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Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 04 Mar 2019 10:41
by Artaxes
Hi !

I present my new conlang, created by comparing some natural languages ​​(Sanskrit, Hindi, Mongolian, Navajo, Korean, Tsez and Chechen). This is my next equivalent for Proto-Indo-European language, which name means 'high language'.

Lóko baaṣát

I. Chapter: Phonology


/p t c k/ p t c k
/pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ/ ph th ch kh
/b d ɟ g/ b d j g
/t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ/ ts tł tṣ
/t͡sʰ t͡ɬʰ t͡ʃʰ/ tsh tłh tṣh
/d͡z d͡ɮ d͡ʒ/ dz dl dẓ
/s ɬ ʃ x h/ s ł ṣ ḥ h
/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ṇ ng
/r l/ r l
/j ɰ w/ i gh u


Short vowels

/i ɯ u/ i y u
/e o/ e o
/a/ a

Long vowels

/iː ɯː uː/ ii yy uu
/eː oː/ ee oo
/aː/ aa


Lexical pitch accent.

/í ý ú/ í ý ú
/é ó/ é ó
/á/ á

/íː ýː úː/ ií yý uú
/éː óː/ eé oó
/aá/ aá

Syllable structure


II. Chapter: Nouns


Plural suffix in Nominative case is -(a)d, to which sometimes is added the thematic vowel -a-.
In dependent cases, plural suffix suffix is -i-.


Singular Plural
1. Nominative who ? - bótso wolf -(a)d bótsod wolves
2. Accusative who ? -(a)m bótsom wolf -i-m bótsoim wolves
3. Genitive whose ? -(a)s bótsos of wolf -i-s bótsois of wolves
4. Dative to/for who ? -(a)r bótsor to/for wolf -i-r bótsoir to/for wolves
5. Ablative whence ? -(a)tṣ bótsotṣ from wolf -i-tṣ bótsoitṣ from wolves
6. Instrumental by/through who ? -(a)i bótsoi by/through wolf -i-i bótsoii by/through wolves
7. Comitative with who ? -(a)l bótsol with wolf -i-l bótsoil with wolves
8. Locative where ? -a(ḥ) bótsoḥ in/on wolf -i-ḥ bótsoiḥ in/on wolves

Noun class

There is also a small noun class system (combined with number), but this category is marked only on verbs (Masculine and Feminine; it will be shown in next chapter about verbal system).

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 04 Mar 2019 13:41
by Artaxes
III. Chapter: Verbs

Noun class

Masculine SG - do 'to see (by a male human)'
Masculine PL b(a)- badó 'to see (by a male humans')
Feminine SG i- idó 'to see (by a female)
Feminine PL r(a)- radó 'to see (by a females)'

Infinitive has no noun class affixes.


Active - doh 'to see'
Passive -(a)g- dógah 'to be seen'
Causative -(a)ł- dółah 'to show'

*Agent of passive voice is marked with Dative case.
*Agent of causative voice is marked with Dative case, and causee is in Nominative.

Constructions similar to voice

Reflexive se se doh 'to see self'
Reciprocal selda selda doh 'to see each other'

Impersonal construction (without agent)

Impersonal construction is created by passive voice and suffix -ia instead agentive pronouns:
dogia 'is seen'


Past -(a)n- don 'see (in past)'
Present - do 'see (in present, now)'
Future -(a)s dos 'see (in future)'


Imperfective - doh 'to see (action is not performed)'
Perfective -(a)t dótah 'to see (action is performed)'
Perfect -(a)ṣ dóṣah 'to see (action have a result)'

Habitual have periphrastic construction: a gerund in imperfective aspect + dúh 'to be'

me dóni du 'I am seeing many times/regularly'


Indicative -
Inferential -(a)l dol 'probably see'
Imperative -o doo 'do!'
Optative -iee doiee 'may see'


Normal negative na na doh not to see
Prohibitive negative ma ma doo do not see!


Performed volition is created with modal verb uaárah 'to want (and volitioned action is/was achieved')
Unperformed volition is created with modal verb lásah 'to want (and volitioned action is/was not achieved')

Verbs don't have conjugation for person as synthetic category.

