The Lenic Languages

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Shemtov
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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 19 Feb 2019 05:44

Pagalčæ moods are often tied into TA, including the aux converbs.
The Subjunctive is ɫUk:
a. When used plainly it is an optative:
Tööleserwö küüɫud übirɫukhü
"May it be that they threw rocks at the werewolf"

b. When used with the future aux converb, it expresses that the result is non-specific:
Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫagal übir
"They will throw stones at the werewolf"

Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫagal übirɫuk
"They will throw some stones at a werewolf"

It is also used in the Apodesis of conditional sentences.

The Neccesative is (U)ŋ:
Tööleser übimuŋ
"I should throw stones"

When used with the aux converb of the progressive, it signifies ability:
Tööleser pääɫabæm übimuŋ
"I can throw stones"

The Negative is HUl
Tööleser übimhul
"I do not throw stones"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 20 Feb 2019 21:50

Pagalčæ conditional sentences are formed by having the conditional mood (nÜ) in the protasis and the subjunctive in the apodosis:
Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫabæhæ übirhünü, toolorɫok.
"If they have thrown stones at the werewolf, they are dead"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 21 Feb 2019 06:01

Pagalčæ pronouns come in three roots: Nominative, Genitive and Oblique. Oblique without any case suffix is accusative.
1P singular Nominative: We
1P Singular Genitive: Wen
1P singular Oblique: Mini
1P Plural Nominative: Yä
1P plural Genitive: Yæn
1P Plural Oblique: Mün
2P singular Nominative: Šu
2P singular genitive: Šune
2P singular oblique: Šun
2P plural nominative: Su
2P plural genitive: Sune
2P Plural oblique: Sun
3P singular nominative: Ła
3P singular Genitive: Łän
3P singular oblique: Łan
3P plural nominative: Łasær
3P Plural genitive: Łasæn
3P plural oblique: Łasän

Example sentence
Šu ɫasän mündo yæn muüyüudulo übišhü
Šu ɫasän-ø mün-do yæn muüyüudu-lo übi-š-hü
2P 3P.PLR.OBL-ACC 1P.OBL-DAT 1P.PLR.GEN boat-loc throw-2P-PST
"You threw them at me in our boat!"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 24 Feb 2019 02:33

Oiradošodogi is a ɬ-Lenic language spoken in Northern Khovd province, Mongolia by around 500 people. It is one of the few Lenic languages to be spoken outside of Russia. It has many Mongolic loanwords.

Sound changes:
ɬ̪>ɬ
/p t t͡ʃ k />/b d d͡ʒ g / V_V
Cʰ>C
mp>b
nt>d
ŋk>g
h>x
lV̆P>lp
rV̆P>rP
CÜCU>CʲUCU
UCÜ>ÜCÜ
C _e: i:> Cʲ
e:>i
e>æ
i:>i
œ>ø
ŋ_>w
tʲ>t͡ʃ
sʲ>ʃ
dʲ>d͡ʒ
t͡ʃ>t͡s
d͡ʒ>d͡z
kʲ>t͡ʃ
gʲ>d͡ʒ
xʲ>ʃ


/p pʲ b bʲ t d t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g/ <p py b by t d c z č ž k g>
/m n ɲ _ŋ/ <m n ñ ŋ>
/s ɬ ɬ ʃ x/ <s ɫ ɫy š h>
/r rʲ/<r ry>
/l lʲ/ <l ly>
/w j/ <w y>

/i/ <i>
/u y/ <u ü>
/o ø / < o ö>
/æ ɑ/ <æ a>
/u: y:/ <uu üü>
/o: ø: / < oo öö>
/æ: ɑ:/ <ææ aa>

There is backness harmony, with /i/ being neutral.


There are two declensions of nouns. The most common type belongs to native nouns and older Mongolic loans, which is what this post will concentrate on.

We will use Töölæ "Stone" as an example for first declension nouns.
Plural: *Töölesær

Cases:
Nominative: Töölæ
Accusative: Töölæwö
Dative-allative: Töölædö
Genitive-locative: Töölæñæ
Ablative: Töölæjæ
Instrumental: Töölænöö
Comatative: Töölæšö
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 25 Feb 2019 00:15

Oiradošodogi words of Mongolic origin may be second declension; this is only in the singular, in the plural, they are inflected like regular Oiradošodogi words.

As an example, we will use Tamah "Hell":
Nominative: Tamah
Accusative: Tamahig
Dative-allative: Tamahdu
Genitive-locative: Tamahan
Ablative: Tamahas
Instrumental: Tamahar
Comatative: Tamahya

Pronouns come in Nominal, Genitive and oblique forms:
P singular Nominative: We
1P Singular Genitive: Wen
1P singular accusative: Minu
1P singular Oblique: Mini
1P Plural Nominative: Yö
1P plural Genitive: Yæn
1P plural accusative: Müü
1P Plural Oblique: Mün
2P singular Nominative: Šu
2P singular genitive: Šünæ
2P singular accusative: Šuu
2P singular oblique: Šun
2P plural nominative: Su
2P plural genitive: Sünæ
2P plural accusative: Suu
2P Plural oblique: Sun
3P singular nominative: Ła
3P singular Genitive: Łön
3P singular Accusative: Łu
3P singular oblique: Łan
3P plural nominative: Łæsær
3P Plural genitive: Łæsæn
3P plural accusative: Łasu
3P plural oblique: Łæsön
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 25 Feb 2019 19:18

Oiradošodogi verbs take the following personal markers:
1P sing: (U)m
1P Plr: mU
2P sing: (U)š
2P plural: (U)s
3P sing: (A)ɫ
3P plr: (U)r

They have four tense-aspects:
Non-Past: ∅
Future: ɫAk
Past: jU
Past perfect: hU

Töölæwö übim
"I throw a stone"

Töölæwö übimɬæk
"I will throw a stone"

The normal past tense, is the past perfect:
Töölæwö übimhü
"I have thrown a rock"

The plain past is used in the following two cases:
a. If not witnessed by the speaker:
Töölæwö übiščü
"It seems you threw a rock"

b. with the pronoun minišö "1P.COM", to emphasize non-perfective aspect
Töölæwö minišö übiščü
"You threw a rock"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: The Lenic Languages

Post by Shemtov » 27 Feb 2019 00:11

Oiradošodogi has five converbs, he Simultaneous (while): (U)bIm, The Pretemporal (Before): (U)gUl, the Posttemporal (after): (U)bihi, the Adtemporal (until) -(i)kči, and the Intrumental (Doing X to do Y) (i)gnOO:

Tarhan töölæwö toolubim übiɫhü
"Tarhan has thrown a stone while dying"

Tarhan töölæwö übigül tooluɫhu
"Before he had died, Tarhan threw a stone"

Tarhan töölæwö toolubihi übiɫhü
"Tarhan threw a stone and died"

Tarhan töölæsærwö toolikči übiɫhü
"Tarhan had thrown stones until he died"

Tarhan toolignoo maahuɫhu
"Tarhan commited suicide so he would die"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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