Kvíaros

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 10 Apr 2019 02:53

Kvíaros
Table of Contents
Phonology
Consonants
/m n ŋ~ŋ:/ m n ng
/p b t d tɕ dʑ k g/ p b t d ch j k g
/f s ɕ h/ f s sh h
/ʋ l r j/ v l r y~i

All consonants can be geminated unless word initially or finally, written double. /ʃ:/ /dʒ:/ and /tʃ:/ are written <ssh> <dj> and <cch>. Geminate consonants can exist in (intervocalic)clusters, provided that the other consonants in the cluster are short resonants.

Vowels
/i i: u u:/ i ī u ū
/e e: o o:/ e ē o ō
/a a:/ a ā

Note <ì> is used to mark an unaccented stressed /i/, which is important because unstressed /i/ collapses to [j] when adjacent to a vowel. <mia> = [mjà] whereas mìa = [mì.ə]

/aj ɛj ɔj ʊj/ ai ei oi ui (i is sometimes y)
/a:j e:j o:j/ āi ēi ōi

Phonotactics
The maximum syllable structure is CORVRCC
Where CO can be any consonant except for /ŋ/ and
CC can be any consonant except for /h/
and R is one of /m n l r ʋ j/.

Note: /t͡ɕ ɕ dʑ/ cannot precede a consonant in the same syllable.
Note2: /h ʋ r n m/ can be followed by a resonant in the onset except:
none can be followed by a nasal or /l/
nasals can only be followed by /j/
/r/ can only be followed by /j/ or /ʋ/

Allophony/pronunciation notes
/t d n l/ are dental [t̪ d̪ n̪ l̪]
Voiceless plosives are aspirated in the onset, unless following another non-plosive consonant
Voiced plosives are breathy voiced word initially or when preceding a long non high vowel
Geminate /ʋ l j h/ are realized as [v: ɮ̪: ʝ: x:]
/tj dj sj/ become [tɕ dʑ ɕ] when both are in the onset
All nasals are realized as [ŋ] before a velar consonant, and /Ng/ is realized as [ŋ:]
All nasals are realized as /ɲ/ before a palatal consonant, and /Ndʑ/ is realized as [ɲ:]
/i u e o a/ are realized as [ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ ǝ] when short and unstressed
/ŋ/ can only exist in the coda

Pitch Accent
One syllable in each word receives an accent, either rising (market v́/v̂ for short/long vowels respectively in IPA and romanization) or low, (Unmarked in romanization, marked v̀/v̌ for in IPA). Accent is assigned as follows:

Roots/morphemes are either inherently accented (given a rising pitch) or unaccented (given a low pitch). The leftmost underlyingly accented syllable is surfaces as accented. If there is no underlyingly accented syllable, then the first syllable is given a low pitch. Roots can be accented on any syllable of the root.
Last edited by CarsonDaConlanger on 10 Apr 2019 03:49, edited 2 times in total.

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 10 Apr 2019 03:01

Typology/basic description
Description
Kvíalos is a language spoken on the mythical planet Hoyyosa. Specifically it is spoken by the Kvíos Empire, a pseudo empire formed of multiple tribes and vassal states united under one monarchical ruler. They have late Iron Age technology but very advanced sea navigation technology including compasses. They follow a polytheistic faith that I will touch on later.

Typology
Alignment: split ergative (behaves as erg/abs except in the future tense, where it is nom/acc)
Standard word order: VoOS, but because of case marking word order is flexible
Inflexion type: fusional
Verbs don't agree with nouns at all, only tense
Prepositions
Only an indefinite marker ve "one" that declines to case an number
Strongly head initial

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 10 Apr 2019 03:12

Nominals
Nominals (nouns and adjectives) decline to case and number. There are two numbers (SG & PL) and 6 cases (ABS ERG VOC GEN LAT ABL)
The structure of a noun is as follows:
Prefix-root-suffix-possessive pronoun-ending
All nouns must have at least a root, a noun with no ending will always belong to the 2nd or 3rd declension. os- stem nouns are usually associated with animate/verbal nouns, but not always.

There are three declensions for nouns/adjectives:
1st declension (os- stem(-sg -pl):
ABS-os -ō
ERG-e -ō
VOC -em -ent
GEN -en -enni
LAT -el -elt
ABL -elle -elli

2nd declension (vowel- stem)(-sg -pl):
ABS -V -V̄
ERG -Vn -Vt
VOC -Vm -mí
GEN -nV -V̄n
LAT -lí -lít
ABL -lís -Vllí

3rd declension (consonant- stem)(-sg -pl):
ABS -Ø -at
ERG -e -at
VOC -me -eme
GEN -ni -nia
LAT -lia -lit
ABL -lis -lin

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 10 Apr 2019 03:48

Verbs
Verbs in Kvíaros conjugate to 3 tenses: present, past, and future. Perfective, passive, and antipassive, verbs can be formed by derivation.

