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Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 17 Apr 2019 02:25
by CarsonDaConlanger
Hello boys, girls, any other humans, humanoids, and sentient beings! It's me CarsonDaConlanger, here with (gasp) yet another language! This language, known as Laameta, (Lit. "Island tongue"), is a highly agglutinative (maybe even a little polysynthetic..) nominative accusative language spoken in the southern archipelago of Hoyyosa.

Without further adieu, here's the phonology:
/m n nj~ɲ/ m n ň
/p t ts' tj~tʃ tʃ' k kx' ʔ/ p t t' č č' k k' '
/(f) s sj~ʃ h/ (f) s š h
/l j lj~ʎ w/l y ľ w

/i u/ i u
/e o/ e o
/a/ a
/i: u:/ ii uu
/a:/ aa
Murmured(breathy voiced):
/iɦ uɦ/ ỉ ủ
/aɦ/ ả
/aj ej oj uj aw ew ow iw/ ai ei oi úi au eu ou íu
(<i> and <u> represent /j w/ when before a vowel so the ´ helps differentiate /wi ju/ <ui iu> from /uj iw/ <úi íw>)

C1: Any obstruent except for /h/
C2: Any consonant
C3: /m n ɲ l ʎ s ʃ h ʔ/
G: /j w/
All syllables must begin with at least one consonant.
Geminates may exist as long as they are word internal and are adjacent to at least one vowel.

Vowel Harmony:
If a word contains a murmured vowel, all vowels and resonants to the right of that vowel become murmured as well, even if there isn't a phonemically murmured form of that vowel: ảkeni [ʔaɦkeɦnɦiɦ]
However, this process can be blocked by either a long vowel or a glottal(ized) consonant: pảtuuna [paɦtu:na] ủnak'a [ʔuɦnɦaɦkx'a]

Stress/vowel reduction:
Syllables are separated into 3 weights:
Light: (C)CV
Heavy: (C)CVC, (C)CV[+long]
Superheavy: (C)CV[+long]C
*For the sake of brevity, I will be considering diphthongs and phonemically murmured vowels to be long)

Primary Stress:
If there is a single heaviest syllable, it receives primary stress.
If there are no heavy or superheavy syllables, then the initial syllable receives primary stress.
If there are two or more equally heavy syllables, then the leftmost of them receives primary stress.

Secondary Stress:
In words with 2 syllables: No secondary stress

In words with 3-4 syllables: (1-2 stressed syllables max)
If there is one or more heavy or superheavy syllables that do not already have primary stress, then secondary stress falls on the heaviest then leftmost eligible syllable. If not, no syllable receives secondary stress.

In words with 5+ syllables: (2-3+) (An additional stressed syllable is given for every 2 syllables past 5)
If there is one or more heavy or superheavy syllable that does not already have primary stress, then secondary stress falls on them in order of weight then leftness, until either there are no eligible syllables remaining or the maximum number of stressed syllables has been reached. If there are no eligible syllables, then no secondary stress is given.

Vowel reduction:
Vowels that do not have primary or secondary stress reduce as follows:
/i u e o a/ > [ɪ ʊ ǝ ɛ ǝ]
/i: u: a:/ > [ɪj ʊw ǝɰ]
/aj ej oj/ /aw ow ew/ /iw uj/ > [ɛj] [ɔw] [ʉ:]

*obstruents (/p t tʃ k s ʃ h/) are realized as ejectives when followed by an ejective. /p/ becomes [kx']
*[nj tj sj lj] are in free variation with [ɲ tʃ ʃ ʎ], but educated speakers tend to use the former
*many speakers devoice /w/ to [f] word initially
*clusters of ostruent-glottal stop or glottal stop-obstruent are realized as an ejective. Again, /p/ becomes [kx']
*/ts' tʃ' kx'/ are realized as /t' tj' k'] when preceded by an ejective
*/h/ is realized as [x] when before a high vowel, following a consonant, or in the coda. It is realized as [f] when adjacent to /p m/ or when in the onset of a syllable with /p/ in the onset of the following syllable
*any resonant [m n l ɲ ʎ j w] is breathy voiced [mɦ nɦ lɦ ɲɦ ʎɦ jɦ w]
*/m n ɲ/ assimilate to [m] [n] [ɲ] and [ŋ] before [p f w m] [t ts' s l n] [tʃ tʃ' ʃ ʎ j] and [k kx' x] respectively

