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The Lenic Languages

Posted: 06 Feb 2019 00:03
by Shemtov
The Lenic languages are a fourth member of the Altaic Sprachbund, and was believed to form a fourth branch of Altaic. They are spoken along the Lena River and its tributaries in East Siberia. They have a close connection to the Tungusic family, and many Altaists spoke of a Leno-Tungusic branch, and some linguists today believe in a Leno-Tungusic Family. The Proto-Language shows some cognates with Yeniseian languages, such as /køɬ̪e/ "winter", leading some, based on genetic studies, to believe that a relative of Proto-Tungusic was adopted by Yeniseian or Para-Yeniseian people.

The Proto-Lang:
/p pʰ t tʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ k kʰ/ <p ph t th č čh k kh>
/s ʃ ɬ̪ h/ <s š ɫ h>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ň ŋ>
/r/ <r>
/l j w/ <l y w>

/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/æ œ ɑ/ <æ ä a>

All vowels can occur long, and in the system Lenicists use, this is shown by doubling the letter.
There is hight harmony, with Front-unrouded, front-rounded and back sereis.

The Family has inherited split-ergativity, in the past perfect.

We will use *Thööle "Stone" as an example for nouns. Nouns are templetic, with the order possesion marker- plural- case. This post will show only the last two.
Plural: *Thööleser

Nominative-Absolutive: *Thööle
Accusative-Ergative: *Thöölewö
Dative: *Thööleto
Genitive: *Thööleňe
Locative: *Thöölelo
Allative: *Thöölekee
Ablative: *Thööleče
Instrumental: *Thöölenoo
Comatative: *Thöölešo

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 06 Feb 2019 00:20
by Shemtov
The Family has developed two major branches, sometimes called North and South, however, as the "South" Branch has a language in the north (Tyung Lenic) and the Aldan area showing a split along a dialect continuum, with no regard to north or south, Lenicists have called them θ-Lenic and ɬ-Lenic, based on the outcome of *ɬ̪, being θ in θ-Lenic and ɬ in ɬ-Lenic. ɬ-Lenic shows a fusion of the aspirates to the unaspirated stops, and the unaspirated series being voiced intervocally. θ-Lenic has the Aspirates fricativize.

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 07 Feb 2019 00:46
by Shemtov
Pronouns, except for the 3P, came in two types: Nominative and Oblique. The Oblique stem is used for all other cases, with the case ending attached.
1P singular Nominative: *We
1P singular Oblique: *Mini
1P Plural Nominative: *Yä
1P Plural Oblique: *Mün
2P singular Nominative: *Šu
2P singular oblique: *Šun
2P plural nominative: *Su
2P Plural oblique: *Sun
3P singular: *Ła
3P plural: *Łasær

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 07 Feb 2019 01:14
by Shemtov
The personal markers:
1P sing: *MI/Im
1P Plr: *MÜ/Üm
2P sing: *(U)š
2P plural: *(U)s
3P sing: *∅/-V:
3P plr: *(A)r

The verb stem takes the following TA markers, after which comes the person markers. In the Past Perfect, this is the P arguement:
Non-Past: ∅
Past: ČU
Past Perfect: HÜ

Take the verb *Humpi "To throw":
*Thöölewö humpimi
"I throw the rock"

*Thöölewö humpišču
"You threw the rock

*Münwu thööleser humpurhü
"We threw rocks"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 08 Feb 2019 18:44
by Shemtov
The Converbs:
There were three converbs in Proto-Lenic: The Simultaneous (while): (U)pIm, The Pretemporal (Before): (U)kUl, and the Posttemporal (after): (U)pIhI.

*Thöölewö minitu eečopim humpišču
Thööle-wö mini-tu eeč-opim humpi-š-ču
rock-ACC 1P-DAT eat-SIM throw-2P-PST
"You threw a rock at me while eating"

*Thöölewö minitu eečokol humpišču
Thööle-wö mini-tu eeč-okol humpi-š-ču
rock-ACC 1P-DAT eat-PRETEMP throw-2P-PST
"You threw a rock at me before you ate"

*Thöölewö minitu eečopehe humpišču
Thööle-wö mini-tu eeč-opehe humpi-š-ču
rock-ACC 1P-DAT eat-POSTTEMP throw-2P-PST
"You threw a rock at me after you ate"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 10 Feb 2019 04:14
by Shemtov
The moods are Optative *ɫUk Imperative: *-U if consonant final, *-w if vowel final, permissive: -*(U)ŋ, prohibitive: *hUl and Conditional: *ñU.