Non-finite forms


Perfect -(a)ṣ + hoo doṣ hoo
Perfective -at + hoo dot hoo
Imperfective -0 + hoo do hoo


Perfect -(a)ṣ + hee doṣ hee
Perfective -at + hee dot hee
Imperfective -0 + hee do hee


-(a)h doh 'to see' ḥiéthah 'to grow'


-(a)ni doni 'seeing' ḥiéthani 'growing'

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 05 Mar 2019 21:50
by Artaxes
Chapter IV: Lexicon

Lexicon (with more basal words)

Chapter V: Derivation

Noun forming affixes
  • Agent: -rá/-ré bági 'wheel' → bagrá 'wheeler';
  • Experiencer: -(a)ghó dzókhah 'to beat' → dzokhágho 'one who is beaten';
  • Possessor: -(a)ián thaaghá 'beard' → thaaghián 'bearded man';
  • Residential or tribal association: -áua lóko 'high' → lokáua 'someone from High Tribe';
  • Abstract noun I: -(a)lé lóko 'high' → lokalé 'height';
  • Abstract noun II: -át tłoómah 'to tell' → tłoómát 'fable';
  • Abstract noun III: -ti dẓaáiah 'to become good' → dẓaáiti 'goodness'
  • Instrument: -áku koiḥaáh 'to carry' → koiḥáku 'carrier';
  • Place: -us bóḥah 'to speak' → bóḥus 'rostrum';
  • Container: -(a)tsá pul 'water' → pultsá 'bucket';
  • Substantion: -ásse bállah 'to create' → ballásse 'fabric, matter';
  • Object I: -(a)ma thar 'hand' → tharma 'glove';
  • Object II: -é bóḥah 'to speak' → boḥé 'thing';
  • Diminutive: -ní naán 'mother' → naanní 'little mother';
  • Augmentative: -aab caán 'house' → caánaab 'great house';
  • Collective (large set/collection) -(a)tón tshúue 'bird' → tshuutón 'large troop of birds';
  • Paucal collective -(a)lúa bótso 'wolf' → botsolúa 'few wolves';
  • Entire, all, complete thing: maa- tháme 'man' → maatháme 'entire man';
  • Past state of being: can- caán 'house' → cancaán 'former house, ruine';
  • Future state of being: iee- 'naánga 'king' → ieenaánga 'future king';
  • State (tense-neutral): -(a)ta tálteh 'to fight' → tálteta 'fight';
  • Living being: -(a)sti bállah 'to create' → bállasti 'creature';
  • True or pure: Cé- bótso 'wolf' → bébotso 'true wolf';
  • Similarity: -(a)ite bótso 'wolf → bótsoite 'werewolf'
  • Male descendant: -(a)khaan naánga 'king' → naángakhaan 'son of king'
  • Female descendant: -(a)tṣhaal naánga 'king' → naángatṣaal 'daughter of king'
  • Area characterized by: -úm lóko 'high' → lokúm 'highland(s)';
  • Singulative: -íne/-V́ine muúta 'wheat' → muutáine 'grain of wheat';
  • Knowledge: -(a)s-ḥadé ghuúr 'horse' → ghuurasḥadé 'knowledge about horses'
Verb forming affixes
  • Intensifier: -(a)cí- bóḥah 'to speak' → boḥcíah 'to speak intensively';
  • Inchoative ~ Inceptive: -(a)j- jaah 'to go' → jaajáh 'begin to go';
  • Cessative: -(a)st- jaah 'to go' → jaastáh 'to finnish going';
  • Denominalizer: -(a)i- hathút 'hammer' → hathútiah 'to hammer'
In the role of suffixes forming verbs from other verbs may be various postpositions.

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 06 Mar 2019 10:47
by gestaltist
I don't have much to say other than that I love your romanization. You're saying this is your PIE. Does it mean you'll be deriving a lot of descendants from it? Do you have a world to go with it?

