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Nlokian 5

Posted: 21 Jul 2019 23:21
by Nloki
Hello. I recently came up with a conlang I've been developing since July 7th, although most of the actual conlanging process has been done in the couple last days.

So, as the title might suggest, this is actually my fifth attempt to develop a conlang with the same name (sort of loyalism (although this conlang has nothing to do with the previous ones. In this case, for first time I've created a proto-phonology, evolved it likely, and included split-ergativity in my conlang (at last!))).

Nevertheless, (again) for the first time the name Nlokian has an actual meaning. I first found appealing a name I had written years ago on a fantasy map I was designing: Nlok. Within that map it was, indeed, a river. So, taking that idea, I imagined a civilization living in a large land surrounded by high mountain ranges, from which rivers would flow into a sort of Holy Lake, Nlō, derived from , noun meaning "water" (nlō actually means "lake" as well). Therefore I named the previously mentioned land as Nloke (-ke suffix from kego "land"), and those inhabiting that land would be nlocjēin (Nlokians). Sort of quick diachronically explained etymology of Nlok(e), basically.

By the way, it has still some (mainly grammatically structural) influences from Finnish and Basque, so it keeps resembling my previous works (exclusively!) in terms of grammar.

So, here it goes:

Phonology.
¶Nlokian (Diglossia).
•Classical (Written) Nlokian:
/m ˀm̥ n ˀn̥ ŋ ˀŋ̊/
/p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k g/
/v θ ɬ s̠ z̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ɧ/
/l/
/i ʏ/
/e o/
/ɐ/
•Spoken Nlokian:
/m ˀm n ˀn ŋ ˀŋ/
/p b t̪ d̪ k g/
/v θ ɬ s z ɹ̠˔ x/
/r̥ l j/
/i u/
/e o/
/ɐ/
•Nlokian Allophony:
-/b d̪ ɟ g/ - [β̞ ð̞ j ɰ] between vowels.
-/ɹ̠˔/ - [ɾ] between vowels and [ɾ̥] word finally and as a coda followed by another consonant.
-Coda /n/+/ɹ̠˔/ - [n̠.d̠͡ɹ̠˔].
-Prenasalized stops are allophones result of adding the n- distributive preffix to word-initial plosives.
-Final /e/ turns [ə] according to Standard Pronounciation, and [æ] in the Lorvaeian dialect (whose community's name (Lōrveke) is actually pronounced as /ˈlo̞ɾvəˌkæ/ and not /ˈlo̞ɾve̞ˌkə/ as the SP might suggest).
-In Classical Nlokian, [ u ] is a word final allophone for /ʏ/, and [e̞ o̞] are unstressed allophones for /e o/.

•Romanization Issues:
/ˀm̥/ <pm>
/ˀn/ <tn>
/ŋ/ <ŋ>
/ˀŋ̊/ <kŋ>
/c/ <cj>
/ɟ/ <j>
/θ/ <th>
/ɬ/ <hl>
/ɹ̠˔/ <r>
/ç/ <x>
/ɧ/ <h>
ꙮJehoeian (Nlokian’s ancestor).
•Proto-Jehoeian:
/m ˀm̥ n ˀn̥ ɲ ˀɲ̊ ŋ ˀŋ̊/
/p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k g/
/ɸ θ̼ ɬ s̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ç ɧ/
/l/
/i ʉ u/
/e ɵ o/
/ɐ/
•Ancient Jehoeian:
/m ˀm̥ n ˀn̥ ˀɲ̊ ŋ ŋ ˀŋ̊/
/p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k g/
/f θ̼ ɬ s̠ z̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ɧ/
/l/
/i ʉ/
/e ɵ/
/ɐ/

PHONOTACTIC SCHEME: CVi̯K.
Where C = any consonant, i̯ is a diphthongal /i/ sound (which may not appear following /i/ as syllable nucleus), and K (coda) = any consonant except: /p b d̪ c ɟ g/ (/t̪/ and /k/ can stand as codas) and glottalized nasals.


Noun Morphology.
¶Number:
•Singular.
•Plural: -i(n)/-(e)n.
•Distributive: n(e)-.
In animate nouns, the Distributive doesn't just prenasalize the previous consonant (if possible) but also changes the final vowel into an -e. This does not happen to inanimate nouns.
¶Cases:
•Absolutive: -∅.
Thān Thāin.
Nyru Nyren.
•Ergative: -(i)hr.
Thanihr.
Nyryhr.
•Genitive: -V̄(i), -ī/-āi.
Thanī Thanāi.
Nyrū Nyrȳi.
•Possessive: -(e)k.
Thanek Thanāik.
Nyrek Nyrāik.
•Dative: -(i/ē)s.
Thanis Thanēs.
Nyrys Nyrȳis.
•Commitative: -mme.
Thamme Thanāime.
Nyrȳmme Nyrȳime.
•Instrumental: -ze.
Kotȳzze Kotȳize.
•Locative: -nne.
Kotȳnne Kotȳine.
•Ablative: -rre.
Kotȳrre Kotȳire.
•Allative: -lle.
Kotȳlle Kotȳile.