"May I live"

*Küüth šunwü maaɫak
"May you be killed by a werewolf"

*Ławä maaw
"Kill him/her/it!"

*Ławä maaŋ
"You may kill him/her/it"

*Ławä maahul
"You may not kill him/her/it"

These last three imply 2P.

These last two may be combined with the past tense for extra meaning:

*Ławä maaŋču
"You may have killed him....." (Subordinate clause)

Ławä maahulču
"You couldn't have killed him"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 10 Feb 2019 23:38
by Shemtov
The passive voice is *Ut after a consonant and *k after a vowel.The S of the active voice is in the instrumental case.

*Ła küüthnuu maakča
He/she/it was killed by a werewolf

Tææk ošotemčo
Tææk oš-ot-em-čo
tree grow-PASS-1P-PST
"The tree was planted by me"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 11 Feb 2019 02:33
by Shemtov
Numbers 1-99
1. *Meŋ
2. *Čhum
3. *Lun
4. *Thöö
5. *Soŋ
6. *Nü
7. *Næt
8. *Čhææ
9. *Hekön
10. *Čowem

11. *Mewem
12. *Čhuwim
13. *Luum
14. *Thoom
15. *Soom
16. *Nuum
17. *Naam
18. *Čhaam
19. *Hekoom
20. *Hur
21. *Hurmiŋ
23. *Hurlun
30. *Lumuwu
31. *Lumuwumiŋ
32. *Lumuwučhum
33. *Lumuwulun
40. *Thööhowo
50. *Somowo
60. *Nühuwu
70. *Næpawa
80. *Čhææhawa
90. *Hekömowo
99. *Hekömowoheköm

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 12 Feb 2019 21:57
by Shemtov
Vülü Cisüŋ is a θ-Lenic language spoken by around 1000 people in the Vilyuy River basin.

Sound changes (H M L represent high, mid and low vowels F equals front unrounded vowels R equals front rounded):
Mi Li Le>əi
My Ly Lø>əy
Mu Lu Lo>əu
iM iL eL>jə
yM yL øL> ɥə
uM uL oL> wə
t͡ʃ>t͡s except before F: R:
/kF: kR:/>t͡ʃF: t͡ʃR:
Cʋ> Cəʋ

/p pʲ t tʲ t͡s t͡ʃ k/ <p p' t t' c č k>
/θ θʲ s ʃ ç x/ <t̴ t̴' s š ś h>
/m mʲ n ɲ _ŋ/ <m m' n ñ ŋ>
/r rʲ/ <r r'>
/l/ <l>
/ʋ j/ <v y>

/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/ə/ <ǎ>
/æ œ ɑ/ æ ä a>
/əi əy əu/ <ǎi ǎü ǎu>

It keeps hight harmony, except in loanwords. <ǎ> is neutral.

Example words: T̴öle "Stone"
Čüt̴ "Werewolf/Wendigo-like mythic creature"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 13 Feb 2019 01:02
by Shemtov
The Declension of Vülü nouns:
The Split-erg alignment has been replaced with a full Nominitive. Vülü is one of the few θ-Lenic languages without Ergativity somewhere.
Nominative Singular: T̴ öle
Nominitive plural: T̴ öleser
Accusative Singular: T̴ ölevö
Accusative plural: T̴ öleservö
Dative Singular: T̴ ölto
Dative Plural: T̴ ölesetto
Genitive singular: T̴ öleñe
Genitive Plural:T̴ ölesenn̴e
Locative singular: T̴ ölelo
Locative plural: T̴ ölesello
Instrumental singular: T̴ öleno
Instrumental plural: T̴ ölesenno
Comatative singular: T̴ ölešo
Comatative plural: T̴ ölesesso

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 13 Feb 2019 18:38
by Shemtov
Vülü nouns can take personal endings.
T̴ öleme "My stone"
T̴ öley "His/her stone"

Verbs are marked for person:
1P sing: (I)m
1P Plr: mÜ
2P sing: (U)š
2P plural: (U)s
3P sing: ∅
3P plr: (A)r

They have four TAs:
Present: ∅
Past: -cU
Past perfect: yÜ
Future: t̴Uk

T̴ öleservö umpim
"I am throwing rocks"

T̴ ölevö umpišcu
"Thou threw a rock"

T̴ öleservö umpimüyü
""We have thrown rocks

T̴ öleservö čüt̴setto umpit̴uk
"He/she will throw rocks at the werewolves"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 14 Feb 2019 00:43
by Shemtov
Eireŋ is the northmost Lenic language, spoken in the Lena delta by around 400 people.

