It is a Uralic language of the Finnic branch, where it more resembles the Southern languages, Estonian and Livonian. It's a minority language spoken somewhere in the Baltic countries or East from there.
- Recreation of a system of many sibilants and affricates
- No consonant gradation, or a very limited one
- Lack of rounded front vowels
- Lack of long vowels
- Preserves many coda consonants, NOM kagõł - ACC kagła Estonian: kael - kaela
- Lack of partitive singular, partitive plural develops to an indefinite plural absolutive
'Fish' is always the best example word.
NOMINATIVE: kal ~ kalõ (< kala, word-final /a/ reduces)
ACCUSATIVE: kala (< kalan, word-internal /a/ doesn't reduce)
GENITIVE: kala (< kalan, word-internal /a/ doesn't reduce)
DATIVE: kalen (< kalēn < kalaen < kala-hen (Finnish kalaan))
INSTUMENTAL: kalal (< kala-lla)
LOCATIVE: kala-s (< kala-ssa)
ABLATIVE: kala-st (kala-sta)
APPROXIMATIVE: kale-mpe (< kalēnpei < kalaenpein < kala-hen päin (Finnish kalaan päin))
TERMINATIVE: kala-ni (kala-nik)
INDEF. ABSOLUTIVE (PARTITIVE): kalot
Do you have anything more ready on this subject? It sounds like it could be interesting. Is the partitive plural supposed to be in contrast with the definite nominative/accusative plural or do you have a more complex split in mind?
My idea was just to preserve what already exist in Finnish at least. My Estonian grammar book, for some reason, doesn't tell about such a usage. Mirsian just increses the frequency of those uses.gach wrote: ↑22 Jan 2019 23:34Do you have anything more ready on this subject? It sounds like it could be interesting. Is the partitive plural supposed to be in contrast with the definite nominative/accusative plural or do you have a more complex split in mind?
Poikia leikkii pihalla.
Some boys are playing outdoors.
Pojat leikkivät pihalla.
The boys are playing outdoors.
I picked some flowers.
I picked the flowers.
This is thus not as innovative an idea as calling it an absolutive hints.
I think non-countable words will also often appear in this indefinite absolutive "plural" like in Saami.
Proto-Finnic had (maybe?) the following vowels:
*y, *i, *u
*y:, *i:, *u:
*ø:, *e:, *o:
1. Short /*y/ merges with /*i/
2. If back-vowels follow, /*e/ is backed, creating /ɤ/, it later rises (in most environments) to mid-high (merked ɪ̈ here).
3. Long /*y:/ dipthongize to [yi], which can be analysed as /uj/.
4. Long non-high vowels diphthongize /*ø:/ => /jø/, /*e:/ => /je/, /*o:/ => /wo/, /*æ:/ => /jæ/, /*ɑ:/ => /wɑ/
5. /jø/ backs to /jo/
6. /ɑ/ is fronted to [ä]
7. /æ/ sometimes merges with /ɑ/, sometimes with /e/
8. Short high vowel are lowered to mid-high.
9. Word-final vowel is lost if the word has more than to syllables or the first syllable is "strong" or closed.
10. Word-final /ä/ is lost or reduced to /ɜ/, which is considered an allophone of /ɪ̈/.
So the vowel system is something like:
uj, ij, uw
ɪ, ɪ̈, ʊ
C + glide develop to new affricates and sibilants
*t/*k + j => t͡ɕ
*t/*k + w => t͡ʃ
s* + j => ɕ
s* + w => ʃ
Diphtongs are still coming!
*ke:li 'language, tongue'
=> 4. kjeli => t͡ɕeli
9. doesn't affect (see Estonian ke:l) because the vowel is not long anymore.
=> 2. sɪ̈bra => 9. sɪ̈ber
=> 4. sjø(:) => 5. sjo(:) => ɕo(:)
=> 4. swo(:) => ʃo(:)
Some changes have already appeared
ESSIVE: šar-ra (< saar-na)
INDEF. ABSOLUTIVE (PARTITIVE): šar-id
p, t̪, k ʔ
b, d̪, g
t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ
s ʂ ɕ x
r l ʟ
(ⱱ, ɾ maybe)
Proto-Finnic had (maybe?)
p t k (and their weak allophones as voiced fricatives)
Many of the consonants could be geminated.
1) The inventory of affricates and sibilants is created from tj, tw, kj, kw, sj, and sw
*keeli => ćeli 'language'
2) Stops are voiced in voiced environments. Syllable-finally they are devoiced, anyway.
*koto > kodo 'home'
3) Gemninated stops are simplified to voiceless single stops.
*seppä => sepa 'smith'
4) l+v => ʟ, also l => ʟ after velars
*talvi => tałi 'winter'
*kakla => kageł 'neck'
There is a length distinction in both consonants and vowels in Miršian. Neither of them has much functional load.
Word-final stressed vowels are pronounced long. If such a word gets a suffix, the vowel stays long.
sa [sä:] 'gets' - sad [sä:t] 'you get'
Some consonants assimilate creating geminates.
šari 'island' - šarriq 'to the island'
It's questionable if Proto-Finnic had consonant gradation. My opinion is that it did somewhat but consonant gradations of different Finnic languages differ. Livonian and Veps have very little of it, while Estonian has very much.