Code: Select all

       SG     PL       DISTR
       
ABS    Thān   Thāin    Nðān
       Nyru   Nyren    Nenýre
       
ERG       Thanir       Nðanir
          Nyryr        Nenýrer
              
GEN    Thanī  Thanāi   Nðanī
       Nyrū   Nyrýi    Nenyrē
       
POSS   Thanēk Thanāik  Nðanēk
       Nyrēk  Nyrāik   Nenyrēk
       
DAT    Thanis Thanēs   Nðanis
       Nyrys  Nyrýis   Nenýres
       
COMM   Thamme Thanāime Nðamme
       Nyrýmme Nyrýime Nenyrēmme
       
INSTR  Kotýze Kotýize Ngotýze

LOC    Kotýnne Kotýine Ngotýnne

ABL    Kotýrre Kotýire Ngotýine

ALL    Kotýlle Kotýile Ngotýile
✓Nouns used as examples (Thān, Nyru, Kotu) mean "Man", "Woman" and "House/Shed/Shelter" respectively.
✓Also, I had to use <ý> instead of <ȳ> in the table, so "nyrýi" for example should be spelled "nyrȳi" ("the woman’s").
✓It may be noticed that there is no distinction between Singular and Plural in the Ergative. This happened as a result of evolution from Ancient Jehoeian to Classical Nlokian, since the Ergative number is already convided by means of a set of eight verb infixes which also express Perfective vs. Imperfective aspects and Telicity (this last regarding the Absolutive argument(s)).
✓The diphthong <ȳi> in closed syllables most times gets assimilated into [ i ] itself, not just in the spoken language; even while reading Classical Nlokian indeed.

¶Personal Pronouns (Absolutive):
•Singular:
1st Person: xī.
2nd Person: nī.
3rd Person Animate: kū.
3rd Person Inanimate: tā.
•Plural:
1st Person Inclusive: vēi (ve-).
2nc Person Exclusive: mēi (me-).
2nd Person: sī.
3rd Person Animate: xȳi.
3rd Person Inanimate: thēi (ne-).
Edit: ¶Pronominal Possessive Affixes:
•Singular:
1st Person: -ixa.
2nd Person: -ina.
3rd Person Animate: -ika.
3rd Person Inanimate: -ita.
•Plural:
1st Person Inclusive: -iva.
2nc Person Exclusive: -ima.
2nd Person: -isa.
3rd Person Animate: -iha.
3rd Person Inanimate: -itha.
¶Interrogative Pronominal Roots:
What: tnō.
Who: cjō.

Verb Morphology: coming soon!

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 21 Jul 2019 23:31
by yangfiretiger121
I think this place need a bracket markup to prevent unwanted post stylings. For now, though, everyone needs to put a space before the <u> in the underline markup ([ u]) and before the italics markup's <i> ([ i]).Good on ya. Beat me to it.

The language, itself, looks great, though.

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 22 Jul 2019 08:43
by Nloki
Verb Morphology.
¶TAM (Tense, Aspect and Mood):
✓REALIS:
•Aorist: -i, -e, -u/y-.
•Present: -ā, -ā, -ī.
•Past: -ū/ȳ- (+ImperfENAT).
—Past Perfective: -ȳi-,
-ū/ȳ- + PerfENAT.
•Perfect: -si/zi (+ImperfENAT).
—Pluperfect: -si/zi (+PerfENAT).
•Future: -ilta (+ImperfENAT).
—Future Perfective: -ilta (+PerfENAT).
✓IRREALIS:
•Aorist: -o.
•Present: -ēi.
•Past: -ōi (+ImperfENAT).
—Past Perfective: -ōi (+PerfENAT).
•Perfect: -se/ze (+ImperfENAT).
—Pluperfect: -se/ze (+PerfENAT).
•Future: -iltu/y- (+ImperfENAT).
—Future Perfective: -iltu/y- (+PerfENAT).
✓POTENTIAL: -pme suffix.
•Present: -āpme.
•Perfect: -sīpme.
•Future: -īlpme.
✓IMPERATIVE:
•Present: -āsu/y-.
•Future: -āltu/y-.

—The Irrealis mood is used in hypothetical statements and questions either, while the Potential mood is used mainly in a desiderative sense.

