Dhauwāsǎiŋ

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Shemtov
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Dhauwāsǎiŋ

Post by Shemtov » 05 Feb 2019 05:26

To the southeast of the continent where Wanian's Urheimat is, there is an archipelago of large islands, in the Subantarctic. There are a variety of language families spoken there, but I will present an isolate that is a typical member of the Eastern sprachbund, Dhauwāsǎiŋ.

Phonology:
/p b ɓ t tʰ d ɗ k kʰ g/ <p b bh t t' d dh k k' g>
/t͡s t͡sʰ/ <c c'>
/ s h/ <s h>
/m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
/l j w/ <l y w>

/a i u/ <a i u>
/a: i: u:/ <ā ī ū
/ai au/ <ai au>
/a:i a:u/ <āi āi>
/ɐi ɐu/ <ǎi ǎu>

Phonotactics:
(C)(C)V(C)

Permitted initial clusters:
/pl bl kl kʰl gl ml sl tw tʰw dw kw kʰw gw mw nw sw t͡sw t͡sʰw/


Nouns:
Nouns are divided into four classes: Humans of the tribe, Other humans, Animals, and Inanimates. There is no case or number, but nouns may be marked as distrubitive. Non-marked nouns are either singular nouns, but distrubitives are all plural and mean "those who are scattered; not being effected by the verb as one"
Each class has a different distrubitive marker.
Tribal humans: suffix -sǎiŋ. Dhauwā "person" Dhawāsǎing "Scattered members of the tribe"
Other humans: Reduplication of last suffix: Dhawāwā "Scattered outsiders"
Animal: Reduplication of last syllable, plus suffix hu: Mwǎitlāk' "Salmon" Mwǎitlāklāk'hu "Scattered salmon"
Inanimate: Circumfix Cwa- -si Bhū "stone" Cwabhūsi "scattered stones"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Dhauwāsǎiŋ

Post by Shemtov » 05 Feb 2019 18:08

Nouns in Dhauwāsǎiŋ can take possesive markers, that mark who owns the object.
Taking the word Bhū "stone" we can see these suffixes in action:
1P Sing: Bhūyi
1P Plural: Bhūnū
2P Singular: Bhūk
2P plural: Bhūkum
3P singular, tribal: Bhūwu
3P plural, tribal: Bhūhim
3P singular, outsider: Bhūhā
3P plural, outsider: Bhūhāin

Dhauwāsǎiŋ also feature noun incorperation. The simplest is to attach andative or venitive suffixes to a noun.. They are divided between animate and inanimate particles.
Plǎit'ul "Penguin"
Plǎit'ulk'wā "Penguin moving toward me [verb base]"
Plǎit'ulc'āu "Penguin moving away from me [Verb base]

Silig "Snow"
Siligkū "Snowing [verb base]"
Siligcwǎi "Snow is melting [verb base]"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Dhauwāsǎiŋ

Post by Shemtov » 05 Feb 2019 19:12

Dhauwāsǎiŋ verbs are template-based. The template is Verb-base, subject (this is missing in noun-incorperated verbs) Object (for transitives), Tense-aspect, Evidential, and Other moods. There is also voice, but this does not fit in the template, but the Intensive is reduplicating the last syllable of the verb-base.
The subject markers are the same as the possessive suffixes, plus the animal marker, hu.
The object markers are:
1P Sing: -(h)ǎih
1P Plural: Mwāu
2P Singular: Kū
2P plural:k'ǎum
3P singular, tribal: Wǎu
3P plural, tribal: kim
3P singular, outsider: sā
3P plural, outsider: kun
3P , animal: Lī
3P inanimate: Bha

The TA markers are:
Plain non-past: ∅
Non-Past Habitual: Mla
Non-Past iterative: Hǎu
Non-Past conative: Gwan
Non-Past seriative: Mīmi
Plain Past: Hai
Past Habitual: lau
Past iterative: k'āu
Past conative: Wǎiŋ
Past seriative: nini
Past perfect: Slut

The evidentials are:
Visual perceptive: ∅
Auditory perceptive: Sam
Sensory: Lǎuk
Quotative: Mal
Hearsay: Gu
Gnomic: tī

Thus:
Cwaŋādilīslut mwǎitlāk'ak
"I have cooked your salmon

Cwaŋādhālīmīmimal mwǎitlāk'ak
"I've been told an outsider keeps cooking your salmon"

The iterative is an interesting aspect, as it usually follows a habitual, and indicates the customary reaction to the action.

Kaklatklatnūmlasam plǎit'ulc'āuhǎu
Kaklat-klat-nū-mla-sam plǎit'ul-c'āu-c'āu-hǎu
Mumble-INT-1P.PLR-HAB-AUD penguin-AND-INT-IT
"Whenever we shout, the penguins run away"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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