OK, some stuff on nominal inflection.
Case inflection. Of the original PIE cases the nominative/accusative have fully merged as zero-marked. The dative survives as a suffix -i which deletes a vowel that immediately precedes it, and results from the merging of o-stem and eH2
-stem datives. The genitive/survives as an ablative -(ə)l where the schwa is epenthesised after consonants, and is derived from genitive *-osyo
. The last inherited case ending is the instrumental -(ə)pś, derived from consonant stem *-bhi
Then added to this are some new case endings from old prepositions added to different case endings. The old accusative is continued in the ablative -as and perlative -aṣ derived from *-om-de
respectively. The dative forms the basis for the comitative -ixa, inessive -ija and superessive -ijən, from *-ey-kom
respectively, and again in all these cases the vowel of the case ending replaces a stem-final vowel.
To sum up then we have the following endings for case.
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Plural forms are somewhat less regular. Most nouns regularly take -e in the plural, which extends to -el- before other case endings besides the instrumental and ablative. However some nouns instead form their plural stem with an unalternating -əj or -əw, which sometimes descends from an old i- or u-stem, like ŏkś(əj) "snake", jək(əw) "horse", but not always, e.g. sur(ə)t~surtəj "newborn reindeer calf" (from Ugric). The equivalent forms of the dual are the more regular -et/-it/-ut respectively.
There are also some bisyllabic stems which syncopate the schwa when a suffix follows. Most of these are Ugric loans, e.g. tar(ə)ɣ "crane", xŏm(ə)s "marsh island", sŏr(ə)t "pike", though there are some IE-stems which do the same, e.g. łŏp(ə)n "dream", łew(ə)ɣ "sun". Similarly some roots insert a consonant before other suffixes, e.g. jŏk(n) "liver", łek(l) "pine" (from Ugric). All these take the regular -e/-et plural/dual endings.
Finally there are the possessive suffixes, which come after all the other suffixes. These show a three-way contrast in both person and number. The paradigm is as follows.
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SING DUAL PLUR
1 -(ə)m -mət -(ə)ne
2 -(ə)t -tət -we~-o
3 -(ə)l -lət (ə)le
The singular and 1st and 3rd plural forms insert the schwa after a consonant, while the 2nd plural -we monophthongises to -o in the same environment.
So some examples.
Pexŭn təmijal kəmen
Perkunos house-INE-3s.POSS sleep-1s.PRES
I will sleep in the Thunder God's house
kŏnem łəɣ juletəpś mŏxəlxəsĭn
woman-1s.POSS salt broth-DUAL-INS mix-DUR-3s.PRES
My wife is mixing salt into our stews