There are two regular conjugations for verbs: ís- and ús-. (Note not all verbs are accented on the final syllable of the infinitive, see the first post for why.)

ís- Conjugation:
Present: -eí -ē*
Past: -én
Future: -ér

ús- Conjugation:
Present: -oú -o
Past: -án
Future: -úr

*When a different form is given for the same ending, the second one is used when accent doesn't fall on the final syllable. If only one ending is given, then the unaccented form is just that ending minus the accent.

Perfective verbs are formed using a few derivational methods, three of which are considered regular:
If a verb begins with a single consonant it's perfective form is eCC: sosís "ask" > essosís
If a verb begins with a cluster, it's perfective form is C1ēC2 hrígis "chase" > hērígis
If a verb begins with a vowel, it's perfective form is on- : árfus "speak" > onárfus

Some verbs have irregular perfects with either fossilized prefixes that are no longer productive or in rare cases all out suppletion.

Passive verbs are derived with one of four regular methods:
If a verb begins in a consonant or cluster, then the initial consonant/cluster is reduplicated, with the vowel <o> inserted after the reduplication: nalís "cook" > nonalís
If a verb begins in a short vowel, then the vowel is lengthened: ecchís "enjoy" > ēcchís
If a verb begins in a long vowel, then the prefix oh- is added: ârus "debate" > ohârus
A large amount of verbs take the infix <N> before the final consonant of the root. These verbs always end in a single non-geminate obstruent, but this not every verb that meets this condition takes the infix: násis "hear" > nánsis

Some verbs have irregular forms just like in the perfective: hessís "give/take" > hahessís

Antipassive verbs are formed in one of two regular ways:
The infix <uk> after the first consonant/cluster if a verb begins in a consonant/cluster: jusús "bake" > jukusús
The prefix k- if it begins in a vowel: oyyús "have" > koyyús

There are no irregular antipassive verbs.

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 10 Apr 2019 16:44

Pronouns
Kvíaros has an abundance of pronouns, including 3 personal pronouns, a reflexive pronoun, an indefinite pronoun, and several interrogative pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
1st Person (SG PL):
ABS dú dút
ERG dús dút
GEN doí/-do dío/-jo
LAT dól dolt
ABL dolí dolít

2nd Person
ABS bar bare
ERG bars bart
VOC baram barant
GEN bran/-br(a) bren/-bre
LAT bral bralt
ABL brial brialt

3rd Person
ABS yé yét
ERG yé yét
VOC yê yete
GEN ye/-ye yet/-che
LAT yél yélt
ABL yéil yélit

Reflexive Pronoun
ABS ché chét
LAT chél chélt
ABL éch écche

Indefinite Pronoun/Interrogative pronouns
The Indefinite Pronoun is ho, and all interrogative pronouns are based on that:
Where: lo
When: bio
Why: do
Who/What: no

They take the same conjugation as ho:
ABS ho hot
ERG hos hot
GEN ho/-ha hot/-(a)t
LAT hol holt
ABL híl hílt

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Nmmali
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by Nmmali » 11 Apr 2019 07:13

I like this language. I'm not brave enough to even think about ergative alignment. Is it going to be a big literary standard in this world?
Yeí Nmmàli.
:eng: [tick] | :ita: [tick] | :fra: [maybe] | :lat: [maybe] | :grc: [maybe] | :jpn: :?:

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 11 Apr 2019 14:52

Nmmali wrote:
11 Apr 2019 07:13
I like this language. I'm not brave enough to even think about ergative alignment.
Thanks! Ergative was confusing at first but now I love it!
Nmmali wrote:
11 Apr 2019 07:13
Is it going to be a big literary standard in this world?
It will be a lingua franca in the area it has made contact with. Think of it as a lot like Latin during the Roman Empire: it was super influential in that area, but there were plenty of civilizations that had minimal to no contact with them. That said, it's conscript is used to write a lot of languages, including the Bonto languages that I will be getting to later after I iron out some kinks.