Usually the "basic" consonant gradation is thought to be:
1) Short stops (p,t,k) appear as voiced fricatives (β,ð,ɣ) at the border of the first and second syllable if the second syllable is closed.
koto - koðo-t 'home - homes'
2) Geminates become "short geminates" at the border of the first and second syllable if the second syllable is closed.
seppä - seppä-t 'smith - smiths' (hard to type)
3. Consonants between two unstressed syllables, the second and third in practice, have the weak grade. (Comparable to Werner's law in Germanic)
In Miršian, gradation
1) disappears when all geminated stops are simplified to single stops.
I'm still considering if the elision of word-final vowels happens before the simplification of the geminates, because then it should always happen after a geminate.
*seppä => sepp => sep
*seppä => sepa = sepa
2) single voiceless stops are voiced. My first idea was that both the strong and weak versions become voiced stops, but I'm still considering if the weak versions could in some contexts appear as taps. Bilabial tap
3) does affect the paradigms, but its phonetic nature disappears.
sab < *saa-pi 'gets'
tulu < *tule-βi 'comes'
Some verbs, whose stem ends in /n/ also take -b in 3rd person.
mene 'I go'
mened 'you go'
menme 'we go'
mente 'you go'
menpad 'they go'
INDEF. ABSOLUTIVE (PARTITIVE): varba-h-i
Historically the verbs of 1st conjugation had an odd number of syllables.
Historically the verbs of 2nd conjugation had an even number of syllables.
Present sg3 and pl3 are both -b - word-finally devoiced [p]
Past: sg1 and sg2 have Past Marker -si; other persons -s
Sg3 and sg3 are always alike in 1st conjugation
saraq 'to arrive, to become'
Contraction verbs that historically have three-syllabic stems
*palađa => pala: => paloa => palo: => palo
pl3 palovd [päloft]
1st person form can have either -a or -e. 3rd person form always has -u.
The a or e is the original stem vowel (though some verbs with -u [or -o that first became -u]as their stem vowel have analogically changed it to -a or -e). The -u derives from -avi or -evi that appeared with bisyllabic stems in Proto-Finnic. (avi => aw => u, evi => ew => u)
The past has -i in 1st person and zero in 3rd person. -i is the original Finnic past marker. In 3rd person it has elided.
kandaraq 'to bear'
pl3 kandt [kant]
Many verbs that have PF *k - develops to g in the strong grade and ∅ in the weak grade - their stem are synchonically monosyllabic but part of 2nd conjugation.
tedoq 'to do/make'
Some verbs forms their sg3 and pl3 Present with -b that attaches to the consonant stem. The other persons are formed after the 2nd conjugation.
mendaq 'to go'
1. All unstressed /o/s merge with /u/s. That happens in Estonian too.
o [-stress] => u
2. All long /a:/s become /o/ (through /o:/).
a [+long] => o
3. Nouns ending in /u/, both original /u/ and earlier /o/, have Genitive in /o/ which is analogy with i-e nouns.
Miršian passive differs from those of Finnish and Estonian in that it agrees the number of its subject. Syntactically it also is more subjectlike than its counterparts.
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singular plural Present -taš -tašt Past -taś -taśt
'Is being done.'
In Finnish it eds up to "tehdään" and in Estonian to "tehtakse".
Miršian ends up to "tehtaš" where š is an irregular result from /ks/.
It has also gained a plural "tehtašt analogical with plural forms of many active verbs.
Its past form derives from:
'Was being done.'
Miršian ends up to "tehdaś" for singular and "tehdaśt" for plural, which are irregular developments from /js/.
ćeli 'language/tong' (Finnish kieli, Estonian keel)
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NOM ćeli GEN/ACC ćele DAT ćelel <= ćele-le (old allative) LOC ćeles ABL ćelet <= ćele-sta (old elative) APPR ćelemp <= ćele-mba-s (old comparative lative) TERM ćelenk <= ćele-ni-k (Estonian [i]keeleni[/i]) TRANSL ćeleš <= ćele-ksi (sporadically: ks => ʃ) COM ćelelzeš <= ćele-llise-ksi ABESS ćeletomš <= ćele-toma-ksi
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NOM/ACC ćeled GEN ćelede DAT ćelil LOC ćelis ABL ćelit APPR ćelimp TERM ćelink TRANSL ćeliš COM ćelelziš ABESS ćeletomiš
kal 'fish' (again)
The problem with the a-declension is that in Finnic usually rather the i of the i-declension is elided that the a.
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NOM kal GEN/ACC kala DAT kalal LOC kalas ABL kalat APPR kalamp TERM kalank TRANSL kalaš COM kalalzeš ABESS kalatomš
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NOM/ACC kalad GEN kalde DAT kaldel LOC kaldes ABL kaldes APPR kaldemp TERM kaldenk TRANSL kaldeš COM kalalziš ABESS kalatomiš
They are noun cases, in the above paradigm.
Approximative mean "towards" and Terminative "into, as far as". The lang distinguishes the semantic space of goal that way. Because there is no general goal case, I suppose Terminative is the goal case in practice.
Of course, the distinction is aspectual.
(1) Mene kaupungamp. 'I am going to(wards) the town.'
(2) Mene kaupungank. 'I will go (as far as) to the town.'
(3) Istu tolamp. 'I am sitting down on the chair.'
(4) Istu tolank. 'I will sit down on the chair.'
(5) Istu tolas. 'I am sitting on the chair.'