Nortsääenglisch

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Re: Nortsääenglisch

Post by shimobaatar » 03 Nov 2018 04:18

spanick wrote:
08 Oct 2018 20:46
For the like two people who were following this, sorry for my absence. New job, second kid...I've been busy. I do intend to keep working on this project.
No need to apologize! Congratulations!
spanick wrote:
10 Oct 2018 18:16
Nortsääenglisch follows what is known as the “Northern Subject Rule” meaning that present tense verbs are conjugated differently depending on whether there is an adjacent pronoun.
Oh, interesting! Is this a phenomenon found in any natlangs, or is this a unique feature of Nortsääenglisch?
spanick wrote:
10 Oct 2018 18:16
Note how in the first example, both verbs take the plural ending –es but in the second example the verb immediately adjacent to the pronoun is marked is –e while the verb disconnected from the pronoun still takes the –es ending.
Wow, so pronouns have to be adjacent as in directly adjacent? I had, for some reason, assumed that just having a pronoun in the same sentence would call for the pronoun-adjacent endings.

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spanick
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Re: Nortsääenglisch

Post by spanick » 03 Nov 2018 18:10

shimobaatar wrote:
03 Nov 2018 04:18
spanick wrote:
08 Oct 2018 20:46
For the like two people who were following this, sorry for my absence. New job, second kid...I've been busy. I do intend to keep working on this project.
No need to apologize! Congratulations!
Thanks!
spanick wrote:
10 Oct 2018 18:16
Nortsääenglisch follows what is known as the “Northern Subject Rule” meaning that present tense verbs are conjugated differently depending on whether there is an adjacent pronoun.
Oh, interesting! Is this a phenomenon found in any natlangs, or is this a unique feature of Nortsääenglisch?
It was a feature of Northern dialects of late Old English into Middle English. I'm not sure if any living languages exhibit this.
spanick wrote:
10 Oct 2018 18:16
Note how in the first example, both verbs take the plural ending –es but in the second example the verb immediately adjacent to the pronoun is marked is –e while the verb disconnected from the pronoun still takes the –es ending.
Wow, so pronouns have to be adjacent as in directly adjacent? I had, for some reason, assumed that just having a pronoun in the same sentence would call for the pronoun-adjacent endings.
That's right. I kinda figured that assumption would be made, which is why I made that example haha

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Re: Nortsääenglisch

Post by spanick » 13 Nov 2018 00:22

Continuative/Progressive Aspect

Nortsääenglisch marks the progressive primarily in two main ways.

1) the first method, which is very common in all dialects is to use züü “to be” followed by on/an dät followed by a gerund of the main verb. The gerundial ending is -en.

Ex: Ik öm an dät wreiten. “I am writing”

2) the second method, which which most commonly found in the eastern dialects uses various positional verbs followed by töö “to” followed by the Infinitive.

Ex:
Ik zit töö vreite. “I’m writing” (Lit. I sit to write)
Ik stann töö beide. “I’m waiting” (Lit. I stand to wait)
Ik lei töö sliipe. “I’m sleeping” (Lit. I lay to sleep)

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Re: Nortsääenglisch

Post by spanick » 13 Nov 2018 20:04

Continuative/Progressive Aspect (Cont.)
Both of the aforementioned methods are transparently influenced by Dutch. Those familiar with this construction may have noticed that I didn't include an equivalent verb for Dutch lopen. In Nortsääenglisch, the cognate to lopen is lääpe "jump" and is not used for this purpose. Instead, the verb gange "to go, walk" is used. Using lääpe instead of gange is a good way to make yourself seem like an outsider as it's most often used by native Dutch speakers or foreigners who have more familiarity with Dutch.

Ex: Ik gaa töö zwime. "I'm swimming" (Lit. I go to swim)

The progressive can also be made past tense by making the auxiliary verb past, regardless of the method:
1. Ik wäs an dät wreiten. "I was writing."
2. Ik zät töö vreite. "I was writing."

The going-to Future
The reason I wanted to separate the progressive use of gange as an auxiliary is because it is very similar to the going-to future. This functions much like English and Dutch and uses gange followed by the infinitive.
Ex:
Ik gaa vreite. "I'm going to write."
Ik gaa gange. "I'm going to go."

This is another construction which is difficult for foreigners, particularly English speakers, becasue of its similarity to the progressive forms and the similarity to the English going-to future.

Example Conjugations
Below, I want to show the full conjugations of three common, irregular verbs: züü "to be"; habe "to have"; and gange "to go"

Infinitive: züü
Past Participle: wese
Present Participle: wesenn

Present (S/P)
1 öm/zinn
2 ärt/zinn
3 is/zinn

Past (S/P)
1 wäs/wäärs
2 wäär/wäärs
3 wäs/wäärs

Infinitive: habe
Past Participle: häd
Present Participle: häbenn

Present (S/P)
1 häb/habes
2 häst/habes
3 häd/habes

Past (S/P)
1 häd/hädes
2 hädest/hädes
3 häd/hädes

Infinitive: gange
Past Participle: gange
Present Participle: gangenn

Present (S/P)
1 gaa/ganges
2 gääst/ganges
3 gääd/ganges

Past (S/P)
1 güünng/güünges
2 güüngest/güünges
3 güünng/güünges

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