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 06 Mar 2019 16:51
by Artaxes
This conworld was created as a continuation of my first concept: the world 20.000 ~ 30.000 years after a nuclear war, which drew the world back to times close to prehistoric times.
For now, I don't think about child languages, I'm focused on creating this proto-language yet.

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 10 Mar 2019 17:51
by Artaxes
Chapter VI: Numerals and pronouns



1. nil
2. khoi
3. łon
4. tał
5. ghyr
6. iok
7. ḥev
8. phar
9. nu
10. san
11. sannil
12. sankhoi
20. khoisat
21. khoisatnil
100. tau
1.000. todau

Derivative numerals

Ordinals: suffix -ca:

1. nilca
2. khoica

partial reduplication

2. khokhoi and khokhoica

Multiple numerals: suffix -maang


Multiplicative numerals: suffix-(a)daa


Adverbial numbers: suffix -(a)ḥai

khoiḥai 'twice'

Collective: suffix -luu

khoiluu 'together two'

suffix -(a)gha-

khoigha 'about two'

Delimitative: suffix -(a)ḥ-

khoiaḥ 'only two'


Personal pronouns


1. me
2. tu
3. han


1. med
2. sud
3. haad

Possessive pronouns

personal pronoun + suffix -ra

Demonstrative proper

ia 'this here'
iaúr 'so, with this method'
iaad 'here'
iaádatṣ 'from here'
iaádan 'to here'
iaálii 'herefore'
iaat 'so much'
iaís 'now'
iaús 'this way

Demonstrative medial

ta 'this here'
taúr 'so, with this method'
taad 'here'
taádatṣ 'from here'
taádan 'to here'
taálii 'herefore'
taat 'so much'
taís 'then (proper time'
taús 'this way

Demonstrative far

ha 'this here'
haúr 'so, with this method'
haad 'here'
haádatṣ 'from here'
haádan 'to here'
haálii 'herefore'
haat 'so much'
haís 'then (remote time)'
haús 'this way


ka 'who ?'
kai 'what ?'
kaiú 'which?'
kaúr 'how ?'
kaad 'where ?'
kaádatṣ 'from where ?'
kaádan 'to where ?'
kaílii - 'why ?'
kiid 'how many ?'
kaís 'when ?'
kaús 'which way ?'

Indefinite pronouns

interrogative base + suffix -tṣu

Negative pronouns

prefix na- + interrogative base

Universal pronouns

maáte 'all'
maáka 'every'
maakaúr 'with every method'
maákaad 'everywhere'
maakaádatṣ 'from everywhere'
maakaádan 'to everywhere'
maakailii 'from every reason'
maakaís 'always'
maakaús 'in all ways'

Alternative pronouns

káłat 'someone else'
káiłat 'something else'
kałatúr 'in someway else'
kałatád 'somewhere else'
káłatatṣ 'from somewhere else'
káatan 'to somewhere else'
káiłatłii 'for something else'
kałatís 'how many else'
kałatús 'which way else'


kaótthooi 'anyone'
kaiótthoo 'anything'
kaiúotthoo, ótthoo 'any of'
kaotthoór 'anyhow, however'
kaótthootṣ 'from anywhere'
kaótthoon 'to anywhere'
kaotthooílii 'for any reason'
kaotthoói 'fhowever many'
kaotthooís 'at any time'
kaotthooús 'in any way'


itsaú 'some of this'
iaurtsaú 'some of this method'
iaattsaú 'a little here'
iaattsaútṣ 'a little from here'
iaattsaún 'a little to here'
iaatsaúlii 'a bit because of that'
iaattsaú 'a bit too much'
iaístsau 'a little then'
iaústsau 'a little this way'

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 11 Mar 2019 12:40
by Artaxes
Chapter VII: Postpositions, conjunctions and polarity

  • so - in
  • ḥa - on
  • ḥaso - above
  • ni - below, down
  • niso - under
  • tah - after
  • paat - before
  • khaa - near
  • taam - away
  • patu - in front of
  • che - behind
  • na - to
  • naso - toward
  • tṣa - from
  • tṣal - from a direction
  • bece - between
  • lii - for
  • ṣem - through
  • ter - like
  • ak - as
  • leenso - along
  • nal - without
  • nákhaa - against
  • ar 'and'
  • ki 'that'
  • ran 'but'
  • tṣaah 'whether'
  • iin 'or'
  • to 'then'
  • arto 'and then'
  • see 'because'
  • iaa - yes
  • na - no, not
  • ma - not (prohibitive)
  • maáde - maybe

Edit: Added habitual aspect as a periphrastic construction (look at verb section).

