Development thread of my newest project

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 30 May 2019 18:40

Omzinesý wrote:
21 May 2019 19:55
I'm still not happy with the verb agreement marking. Anyways, I go on with the verb.

The verb template is:

root-TENSE-MOOD-EPIST.C-PERSON

The idea for the mood system is borrowed from Greenlandic. So there are finite moods for subordinate clauses as well, where many other languages would use conjunctions or nonfinite clauses.

Moods of main clauses:
Indicative: -p
Imperative: -c
Potential: -t

Moods of subordinate clauses:
Temporal: -b
Conditional: -ʁ
Complemental/relative: -y
[to be continued]


Tenses are simple:
Beside the unmarked "Present" tense that also appears the basic tense in narratives, there are two relative tenses: Perfect (or retrospectative) and Prospective.

There may also be Passive and Anti-Passive voices, idk. The cross-referencing system is still in progress.
I'll change the mood system.
The imperative marker is just -e, which appears in the epistemic slot. Interrogatives can be used to form those "epistemic directives".

The imperative agrees persons, like all, verbs but the unmarked form is sg2. The sg2 marker -xix of the indicative can also appear. It makes requests more polite.


ñepl-e-ya 'I shal sleep'
ñepl-e-yu 'We shall sleep'
ñepl-e-yuh 'Let's sleep'

ñepl-e-xih 'Sleep (sg)'
ñepl-e-xih 'You (sg)should sleep '
ñepl-ē 'Sleep (pl)'
ñepl-e-xī 'You (pl) should sleep '

ñepl-e-k 'Shall he/it sleeps'
ñepl-e-c 'Shall she/it sleeps'
ñepl-e-p 'Shall they sleep'


The indicative has no marker anymore.
ñepl-a-ya 'I seem to sleep'
ñepl-a-yu 'We (excl) sleep'
ñepl-a-yuh 'We (incl) sleep'

ñepl-a-xih 'You (sg) sleep'
ñepl-a-xī 'You (pl) sleep'

ñepl-a-k '(he/it) sleeps'
ñepl-a-c '(she/it) sleeps'
ñepl-a-p '(they) sleep'


The subjunctive (or whatever the mood of complement clauses and relative clauses should be called) has the same endings as the indicative, but the stem changes. The most typical change is that the last consonant of the stem is prestopped. In the verb ñepl-, l becomes dl.

ñepdl-a-ya 'that I sleep'
ñepdl-a-yu 'that we (excl) sleep'
ñepdl-a-yuh 'that we (incl) sleep'

ñepdl-a-xih 'that you (sg) sleep'
ñepdl-a-xī 'that you (pl) sleep'

ñepdl-a-k 'that (he/it) sleeps'
ñepdl-a-c 'that (she/it) sleeps'
ñepdl-a-p 'that (they) sleep'

The egophoric form of subjunctives is used to mark that the subjects of the matrix clause and the subordinate clause are same, that is logophoricity.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 30 May 2019 20:11, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread Project XIII

Post by Omzinesý » 30 May 2019 19:36

Omzinesý wrote:
29 Apr 2019 11:18
A new project with old ingredients

p t c k
b d ɟ g
m n ɲ (bm dn ɟɲ)
s ɕ
l ʎ (dl ɟʎ)
ɾ (dɾ)
j w ʁ (ɟj gw ɢʁ)
All sonorants have a prestopped pair that appears as a consonant mutation in morphology.

i u
e ə o
ä
Length is distinctive except with /ə/.
So there are the five basic vowel qualities /a, e, i, o, u/.

They can appear as short, long, or nasalized.
The long consonants derive from lenition of some sibilants (s => h => : ) and the nasal vowels derive from V+nasal. So neither long vowels nor nasals appear in closed syllables. Short vowels can appear in both closed and open syllables.

Long vowels are written with a macron ā, ē, ī, ō, ū.
Nasal vowels are written with a circumflex â, ê, î, ô, û.


Allowed coda consonants are:

stops: p (which is usually pronounced [f] in the coda position before a consonant), t, c, k

liquids: l, r

semivowels: j, w, ʁ
(j and w are always devoiced in the coda position, ʁ is sporadically. They are thus pronounced [ç], [ʍ], and [ʁ]~[χ], respectively. )


Sibilants, nasals, /h/ and clusters: pt, pc, pk, tp, tc, tk, cp, ct, kp, kt can appear in the coda position but only word-finally


Prestopped consonants or voiced stops do not appear in coda at all.

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 05 Jun 2019 15:14

A new morphology of the transitive verb suffixes. I ended up making them a full syllable long, which makes it easier to find enough suffixes, without using every consonant as a suffix. The solution looks simple but has portmanteaus. I find it the best of the solutions I have produced this far for the morphology of the language.