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 11 Apr 2019 14:58

Example 1: Schlicher's Fable
So now you're probably thinking "What does it sound/look like?" Well wonder no more! here's our first example:

[Ga fléng ve,] núhen vesā tvehhe ven oyyán ua pāya yé, madan ara shía ve long ven, ot madan ara madba ve long ven, ot madan ara si tēvos ve ven. Pen "Haleí du mottídoe, núhē vesā tēvos ven." vesā tvehhe. Pen "Tvehhem násē du, haleí dut mottíjae ó núhē ga dut: tēve ven, yūrle, etreí rvanlí ya chu pāya tvehhen. Otu oyyoú ua pāya tvehhe." Bū násen ga yê, klíro tóbli tvehhos.

IPA:
gà fl̪éŋʋɛ núhɛn ʋèsə: tʰʋèx:ɛ ʋèn ɔʝ:án ùə pʰǎ:jə jé màdən àrə ɕíəʋɛ l̪òŋ: ʋèn òt màdən àrə màdbəʋɛ l̪òŋ:ʋɛn òt màdən àrə sì tʰě:ʋɔsʋɛ ʋèn | pʰèn həl̪ɛí dʱù mɔt:ídɔɛ núhɛ: ʋèsə: tʰě:ʋɔsʋɛn | ʋèsə: tʰʋèx:ɛ | pʰèn tʰʋèx:ɛm násɛ: dʱù həl̪ɛí dʱùt mɔt:íd͡ʑəɛ ó núhɛ: gʱà dʱùt tʰě:ʋɛʋɛn jǔ:rl̪ɛ ɛtrɛí rʋənl̪í jà t͡ɕʰù pʰǎ:jə tʰʋèx:ɛn | òtʰʊ ɔʝ:ɔú ùə pʰǎ:jə tʰʋèx:ɛ | bʱǔ: násɛn gʱà jê: kʰl̪írɔ tʰóbl̪ɪ tʰʋèx:ɔs


English:
(On a hill,) a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: "My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses." The horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool." Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 12 Apr 2019 18:22

What would you guys like to see next?

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KaiTheHomoSapien
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by KaiTheHomoSapien » 14 Apr 2019 21:46

I like this because it doesn't remind me of any natlang I know :) I like that it's ergative-absolutive and has an antipassive. It took me such a long time to wrap my head around the concept of the antipassive.

How about adjectives (comparison of)? Or subordinate clauses? (things I've been putting off in my own language)

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Re: Kvíaros

Post by Khemehekis » 15 Apr 2019 04:56

I'd like to see the number system!

And you absolutely MUST post the numbers 1 thru 10! [}:D]

EDIT: Come to think of it, Carson has probably already been Jankoed.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 60,137 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 16 Apr 2019 23:14

KaiTheHomoSapien wrote:
14 Apr 2019 21:46
I like this because it doesn't remind me of any natlang I know :) I like that it's ergative-absolutive and has an antipassive. It took me such a long time to wrap my head around the concept of the antipassive.
Thanks! Ya to me it just felt like a regular intransitive verb for a long time.
Khemehekis wrote:
15 Apr 2019 04:56
I'd like to see the number system!

And you absolutely MUST post the numbers 1 thru 10! [}:D]

EDIT: Come to think of it, Carson has probably already been Jankoed.
Ya I have but I'll post them here too.
KaiTheHomoSapien wrote:
14 Apr 2019 21:46
How about adjectives (comparison of)? Or subordinate clauses? (things I've been putting off in my own language)
Comin' right up!

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 17 Apr 2019 00:08

Numerals & Adjectives
Numerals and Adjectives behave like nominals in Kvíaros, meaning they decline to case and, in the case (no pun intended) of adjectives, number.

Numerals
Numerals only decline to case, and behave like either 2nd or 3rd declension nouns, based on their endings. Here are numbers 1 through 10:
1. ve
2. bat
3. hro
4. efa
5. tayye
6. kia
7. tēve
8. rúa
9. roká
10. fēs

Adjectives
Adjectives decline just like nouns, but here are three examples:
1st Declension:hoyos "big"
ABS: hoyos hoyō
ERG: hoye hoyō
VOC: hoyem hoyent
GEN: hoyen hoyenni
LAT: hoyel hoyelt
ABL: hoyelle hoyelli

2nd Declension: sósa "small"
ABS: sósa sósā
ERG: sósan sósat
VOC: sósam sósmi
GEN: sósna sósān
LAT: sósli sóslit
ABL: sóslis sósalli

3rd Declension: mek "black"
ABS: mek mekat
ERG: meke mekat
VOC: mekme mekeme
GEN: mekni meknia
LAT: meklia meklit
ABL: meklis meklin

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CarsonDaConlanger
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Re: Kvíaros

Post by CarsonDaConlanger » 17 Apr 2019 01:11

I'll post subordinate clauses later, first I'm gonna post the intro to another lang in the world: Laameta.

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