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 13 Mar 2019 22:18
by Artaxes
Chapter VIII: Texts

This chapter will be completemented.

Jaánas Sotiát (Lord's Prayer)
[lord-GEN prayer]

Médra Haát tsaanáḥ-so du hoo,
[I-PL-POSS father sky-LOC-in MASC-be PARTICIPLE]
Tura neél se duo hóriu;
[Thou-POSS name REFL.PRON MASC-be-IMPER holy]
Túra naangaúm haágho;
[Thou-POSS kingdom MASC-come-IMPER]
Túra uaaré iduo; ak tsaanáḥ-so iaúr ar neekhéḥ-ḥa.
[Thou will FEM-be-IMPER as so and earth-LOC-on]
Médras maatadér beéhas médar iadérso gúdo.
[I-PL-POSS-GEN all-day bread-GEN I-PL-DAT this-day-in give-IMPER]
médram poójem médar ar gúttaamo, ak med médrar poojeráir gúttaam.
[I-PL-POSS-ACC sin-ACC I-PL-DAT and give-away-IMPER as I-PL I-PL-POSS-DAT culprit-PL-DAT give-away]
Láighani-ḥa médam ar na jáło,
[Temptation-on I-PL-ACC and no go-CAUS-IMPER]
ran Tu médam noóh hootṣ bátṣasato.


Nílca bállanis dér (First day of creation)
[one-th create-GER-GEN day]

Tsakhátaḥ-ḥa Deené tsaanám ar neekhém bállanat.
[Origin-LOC-on God sky-ACC and earth-ACC create-PST-PERF]
Ar neekhé ak nasairát ar khoósus idun: Ḥyrýnti pultónas nachuarés sámaraḥ-ḥaso idun, ar Deenés Phoóti pultónaḥ-ḥaso se hołán.
[and earth as no-order and FEM-be-PST Darkness watery.mass-GEN vastness-GEN surface-LOC-above FEM-be-PST and God-GEN Ghost watery-mass-LOC-above REFL.PRON float-PST]
Taís Deené bóḥanat: "Doóṣti se ghóseo !" Ar doóṣti se dújanat.
[Then God speak-PST-PERF "Light REFL-PRON rise-IMPER" and light REFL-PRON become-PST-PERF]
Deené don hee dooṣti idẓaáig, hanam ḥyrýntitṣ kádlanat.
[God see-PST PARTICIPLE light FEM-good-PASS 3SG.PERS.PRON-ACC darkness-ABL divide-PST-PERF]
Ar Deené doóṣtim dér neélianat, ar ḥyrýntim thłaán neélianat.
[and God light-ACC day name-DENOM-PST-PERF and darkness-ACC night name-DENOM-PST-PERF]
Ar súndi ar uyýgle iaúr nylýnat - nilca dér.
[and evening and morning in.such.method flow-PST-PERF one-th day]

Khoica bállanis dér (Second day of creation)
[Two-th creation-GEN day]

Ar taís Deené bóḥanat: "Katłaché pultónas túndeḥ-so ar han nilaim pultónam khoicaitṣ kádlo!"
[and then God MASC-speak-PST-PERF: vaulting watery.mass-GEN center-LOC-in and 3.SG.PERS.PRON one-PL-ACC watery.mass-ACC two-th-PL-ABL MASC-divide-IMPER]
Iam katłachém dúnat hee, Deené pultónam katłachétṣ-niso pultónatṣ katłachétṣ-ḥaso kádlanat; ar iaúr se dújanat hee, Deené iam katłachém tsaaná neélianat.
[ vaulting-ACC make-PST-PERF ADV.PARTICIPLE God watery.mass-ACC vaulting-ABL-under watery mass-ABL vaulting-ABL-above MASC-divide-PST-PERF; and in.this.method REFL.PRON MASC-become-PST-PERF ADV.PARTICIPLE God vaulting-ACC sky MASC-name-DENOM-PST-PERF]
Ar súndi ar uyýgle iaúr nylýnat - khoica dér.
[and evening and morning in.such.method MASC-flow-PST-PERF two-th day]