Code: Select all

Object/ 	M 	F 	PL
Subject 
M 		-rhe 	-ye 	-[nasal]we
F 		-ge 	-je 	-[nasal]be
PL 		-ga 	-ja 	-[nasal]ba
luk-a-rhe
kiss-SENSORY-M>M
'He kisses him.'

luk-a-ja
kiss-SENSORY-PL>F
'They kiss her.'

lukâwe
luk-a-^we
kiss-SENSORY-M>PL
'He kisses them.'
etc.

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 05 Jun 2019 16:27

The perfect is formed with different person suffixes. Furthermore, there perfect has an ABS-ERG alignment so that the verb agrees with S and O arguments only.

In the table the SENSORY epistemic marker is also written because the vowel nasalizes in 2nd persons.

Code: Select all

SG1		-anja [ãɲa] (the EGOPHORIC form is -in) 
PL1EXCL	-anju [ãɲu]
PL1INCL	-anjuh [ãɲuħ]

SG2 -âxix [ãɕiɕ]
PL2 -âxī [ãɕi:]

SG3M -ang [aɲ]
SG3F -anj [aŋ]
PL3 -am [am]

Code: Select all

SG1		lukin 'I was kissed.'
PL1EXCL		lukinju 'We were kissed.' 
PL1INCL		lukinjuh 'We were kissed.' 

SG2 		lukâxix 'You were kissed.'
PL2 		lukâxī 'You were kissed.'

SG3M 		lukang 'He was kissed.'
SG3F 		lukanj 'She was kissed.'
PL3 		lukam 'They wee kissed.' 

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 05 Jun 2019 16:49

Verb pattern again

0 root - 1 MODE/FUT - 2 MOOD - 3 EPISTEMIC/IMP - 4 PERSON/PERFECT

1 There are four suffixes plus zero in the MODE/FUT slot. The zero markes form could be seen as 'realis nonfuture'

Necessatice (must/should/has to)
Potential (can)
Volitional (wants to)
and
Future (will do)

The tree first ones are irrealis, so wanting the modal quality does not necessarily make the proposition happen.
The future is, contrarily, a realis mood. Its proposition is anticipated to happen.

2 While the mode/fut slot expresses modal qualities, the mood slot rather expresses syntactic functions and speech acts.

The indicative is zero-marked.
The interrogative mood is marked either -y or -c. (I don't know the details of the morphology.)
The subjunctive is often marked as prestopping of the last consonant of the stem.

There will be markers for conditional moods, temporal moods etc.

3 The EPISTEMIC slot has been discussed earlier. It has five markers, non of which is zero, -i EGO, -a SENSORY, -o REPORTATIVE, -u FACT, and -e imperative.

4 The person/perfect slot is also discussed earlier.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 07 Jun 2019 15:04, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 06 Jun 2019 09:37

The table of subject and object agreement will be completed later.

Code: Select all

		SG1	PL1INCL	PL1EXCL	SG2	PL2	SG3M	SG3F	PL3
SG1		-	-	-
PL1INCL		-	-	-
PL1EXCL		-	-	-

SG2					-	-	ghix	yix	^bix 
PL2					-	-	ghī	yī	^bī

SG3M							ghe	ye	^we
SG3F							ge	je	^be
PL3							ga	ja	^ba





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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 07 Jun 2019 15:04

Omzinesý wrote:
05 Jun 2019 16:49
Verb pattern again

0 root - 1 MODE/FUT - 2 MOOD - 3 EPISTEMIC/IMP - 4 PERSON/PERFECT

1 There are four suffixes plus zero in the MODE/FUT slot. The zero markes form could be seen as 'realis nonfuture'

Necessatice (must/should/has to)
Potential (can)
Volitional (wants to)
and
Future (will do)

The tree first ones are irrealis, so wanting the modal quality does not necessarily make the proposition happen.
The future is, contrarily, a realis mood. Its proposition is anticipated to happen.

2 While the mode/fut slot expresses modal qualities, the mood slot rather expresses syntactic functions and speech acts.

The indicative is zero-marked.
The interrogative mood is marked either -y or -c. (I don't know the details of the morphology.)
The subjunctive is often marked as prestopping of the last consonant of the stem.

There will be markers for conditional moods, temporal moods etc.

3 The EPISTEMIC slot has been discussed earlier. It has five markers, non of which is zero, -i EGO, -a SENSORY, -o REPORTATIVE, -u FACT, and -e imperative.

4 The person/perfect slot is also discussed earlier.
I'm changing the template. The mode slot will be a prefix or a stem change, depending on lexical things. The subjunctive mood will appear in the normal MOOD slot.