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 17 Apr 2019 03:00
by CarsonDaConlanger
Nouns, Pronouns & Adjectives
Nouns in Laameta decline to 3 cases and two numbers, as well as definiteness. The three cases are direct (S, A, or O), genitive (when a noun modifies another noun) and oblique (when a noun isn't those two things. Genitive nouns/pronouns are usually affixed to the noun they modify. Additionally, nouns belong to one of two classes: animate and inanimate. There are no markings to determine the gender of a noun.

DIR -Ø -pi
GEN -(')ah -piah
OBL -taa -pčaa

DIR -ye -pye
GEN -yah -pyah
OBL -čaa -iptaa

Pronouns come in three flavors: personal, interrogative, and demonstrative. They decline to the same things the nouns do:
1st Person:
DIR čuu čun
GEN(Clitic) ča- čả-
GEN(Free) čan čảpi
OBL čas čapi

2nd Person:
DIR mi min
GEN(Clitic) mei- mii-
GEN(Free) men mei
OBL mes mepi

3rd Person (Animate):
DIR se sen
GEN(Clitic) se- seľ-
GEN(Free) sen sepi
OBL ses sepi

There is one interrogative pronoun:
DIR ľo ľon
GEN (Clitic) ľo-
GEN (Free) ľon ľopi
OBL ľos ľopi

And finally two demonstratives, which are also used in place of a dedicated inanimate 3rd person pronoun:
DIR pal paal
GEN (Clitic) pa-
GEN (Free) pan pai
OBL pas pai

DIR tpal tpaal
GEN (Clitic) ta-
GEN (Free) tpan tpai
OBL tpas tpai

DIR we wen
GEN (Clitic) wa-
GEN (Free) wa wai
OBL was wai

Adjectives in Laameta agree to gender and number but are usually just prefixed to the noun they modify:
Animate -o -úi
Inanimate -im -iim

When affixed, they don't decline.

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 17 Apr 2019 03:23
by CarsonDaConlanger
Before I type out the verbal paradigms (I may just link a PDF of the chart so I don't have to redo it), are some example sentences with glosses:

"I am eating."

"He has not eaten it (yet)."

Ňa'aye Naantỉkawe'isa.
[ɲá.ʔǝ.jɛ ná:n.tìɦɦwɦɛɦ.ʔɪ.sǝ]
ňa'a-ye Naan-tỉka-we'i-sa-Ø
food-DIR.SG.DEFF eat-fork-1s>3sI-PRE-DEC
"I eat the food with a fork."

Kaasanahňa'a naanlihaliňňa?
[ká:.sǝ.nàx.ɲǝ.ʔǝ ná:n.lɪ.hǝ.lìɲ.ɲǝ]
Kaasan-ah-ňa'a-Ø naan-li-hali-ňňa
Kaasan-GEN.SG-food-DIR.SG eat-1s>3sA-INO.FUT-INT
"Will I start eating Carson's food?"

Edit: Based on what I've shown so far, does this qualify as polysynthetic?

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 18 Apr 2019 02:20
by CarsonDaConlanger
Numerals & Minor Updates
Also: I've decided on a color for Laameta (as you can probably tell).

Laameta has a base ten counting system, and numbers exist in one of two forms: counting and enclitic. They are listed in that order. If there is only one form then the number simply doesn't change as a clitic
1. le
2. wo u-
3. šei še-
4. meh me-
5. tu
6. kto
7. ľo
8. wai waa-
9. pả
10. kwi ku-

When counting or giving a number in isolation (math, answering "How many...?" etc) you use the first form. Otherwise the numbers are pasted to the front of the noun they modify, and they block the plural marker:
Tkeh "bird"
Tkefpi "birds"
Utkeh "two birds"

I came up with some minor tweaks to the phonology so here they are.

