pronominal object clitics

Objects refers here to indirect objects etc.

Object clitics appear in the same slot as subject clitics. That is they cannot coappear. Object clitics can only appear if there is a full subject NP.

The object clitics are:
l- 'me'
m- 'yuo'
amla 'me and you'
Edit: n- h- 'him/her/them/it'
Plural cannot bi specified by those pronouns.

Like subject clitics, also object clitics can be preceded by an NP as a contrastive topic (in the ablative) or focus (in the nominative).

Bill-and-Mary examples repeated with the Left-most NP as an object:


(1a)
بيل ماظی ئذک
bil me:ɻi e-ɹak
B M NPAST-love
'Bill loves Mary.'

(1b)

bil-it, me:ɻi n-e-ɹak
B-ABL M him-NPAST-love
'Bill as for, Mary loves him.'

Nominative in that position expresses contrastive focus.
(3c)
بيل ماظی يَذک
bil me:ɻi n-e-ɹak
B M he-NPAST-love
'It's Bill who Mary loves.

See that a normal predicate focus structure cannot be made object-initial. I'm still considering creating a passive voice.
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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 31 May 2018 14:07

Intonation and stressing

Mishero rather stresses phrases than words. That's quite typical for Arabic as well.

A typical clause has one stress group of topic NP and another of comment VP or NP. Object NPs don't thus have their own stresses. Furthermore there there can be adjuncts right to the verb that have their own stresses.

Stress is weight-sensitive but predictable. The main stress is positioned on the last heavy syllable of the stress unit. A heavy syllable has either a long vowel or a coda consonant. Consonantal postpositions don't however make the last syllable of the PP heavy, (1).

(1)
heer-he n
house-DEF.SG in
'In the house'
['hɛ:rhɛn], not *[hɛ:r'hɛn]

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 31 May 2018 14:23

Postpositions

The same postpositions can be used with the nominative to express location or direction or with the ablative to express source.

n ن
In something, into something; from something

ɹo ذو
In one's possession, to/for somebody, from somebody('s possession)

(1)
جپها زو هارت
gep-ha ro heer-it
man-DEF.SG GEN house-ABL
'The man had a house.'

ɹuun زون
near to something

d د
on something

h ح
'vocative postposition'

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 04 Jun 2018 20:32

Non-finite verb forms
Edit: EDITED


Action nominal is marked by suffix -i
- i 'Actor Nominal' (AN)

It can be used as noun (1) or as an (simultaneous) adjective (2)(3), i.e. participle. In Mishero, the difference between noun and adjectives isn't big at the beginning.

(1)
ub-i š-e-ɹak
think-AN SG1-NPST-love
'I love thinking.'

(2)
[ub-i ariis-ha] e-n-uhm
[think-ARN president-DEF] NPST-PROG-sit
'[The thinking president] is sitting.'

(3)
ub-i nir-ha e-n-uhm
think-ARN man-DEF NPST-PROG-sit
'The thinker/thinking man is sitting.'



There are also anterior and posterior participles:
-pa/pe 'anterior participle' (having done)
-šiš 'posterior participle' (going to do)

(4)
ub-pa nir-ha e-n-uhm
think-ANTER man-DEF NPST-PROG-sit
'The man having thought is sitting.'

They can sporadically be used as nouns as well. Anterior Participle as a noun expressed products of the action (5).

(5)
e-kteeb 'writes'
keteeb-pe 'text, writing'


There is also a negative action nominal whose marker is -ar, the same as the short finite negation marker. In can be used as a noun (6), or as an adjective (7).

-ar 'negative action nominal'

(6)
ub-ar š-e-ɹak
think-NEG.AN SG1-NPST-love
'I love not thinking.'

(7)
[uhm-ar nir-ha] e-n-ub
[sit-NEG.AN man-DEF] NPAST-PROG-think
'[The man that is not sitting] is thinking
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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 10 Jun 2018 12:45

I'm wondering if pronominal possessor should however be coded by a suffix, which is common in the area?

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 10 Jun 2018 13:07

The converbs of manner

The action nominals/participles can be made adjuncts or manner/mood by adding the ablative case suffix. (At least historically, it is the case suffix).

eɹ-i-t 'going'
eɹ-er-t 'not doing'

Temporal subordinate clauses

Temporal subordinate clauses are not as non-finite as those of manner. They have switch-reference marking.
If the subject of the temporal subordinate clause is different from the subject of the main clause (DS 'different subject'), the subordinate clause always has the progressive marker but it has all the same morphemes and arguments as a finite clause. The main clause can have or not have Progressive marker.

Nuura e-n-ub, Sami e-(n)-uhm
PN NPST-PROG-think PN NPST-(PROG)-think
'When Nuura is thinking, Sami is sitting.'

If the subjects of the main clause and the temporal subordinate clause are the same referent (SS 'same subject'), prefix n- appears in the subject pronoun slot of the verb of the temporal clause. Historically it must be the same as the progressive marker, but it appears in a different slot. The progressive marker in the normal slot cannot appear.

n-e-ub, Nuura e-(n)-uhm
SS-NPST-think, PN NPST-(PROG)-sit
When she is thinking, Nuura sits.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 11 Oct 2018 17:58, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by eldin raigmore » 10 Jun 2018 20:54

Interesting!

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 28 Jun 2018 14:49

eldin raigmore wrote:
10 Jun 2018 20:54
Interesting!
Nice that you like it!

-------------

I'm changing the Ablative marker to /i ~ j/.

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Re: Mishero مِسْهَرو

Post by Omzinesý » 06 Oct 2018 18:20

Nominal stems

Most nominal stems are either CVC or CVCVC. Derived stems may have suffixes.


Verbs stems

Typical verb stems are either -CC or -CCVC. There are CVC-stems too. They can be either native or older Arabic loans from the imperfective forms.

(1) š-e-kteb 'I write'

Newer Arabic loans are participles Ca:CiC. The same root can be loaned two times. The meanings can be different or there can be a register difference.

(2) š-e-kaatib 'I write'

Denominal verb stems and deverbal causatives or anticausatives are formed by suffixes -i and -u.

šeXi 'I make (something) X'
šeXu 'I become X'

There are though old native stems with -i or -u without the underived form.

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