Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

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Omzinesý
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Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

Post by Omzinesý » 13 Apr 2019 10:47

So this is a quick project, not a real speed lang with time limits though.

Stressed syllables have five vowels: i, e, ä, o, u
Unstressed syllables have three vowels: ɪ̈, ə, ɐ (some allophony of frontness/backness may appear)


Verbs

Verbs have their stress on the first syllable. In a "normal" CVCVC word the second vowel has grammatical meanings:
ɪ̈ <i> 'reportative evidential'
ə <e> 'sensory evidential'
ɐ <a> 'egophoric (i.e. epistemic authority on the information)'

(1)
Nov jetér gós<i>n.
he town go<REP>
'He went to the town, I heard about it.'

(2)
Nov jetér gós<e>n.
he town go<SENS>
'He went to the town, I saw/heard it.'

(3)
Nov jetér gós<a>n.
he town go<EGO>
'He went to the town, I was somehow involved in his going.'

The other vowel codes tense. There are two tenses: the non-past and the past. Maybe there has earlier been a past affix that has made the high vowels lower in the past.

non-past - past
a - a
i - e
u - o

(4)
Nov jetér gús<i>n.
he town go<REP>
'He is going/goes/will go to the town, I heard about it.'


Nouns

Nouns have four cases. The cases are:
Nominative - Codes all arguments of the clause (Actually it could be called the Direct case but Nominative is an easier name.)
Genitive - Codes nominal modifiers of nouns
Locative - Codes adjuncts (free adverbials) like place and time
Essive - The predicate of copular constructions, usually alongside a copular verb sometimes not.

Declension 1:
NOM pedán
GEN pedáne
LOC pedáne
ESS pedánen

Declension 2
NOM pendá
GEN pedné
LOC pednó
ESS pednán

Declension 3
NOM pední
GEN pedné
LOC pedné
ESS pednén

Declension 4
NOM pednú
GEN pednó
LOC pednó
ESS pednón

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Re: Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

Post by Omzinesý » 13 Apr 2019 10:55

Consonant inventory

p t c k <p t c k>
b d ɟ <b d j> (d and sometimes b two are flapped between vowels)
m n ŋ (coda only) <m n ng>
v ɹ j ɣ~ʁ <v r y g>
l <l>
s ɕ <s x>

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Re: Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 14 Apr 2019 05:03

Nice. An egophoric evidential seems new to me, though maybe it's already a thing in a natlang. It certainly makes sense.

That evidential distinction will disappear as soon as speakers merge those unstressed vowels, though. Not to say that ever has to happen.

Also, what is that noun that's being declined? Is it that one noun in four different declensions? Since it looks like each one has the same PDN root. And do nouns inherently take schwa in the initial unstressed syllable for do some take ɪ̈ or ɐ? And for the first declension, is that stressed vowel after the second consonant lexically-dependent as well?

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Re: Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

Post by Omzinesý » 15 Apr 2019 15:01

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
14 Apr 2019 05:03
Nice. An egophoric evidential seems new to me, though maybe it's already a thing in a natlang. It certainly makes sense.

That evidential distinction will disappear as soon as speakers merge those unstressed vowels, though. Not to say that ever has to happen.

Also, what is that noun that's being declined? Is it that one noun in four different declensions? Since it looks like each one has the same PDN root. And do nouns inherently take schwa in the initial unstressed syllable for do some take ɪ̈ or ɐ? And for the first declension, is that stressed vowel after the second consonant lexically-dependent as well?
DeLancey thinks egophoricity is a category related to evidentiality, not not an egophoric evidential. In this language, they are just forced to the same paradigm. It appears in Tibetan and its contact languages. Some Native American languages also have a category that codes feelings, which cannot be perceived but are subjective by definition.
Egophoricity is a very interesting category because it's very subjective who is considered an epistemic authority. It codes nuances of power. Some languages use it boringly with first person subjects only, though.

Yes, I purposefully put it in the reducing vowel. Sensory evidential, which is the most common one, is the most reduced vowel too. Coding Egophoric or Reportative is a marked choice also phonologically.

I devoted less thought on the noun section. PDN is just a root I used. I don't know how productive the root system is and if all the patterns are derived from the same root. The declensions above are just examples of case suffixes.
Stressing patterns may still change. My initial idea was that all vowels right to the stressed one are schwa, but it seems I already broke the rule with verbs.

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Re: Omzinesý's quick triconsonantal language

Post by Omzinesý » 16 Apr 2019 17:36

Copular constructions

There is a copular verb

béd 'is SENSORY'.
bád 'is EGO'
bíd 'is REPORTATIVE'

There is also a fourth epistemic category for general facts that don't need any epistemic conformance, i.e. 'everybody knows'.

búd 'is FACT'

The past stem of the copula is

kós 'was SENSORY'
kás 'was EGO'
kís 'is REPORTATIVE'
kús 'was FACT'

The subject appears in Nominative while the predicative appears in Essive.
(1)
Pirán bud xilna-n.
P is.FACT king-ESS
'Piran is the king.'

The copular verb does not appear in subordinate clauses.
(2)
Xagán vél jo Piran xilna-n
X said.SENSORY COMP P king-ESS
'Xalán said that Piran is the king.'

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