-1 MODE/FUT - 0 root - 1 MOOD - 2 EPISTEMIC/IMP - 3 PERSON/PERFECT

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Re: Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » 07 Jun 2019 15:17

Adjectives

The adjective system is inspired by that of French.

Gender is not marked in nouns, but there are nouns of all genders in all declensions. Most adjectives, contrarily, mark gender by stem changes.

Adjectives in the noun-modifying/attribute function do not have case inflection. In a predicative role they, of course, get essive case marking.

c-x-y adjectives
M jac, F jax, PL jay
[ɟäc], [ɟäɕ], [ɟäç]
'happy'

t-s-da adjectives
M sot, F sos, PL soda
'good'

k-h-w adjectives
M llok, F lloh, PL llow
[ʟok], [ʟoħ], [ʟoʍ]
'heavy'

ng-nj-m adjectives
seng, senj, sem
'handy'

nasal adjectives
putô, puton, putō
[putõ], [puton], [puto:]
'big'

There may be more paradigms. There are also uninflectionable adjectives

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Re: Development thread of my newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 08 Jun 2019 16:15

Nouns

Cases
There are 5 or 4 cases, depending if Exclamative is a case or some deictic marking that only appears with the nominative. Morphologically, there are 5 case anyways.

Nominative
Exclamative

Genitive
Locative
Essive

All Nominative and Exclamative appear in the same syntactic positions. They are the cases of core arguments (subject, object, double object).
Exlamtative has the proximate deictic sense and the mirative sense. It codes that a referent appears to the language-internal discourse from the language-external context, where the speech partners are. Syntactically, it can be either an argument or a single utterance, 'Oh, the cat!'.
Nominative appears in the same syntactic functions, when the special senses of Exclamative do not appear.

Genitive is the case of the modifiers/attributes of nouns that are nouns.
Locative expresses location, time, or manner, mostly in an adjunct function.
Essive is the case of complements of copular verbs, and the case of secondary copulae. It sometimes also has an adjunct function, 'Being a Y, X...'.


Number is coded by genders, so there is no clear number inflection.
Most declensions have nouns of all genders.

First attempt for conjugations:

Code: Select all

NOM sum 'man' 
EXCL sumō
GEN subma
LOC suma 
ESS sume 
It seems I have to make analytic case markers for the proto-lang, and derive the declensions from it.

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Re: Development thread of my newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 08 Jun 2019 16:29

Uses of the tenses

There are three tenses: Non-Future, Future, and Perfect. In principle, there is no morphological constraint for forming a Future-Perfect tense, but I find it redundant. Aspect can be marked derivationally, but often it's lexical or inferred from the context, i.e. there is more coding of its aspect differs from how the verb prototypically behaves.

The main tense of narratives is always Non-Future. Future, which should be called Prospective in this use, and and Perfect can appear beside it to mark what happened after and before the main flow of events.

In discussions, all the tree tenses can appear more freely. Usually Non-Past expresses events simultaneous with the speech-time. Future expresses what will happen. It often has a perfective/telic sense. So, Non-Future of perfective/telic verbs usually has a past reading. Perfect expresses what happened. If there are long lines telling about what has happened, the discourse often changes to Non-Past tense, i.e. is coded as a narrative.

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Re: Development thread of my newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 09 Jun 2019 13:59

I'm considering changing the phonotactics so that geminates are allowed but vowel length ceases from being contrastive.

Nasal vowels could also be followed by a coda consonant.
Because voiced plosives cannot appear in the coda position and nasal consonants cannot follow nasal vowels, coda nasals could be written with a nasal vowel + a voiced stop.

/am/ <ãb>
But when prestopped, it is written <bm>

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Re: Development thread of my newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 30 Jun 2019 20:23

It seems impossible to develop so huge a cross-referencing system.
I think direct-inverse system is handy for this lang, and I haven't tested it before.

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Re: Development thread of my newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 03 Jul 2019 15:43

Omzinesý wrote:
30 Jun 2019 20:23
It seems impossible to develop so huge a cross-referencing system.
I think direct-inverse system is handy for this lang, and I haven't tested it before.
Using inverse system diminishes the number of person endings to half.
So the shoul only be F.M instead of F>M and M>F.

I decided earlier that there is an exclamative case that refers to a topic coming from the language-external context. It fits quite well in an inverse system. But there should maybe still be an obviative too.

The hierarchy of more prototypical agents could be:
1st person > second person > exclamative > nominative (> obviative ?)

The inverse marker could be the same as a venitive.
hit-M3.sg1-VEN 'He hit me.' the logic being that the hit comes towards me.

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