Sound changes:

/p t t͡ʃ k _ʔ/ <p t č k '>
/θ s ʃ x h/ <z s š x h>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ñ ŋ>
/r/ <r>
/l/ <l>
/w j/ <w y>

/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/a/ <a>
/ɛi œy ɔu/ <ei öü ou>
/ai ay au/ <ai aü au>

Hight harmony has been lost. The only permitted finals are /ʔ h ŋ r l w j/

Example words:
Zöüle "Stone"
Küh "Werewolf/Wendigo-like mythic creature"
Tai' "Inedible plant"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 14 Feb 2019 19:28
by Shemtov
It is of note that Eireŋ words ending in /ʔ h ŋ/ usually have a prevocalic stem, with each of these endings turning into a unique stop, fricative or nasal, respectivly, so Küh "werewolf" has a prevocalic stem Küz-. It is also worth noting that Eireŋ is split-S.

Noun declension:
Nominative singular: Küh
Nominative plural: Kühser
Accusative singular: Kühwö
Accusative plural: Kühserwö
Dative-Instrumental: Küzeta
Genitive: Küzeñe
Locative-comatative: Küzelo
Allative: Küzekei

Verbs have two tenses, non-past and past (ø and ča), and take person markers before the tense marker:
1P sing: (e)ŋ
1P Plr: (ö)ŋ
2P sing: (a)h
2P plural: (a)h
3P sing: ∅
3P plr: (a)r

Čöüzeser zöüleserwö huŋkir
"The people are throwing stones"

Let's show the split-s system:
Küh mauhča
"The werewolf commited suicide"

Kühwö toulča
"The werewolf died"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 15 Feb 2019 21:20
by Shemtov
Pronouns in Eireŋ have three forms: Nominative, Accusative, and Oblique, the latter is the a form where the case is added to the pronoun. The 3P only has nominative and Oblique. Note that those ending in -ŋ become /n/ prevocalicly.
P singular Nominative: We
1P singular accusative: Miw
1P singular Oblique: Mini
1P Plural Nominative: Ai
1P plural accusative: Müw
1P Plural Oblique: Mü
2P singular Nominative: Šu
2P singular accusative: Šunu
2P singular oblique: Šuŋ
2P plural nominative: Su
2P plural accusative: Sunu
2P Plural oblique: Suŋ
3P singular nominative: Za
3P singular oblique: Zu
3P plural nominative: Zaser
3P plural oblique: Zasew

We zöüleserwö šuneta huŋkiŋ
"I am throwing stones at thee"

Šu mauh
"Thou are committing suicide"

Šunu toulah
"Thou are dying"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 17 Feb 2019 04:46
by Shemtov
Vülü has four moods:
Imperative: -v if vowel final; -u if consonant final.
T̴öleservö umpiv
"Throw rocks"
With the 1P Plural it is a cohortative:
T̴öleservö umpimüv
"Let us throw rocks"

Optative: (U)ŋ
T̴ ölevö umpišuŋ
"May thou throw rocks"

With the 1P plural, it is ambiguous if it is optative or a strong cohortative:
T̴ ölevö umpimüŋ
"May we throw rocks"
"[Indeed[ Let's throw rocks."

The Imprecative. This is mislabled; it means "May x not....". Some are calling it a Negative Optative. It is -(U)l, but the stem often undergoes changes:
T̴ ölevö ump'ǎšul
"May thou not throw rocks"

"You live!"

"May you not live!"