Łónca bállanis dér (Third day of creation)
[three-th creation-GEN day]

Ar iatah Deené bóḥanat: "Pultónam tsaanátṣ-niso nilaḥ dúsaḥ-so gácato ar Fkhoórag hoo sámar se idóło !"
[and God MASC-speak-PST-PRF: "watery.mass-ACC sky-ABL-under one-LOC place-LOC-in MASC-take-PERF-IMPER and MASC-become.dry-PASS PARTICIPLE surface REFL.PRON FEM-see-CAUS-IMPER]
Ar iaúr sétanat hee, Deené iam ikhoórag hoom sámaram neekhé neélianat, ar pultónam hariín neélianat.
[and MASC-stand-PST-PERF ADV.PARTICIPLE God FEM-to.become.dry-PASS PARTICIPLE-ACC surface-ACC earth MASC-name-DENOM-PST-PERF and watery.mass-ACC sea name-DENOM-PST-PERF]
Deené dón hee dẓaian hoom, bóḥanat: "Neekhé inótłarag hoom ḥiéthmaim igúdliio: ghotséim táhmaim ragúd hoom, phátsis tsidúim neekhéḥ-ḥa phátsiim seraḥ joóngaḥ-so tṣáido hoo, kaiúd-so táhmad du.
[God MASC-see-PST ADV.PARTICIPLE MASC-become.good-PST PARTICIPLE MASC-speak-PST-PERF: "earth PARTICIPLE-ACC plant-PL-ACC FEM-give-for-IMPER: grass-PL-ACC seed-PL-ACC FEM.PL-give PARTICIPLE-ACC fruit-GEN tree-PL-ACC earth-LOC-on fruit-PL-ACC REFL-PRON-POSS kind-LOC-in give.birth PARTICIPLE which-PL-in seed-PL MASC-be]
Ar iaúr se dújaia.
[and in.this.method REFL.PRON become-IMPERS]
Neekhé inótłarag hoom ḥiéthmaim igúdliinat: ghotséim táhmaim seraḥ joóngaḥ-so ragúd hoom ar tsidúim phátsiim gúd hoom, kaiúm-so táhma seraḥ joóngaḥ-so dun.
[earth PARTICIPLE-ACC plant-PL-ACC FEM-give-for-PST-PERF: grass-PL-ACC seed-PL-ACC REFL-PRON-POSS-LOC kind-LOC-in FEM.PL-give PARTICIPLE-ACC and tree-PL-ACC fruit-PL-ACC MASC-give PARTICIPLE-ACC which-in seed REFL.PRON-POSS-LOC kind-LOC-in MASC-be-PST]
Ar Deené don idẓaáigan hoo idun.
[and God MASC-see-PST FEM-become.good-PASS-PST PARTICIPLE FEM-be-PST]
Ar súndi ar uyýgle iaúr nylýnat - łónca dér.
[and evening and morning in.this.method flow-PST-PERF three-th day]

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 15 Mar 2019 04:00
by eldin raigmore
Artaxes wrote:
13 Mar 2019 22:18
Chapter VIII: Texts

Jaánas Sotiát (Lord's Prayer)

This is quite impressive!

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 25 Mar 2019 20:12
by Artaxes
Here is my blog, where I'm writing about this language now: Artaxata.

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 02 Apr 2019 19:30
by Artaxes
Derived words with more elaborated derivational system: here.

Re: Lóko baaṣát

Posted: 18 Apr 2019 15:06
by Artaxes
I invented an alphabetical writing for the language, called Lásdani (lit. 'writing').

Chart with IPA:
Lord's Prayer: