Tamin

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 31 Jan 2019 22:58

Tamin is a conlang I am working on alongside Soulla.

Overview
Word order: VSO, strongly right branching
Alignment: NOM-ACC
Morphological typology: Lightly fusional

Phonology

/m n ŋ/ m n ng
/ph p' b th t' d kh k' g ʔ/p p' b t t' d k k' g '
/s x̣ h/s kh h
/l̪ ɾ j w/l r y w

/i(:) u(:)/ i ii u uu
/e(:) o(:)/ e ee o oo
/ä(:)/ a aa

Phonotactics/Notes

1. /b d g/ are devoiced word initially and unreleased word finally.
2. /kh g ŋ h/ are palatal [ch ɟ ɲ ç/ before /i(:) e(:) j/.
3. /l̪/ is palatalized [l̪j] adjacent to /i(:) e(:) j/, and velarized [ɫ̪] adjacent to /u(:) o(:) a(:) w/. If /l̪/ is adjacent to a velarizating environment and a palatalizing environment, the environment that follows the /l̪/ takes precedence.
4. /ɾ/ merges with /l̪/ before an alveolar (and then takes palatalization/velarization as appropriate).
5. Sonorants can be lengthened intervocally.
6. Long vowels are not phonetically long when there is an obstruent in the coda.
7. /i e u o/ are lowered to [ɪ ɛ ʊ ɔ] before a sonorant.
8. Ejectives do not exist phonemically in the coda.
9. In a cluster of obstruents, the first obstruent assimilates to the phonotation of the second one. [phth/ /bd/ /p't'/. /s ɾ/ do not become ejective but do match for voicing.
10. /ɾ/ behaves as an obstruent in some environments (it blocks long vowels when it is in the coda, matches voicing, and devoices word finally) but as a sonorant in others (it can be lengthened intervocally, and triggers lowering of preceding vowels)
11. Nasals assimilate to the the POA of the following sound (Unless it is /j w/)

The maximum syllable size is (C)(j w)V(:)(C). /h/ cannot be in the coda, and /ŋ/ cannot be in the onset.
Last edited by CarsonDaConlanger on 06 Feb 2019 01:22, edited 1 time in total.

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 01 Feb 2019 01:57

Nouns
Nouns in Tamin decline to three cases (nom/acc, dative, and genitive) and two numbers (SG and PL).
Here are a few examples:

Lena [ˈl̪jɛ.nä] "Person"
Nom.Sg: Lena [ˈl̪jɛ.nä]
Nom.Pl: Lenaye [ˈl̪jɛ.näˌje]
Gen.Sg: Lenam [ˈl̪jɛ.näm]
Gen.Pl: Lenaam [ˈl̪jɛ.nä:m]
Dat.Sg: Lenas [ˈl̪jɛ.näs]
Dat.Pl: Lenase [ˈl̪jɛ.näˌse]

T'aar [tʼäɾ] "Foot"
Nom.Sg: T'aar [tʼäɾ]
Nom.Pl: T'aarie [ˈtʼäɾ.je]
Gen.Sg: T'aaram [ˈtʼä:.ɾäm]
Gen.Pl: T'aariem [ˈtʼäɾ.jɛm]
Dat.Sg: T'aares [ˈtʼä:.ɾes]
Dat.Pl: T'aalse [ˈtʼä:ɫ̪.se]

Heng [çɛŋ] "Word"
Nom.Sg: Heng [çɛŋ]
Nom.Pl: Hengie [ˈçɛɲ.je]
Gen.Sg: Hengam [ˈçɛŋ.äm]
Gen.Pl: Hengiem [ˈçɛɲ.jɛm]
Dat.Sg: Henges[ˈçɛɲ.es]
Dat.Pl: Hense [ˈçɛn.se]

Additionally, genitive pronouns can be affixed to the end of a noun, declension is done on the ending of the pronoun.

Soeno [ˈso.ɛˌno] (soe-no) "My food".
Edit: Corrected some typos and inconsistent transcriptions.
Last edited by CarsonDaConlanger on 07 Feb 2019 18:10, edited 1 time in total.

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Creyeditor
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Re: Tamin

Post by Creyeditor » 04 Feb 2019 21:44

CarsonDaConlanger wrote:
31 Jan 2019 22:58
Phonotactics/Notes

1. /b d g/ are devoiced word initially and unreleased word finally.
2. /kh g ŋ h/ are palatal [ch ɟ ɲ ç/ before /i(:) e(:) j/.
3. /l̪/ is palatalized [l̪j] adjacent to /i(:) e(:) j/, and velarized [ɫ̪] adjacent to /u(:) o(:) a(:) w/. If /l̪/ is adjacent to a velarizating environment and a palatalizing environment, the environment that follows the /l̪/ takes precedence.
4. /ɾ/ merges with /l̪/ before an alveolar (and then takes palatalization/velarization as appropriate).
5. Sonorants can be lengthened intervocally.
6. Long vowels are not phonetically long when there is an obstruent in the coda.
7. /i e u o/ are lowered to [ɪ ɛ ʊ ɔ] before a sonorant.
8. Ejectives do not exist phonemically in the coda.
9. In a cluster of obstruents, the first obstruent assimilates to the phonotation of the second one. [phth/ /bd/ /p't'/. /s ɾ/ do not become ejective but do match for voicing.
10. /ɾ/ behaves as an obstruent in some environments (it blocks long vowels when it is in the coda, matches voicing, and devoices word finally) but as a sonorant in others (it can be lengthened intervocally, and triggers lowering of preceding vowels)
11. Nasals assimilate to the the POA of the following sound (Unless it is /j w/)

The maximum syllable size is (C)(j w)V(:)(C). /h/ cannot be in the coda, and /ŋ/ cannot be in the onset.
I like that you put some thought in the allophony.
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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 06 Feb 2019 01:16

Creyeditor wrote:
04 Feb 2019 21:44
I like that you put some thought in the allophony.
Thanks!

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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 06 Feb 2019 03:17

Pronouns
Pronouns maintain a fossilised accusative case that has since merged with nominative in nouns.

1st person
Nom.SG: Non [nɔn]
Nom.PL: Noe [ˈno.e]
Acc.SG: Nor [nɔɾ]
Acc.PL: Noor [nɔɾ]
Gen.SG: No [no]
Gen.PL: Noka [ˈno.khä]
Dat.SG: Nomia [ˈnɔm.jä]
Dat.Pl: Nomie [ˈnɔm.je]

2nd person
Nom.SG: Daw [däw]
Nom.PL: Daasa [ˈdä:sa]
Acc.SG: Dag [däg]
Acc.PL: Dagie [ˈdä.ɟje]
Gen.SG: Dete [ˈde.the]
Gen.PL: Det [deth]
Dat.SG: Dien [djɛn]
Dat.Pl: Deyen [ˈde.jɛn]

3rd person
Nom.SG: Yu [ju]
Nom.PL: Yue [ˈju.e]
Acc.SG: Yur [jʊɾ]
Acc.PL: Yure [ˈjʊ.ɾe]
Gen.SG: Ga [gä]
Gen.PL: Gakha [ˈgä.x̣ä]
Dat.SG: Get [geth]
Dat.Pl: Gete [ˈge.the]

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Omzinesý
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Re: Tamin

Post by Omzinesý » 07 Feb 2019 10:09

Plural Marker is apparently -ya in Nominative and Genitive. Does it historically somehow appear in Dative too?

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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 07 Feb 2019 18:08

Omzinesý wrote:
07 Feb 2019 10:09
Plural Marker is apparently -ya in Nominative and Genitive. Does it historically somehow appear in Dative too?
(I assume you're talking about nouns, if not feel free to correct me.)
The plural marker used to be -ye in all three, but collapsed in the dative to -e. The first example where it is "lenaya" is a typo on my part lmao it should be lenaye.

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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 11 Feb 2019 01:44

Verbs
Verbs in Tamin come in active, passive, and antipassive voice, as well as past and non-past, applicative (instrumental), and perfective. They also agree to person/number.

For simplicity I will not list all the possible tense/person suffixes possible, instead I'll give an example verb and conjugate it.

Example 1: Sel [sɛl̪j] "to make"

Imperfective Active:
The base form of a verb is active.
Non-Past
1sg: seli [ˈsɛ.l̪ji]
1p: selin [ˈsɛ.l̪jɪn]
2sg: selos [ˈsɛ.ɫ̪os]
2p: selno [ˈsɛ.l̪j.no]
3sg: sele [ˈsɛ.l̪je]
3p: selek [ˈsɛ.l̪jekh]

Past
1sg: selti [ˈsɛl̪j.thi]
1p: seltin [ˈsɛl̪j.thɪn]
2sg: selto [ˈsɛl̪j.tho]
2p: selton [ˈsɛl̪j.thɔn]
3sg: selte [ˈsɛl̪j.the]
3p: seltel [ˈsɛl̪j.thɛl̪j]

Voice/aspect will be shown on 1SG.NPST from now on.
Passive voice is shown through the infix <a> right before the last vowel of the stem. If the last vowel of the stem is a or a long vowel, the infix is <a'> instead:

Saeli. [ˈsä.ɛˌl̪ji] "I am made."

Eda'abi [ˈe.däˌʔä.bi] "I am eaten."

Antipassive is formed with the infix <om> before the final vowel of the stem:

Someli [ˈsɔ.mɛˌl̪ji] "I make."

The applicative voice is used to show instrumental nouns, and is the only way to express that type of information. It is formed with the prefix re-:
Reseli X [ˈɾe.sɛˌl̪ji] "I make using X."

Verbs can be relativized using the prefix we-
Yu wesaele "he/she who was made"

Perfective voice is shown with reduplication of the 1st syllable of the stem. If the 1st syllable of the stem is just a vowel, then a glottal stop is inserted between the vowels. If it is a long vowel it is shortened.

Seseli "I have made"

U'upi "I have owned"

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Re: Tamin

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 11 Feb 2019 15:57

Numbers
Tamin is base 10, and numbers are fairly straight forward:
0. Go
1. Dua
2. Ho
3. Les
4. Nio
5. Pil
6. Pokhu
7. Sat'a
8. Lian
9. Ka'a
10. Wek'e
11. Duak
12. Hok
13. Lesek
14. Niok
15. Pilek
16. Pokhuk
17. Sat'ak
18. Lianek
19. Ka'ak
20. Hok'e
30. Lesk'e
40. Niok'e
50. Pilk'e
60. Pokhuk'e
70. Sa'ak'e
80. Liank'e
90. Ka'ak'e
100. Weera

All of these can also be used as numerals, following the noun. Nouns with go "zero" are singular, not plural.

Lema go "No man"
Lemaye ho "Two men"

Dua "one" can be used to mean any.

Lema dua "any (one) man"

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