The Conditional: -ñU
This is used in the protasis for an Implicative conditional sentence:

T̴ öleservö čüt̴setto umpirñu, tolort̴ok
"If they throw rocks at the werewolf, they will die"

Predictive conditionals require the optative (or the Imprecative if the apodosis is negative) in the protasis and the conditional in the apodosis:

T̴ öleservö čüt̴setto ump'ǎryül, tolorño
"If they had thrown rocks at the werewolf, they would be dead"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 18 Feb 2019 06:48
by Shemtov
Pagalčæ is a ɬ-Lenic language spoken around the source of the Lena at Lake Baikal by around 300 people.

Sound changes (P=Plosive):
/p t t͡ʃ k />/b d d͡ʒ g / V_V
U:>ÜU t͡ʃ_ d͡ʒ_ ʃ_ ɲ_
U:>UÜ>_t͡ʃ _d͡ʒ _ʃ _ɲ
t͡ʃ d͡ʒ> t͡s d͡z except before front vowels

/p b t d t͡s~t͡ʃ d͡z~d͡ʒ k g/ <p b t d c~č z~j k g>
/s ʃ ʒ ɬ x/ <s š ž ɫ h>
/m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
/r/ <r>
/l j w/ <l y w>

/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø o/ <e ö o>
/æ œ ɑ/ <æ ä a>
/i: y: u:/ <ii üü uu>
/e: ø: o:/ <ee öö oo>
/æ: œ: ɑ:/ <ææ ää aa>
/yu øo œa/ <üu öo äa>
/uy oø aœ/ <uü oö aä>

The affricates are only post-alveolar before front (including front rounded) vowels

Noun declension:
Tööle "rock"
Plural: Tööleser

Nominative: Tööle
Accusative: Töölewö
Dative: Tööledo
Genitive: Töölene
Locative: Töölelo
Instrumental: Töölenoo

There is also a post-consonantal set of allomorphs:
Küüɫ "Werewolf"
Nominative: Küüɫ
Accusative: Küüɫüw
Dative: Küüɫud
Genitive: Küüɫen
Locative: Küüɫul
Instrumental: Küüɫuun

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 18 Feb 2019 21:38
by Shemtov
Pagalčæ nouns also take personal possesive endings after the case.
1P sing: (U)m
1P Plr: Üm/mÜ
2P sing: (U)š
2P plural: (U)s
3P sing: (y)ii
3P plr: (u)r

"Using their stones"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 18 Feb 2019 22:41
by Shemtov
Pagalčæ verbs take the same personal markings as the possesives for the noun, and take a past suffix hÜ (there is a complex system of other TAs, using auxillary converbs).
Tööleserwö küüɫud übirhü
"They threw stones at the werewolf"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 18 Feb 2019 23:51
by Shemtov
Like Proto-Lenic, there are three converbs in Pagalčæ: The Simultaneous (while): (U)bIm, The Pretemporal (Before): (U)gUl, and the Posttemporal (after): (U)bIhI.
Tööleserwö küüɫud toolobem übirhü
"They died while throwing stones at the werewolf"

Tööleserwö küüɫud toolobehe übirhü
"They died after throwing stones at the werewolf"

Tööleserwö küüɫud übigul toolorhö
"They threw stones at the werewolf, then died.

The converbs can be used as auxilliries with the verb Pääɫ "To exist" to make other TAs:
Simultaneous means progressive:
Tööleserwö küüɫud übir
"They throw stones at the werewolf"
Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫabæm übir
"They are throwing stones at the werewolf"

The pretemporal means the future:
Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫagal übir
"They will throw stones at the werewolf"

The posttemporal means perfective:
Tööleserwö küüɫud pääɫabæhæ übirhü
"They have thrown stones at the werewolf"

Re: The Lenic Languages

Posted: 18 Feb 2019 23:59
by Shemtov
Cultural note on "Werewolf":
What I translate as "Werewolf" is a mythic creature that is said to form either by a human eating raw meat, and if they are not treated by a shaman, they will turn into it or people who have died from eating rotten meat, if their funeral rights are not done with special enhancements, they will rise as a "werewolf". A "Werewolf", in this context, is a large wolf with retractable claws and multiple (3-7, depending on the culture) tails with clawed human hands on them. In most cultures they have the intelligence of a human child or late toddler, and they can breed among themselves. They do not "infect" others with their bite, but they mostly kill humans on sight- mostly for sport, some cultures say they will never eat human flesh, others only if hungry, others say they will eat every kill.