I have added syllablic /n̩/ and /m̩/. They can be allophonically breathy. A "long" syllabic nasal can exist as a result of a syllabic nasal followed by a non syllabic nasal. Like all nasals, they assimilate to POA of the following consonant, but this time only if it is an obstruent. They count as short vowels for the purpose of syllable weight and are written as <m n>.

/p t tʃ k/ are /b d dʒ g/ intervocalically unless before a stressed vowel.

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 18 Apr 2019 03:17
by CarsonDaConlanger
Verbs I (The basics)

Laameta is a highly head marking language, meaning verbs take a lot of information. There is a strict order for these affixes:

Verb-instrumental(class 1)-instrumental(class 2)-voice-person-aspect-tense-mood-negative

Instrumental class 1 is a closed class of highly productive affixes that denote information about how or with what a noun is done, for example, -ľaa (from ľaate "tide") denotes that a verb is done in an improvised manor.

Instrumental class 2 is an open class of any noun that is used to perform the verb. EG: -tỉka "fork" can be affixed to naan- "eat" to make naantỉka "eat with a fork"

Any number of instrumentals may appear on the verb.

Copular verbs meaning "to be" and "to become" are formed using the predicate and slapping the suffix -nup and -nuupat to respectively, which then declines like an intransitive verb:

Tkeh "a bird" - Tkehnup "to be a bird" - Tkehnuupat "to become a bird"

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 19 Apr 2019 16:51
by CarsonDaConlanger
Verbs II (Voice & person)
Verbs in Laameta feature polypersonal agreement to number person and gender (in the 3rd person only). They also have 7 voices: active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal, causative, and two forms of applicative. Let's start with voice:

Voice affixes in Laameta can be divided into two groups: valency increasing and valency decreasing. Valency increasing voices behave agglutinatively and are shown with the following affixes:

-Ø- active (normal sentence)
-twi- causative (adds in another argument in the direct case for something that causes the action to happen)
-tn- applicative I (promotes a locative noun into the direct case to show where the action is happening)
-tatn- applicative II (promotes a benefactive noun into the direct case to show the equivalent of "for" in English)

Resulting ditransitive constructions have the promoted argument placed sentence initial in the causative, and directly before the verb phrase in the applicative.

Valency decreasing voices have fused with the person affixes however, so I will list them below with the person affixes.

Person affixes are moderately fused with each other, but generally have an agent component and a patient component, with the patient component first. There are a separate set of affixes for intransitive verbs and verbs with valency decreasing voices.

On the chart below, the columns are agent and the rows are patient.

Code: Select all

|  |1s     |2s     |3a     |3i     |1p     |2p     |3p     |
|1s|Ø      |-tko-  |-tse-  |-tn-   |Ø      |-tai-  |-teh-  |
|2s|-na'i- |Ø      |-nase- |-nn-   |-napu- |Ø      |-na'eh-|
|3a|-li-   |-klo-  |-sle-  |-ln-   |-plu-  |-li'ai-|-leh-  |
|3i|-we'i- |-weko- |-wese- |-wen-  |-kwu-  |-we'ai-|-we'eh-|
|1p|Ø      |-yảnko-|-yảnse-|-yảnn- |Ø      |-yả'ai-|-yả'eh-|
|2p|-saa'i-|Ø      |-saase-|-saan- |-saapu-|Ø      |-saah- |
|3p|-t'i-  |-tk'i- |-t'ise-|-t'n-  |-tk'u- |-t'ai- |-t'eh- |

Code: Select all

|          |1s     |2s     |3a     |3i     |1p     |2p     |3p     |
|Active    |-tu-   |-na-   |-k'a-  |-sah-  |-šu-   |-mi-   |-(')o  |
|Reflexive |-tun-  |-nan-  |-k'an- |-nsah- |-šun-  |-min-  |-no-   |
|Reciprocal|Ø      |Ø      |Ø      |-saa'- |-šu'-  |-mi'-  |-(')o' |
|Passive   |-itu-  |-iya-  |-ik'a- |-isah- |-šủ-   |-mỉ-   |-yả-   |
Up next is tense aspect and mood!

Re: Laameta: Another 'lang from Hoyyosa

Posted: 19 Apr 2019 19:15
by Birdlang
Looks kinda Athabaskan or Salishan which is interesting for sure.