¶Ergative’s Number and Absolutive Telicity (ENAT)
✓Imperfective:
—ABS.TEL - ERG.LT: -lkŋe- (Prior).
—ABS.TEL - ERG.GT: -rzu/-rzy-.
—ABS.ATEL - ERG.LT: -lde- (Prior).
—ABS.ATEL - ERG.GT: -lze-.
✓Perfective:
—ABS.TEL - ERG.LT: -nge- (Prior).
—ABS.TEL - ERG.GT: -nri-.
—ABS.ATEL - ERG.LT: -nde- (Prior).
—ABS.ATEL - ERG.GT: -nze-.
GT = greater than.
LT = fewer than / equal to.
(Prior) = in case there's a pronominal nominative preffix, the proritary infixes will be used by default, independantly from their number.

✓These were the preffixes I was indeed talking about in my previous post. In fact, I have to say, Greater Than vs. Fewer Than / Equal To numbers were indeed Micamo’s idea (in another thread I myself wouldn't be able to find right now). Although, I think they actually mentioned it to be "horribly unnaturalistic", so... From your point of view: is it considerably unnaturalistic?

¶Pronominal Affixes:
✓Intransitive (Absoultive), or Transitive Accusatives:
-SINGULAR:
1st Person: -(i)x.
2nd Person: -n.
3rd Person Animate: -k.
3rd Person Inanimate: -t.
-PLURAL:
1st Person Inclusive: -◌̄ve.
2nc Person Exclusive: -◌̄mme.
2nd Person: -◌̄sse.
3rd Person Animate: -◌̄hhe.
3rd Person Inanimate: -◌̄the.

✓Transitive (Nominative):
-SINGULAR:
1st Person: xe-.
2nd Person: ne-.
3rd Person Animate: ky-.
3rd Person Inanimate: te-.
•Plural:
1st Person Inclusive: ve-.
2nc Person Exclusive: me-.
2nd Person: se-.
3rd Person Animate: hy-.
3rd Person Inanimate: the-.

•In transitive constructions (synthetic or periphrastic either), the Nominative affix must be always present, even if the agent has already been especified.
•In Spoken Nlokian, due to the dissapearing of the sound /ç/ as a separate phoneme, the 1st Person Singular Intransitive pronominal ending gets resuced to -(i), whilst its equivalent Nominative pronominal preffix turns hi- (actually pronounced [çi] because of allophony).

¶Morpheme order:
✓Intransitive (also Reflexive):
(Reflexive Preffix) — Verb Stem — TAM — (Absolutive).
✓Transitive (also Reciprocal):
•Main Verb: (Reciprocal Preffix) — Verb Stem — TAM.
•Auxiliary: — Nominative — Abs. Tel. / Erg. Num. — (Accusative).
¶Reflexive and Reciprocal Preffixes:
•Reflexive: ge(j)-.
•Reciprocal: to(j)-.

¶Negation:
✓Intransitive:
Take the main verb’s TAM and pronominal endings, leaving the main verb in the infinitive, and apply them to the auxiliary "eta".
✓Transitive:
Apply TAM conjugation just on "eta", placing it between the main verb (in the infinitive) and its auxiliary.
yangfiretiger121 wrote:
21 Jul 2019 23:31
The language, itself, looks great, though.
Thank you so much! In fact, every time I used to post conlangs very few people answered (well, it's normal, my previous conlangs were ultimate trash, I have to say), but it's great to receive actually good feedback! [:D] Thank you!

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 22 Jul 2019 14:26
by Nloki
Syntax.
Classical Nlokian is strongly head-final:
•Adjectives are followed by nouns.
•Verb auxiliaries come before main verbs.
•Relative clauses precede the noun they modify.
•Verb final.
Etc.

Although, mainly influenced by foreign tendencies, Vernacular Nlokian is predominantly OVS, placing the verb in the middle of each sentence.

Albeit, Classical Nlokian features focus-based word-order, placing the focus generally before the main verb, and the comment at its beginning.
Spoken Nlokian also lacks this feature, though. Instead, it depends on word order to express core case roles, despite those yet being expressed by means of inflection.

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 22 Jul 2019 15:55
by eldin raigmore
Nloki wrote:
22 Jul 2019 14:26
Syntax.
Classical Nlokian is strongly head-final:
•Adjectives follow nouns.
•Verb auxiliaries come after main verbs.
•Relative clauses follow the noun they modify.
That’s head-initial.

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 22 Jul 2019 16:32
by Nloki
eldin raigmore wrote:
22 Jul 2019 15:55
Nloki wrote:
22 Jul 2019 14:26
Syntax.
Classical Nlokian is strongly head-final:
•Adjectives follow nouns.
•Verb auxiliaries come after main verbs.
•Relative clauses follow the noun they modify.
That’s head-initial.
Oh my god... It seems I've got my wires crossed, I actually had almost no time to type that post accurately. I was probably thinking on Basque at the moment of typing, since it places adjectives following nouns despite being verb-final, so...

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 22 Jul 2019 21:14
by eldin raigmore
I think what “head” means may depend on which theoretical school the grammarian belongs to.
The definition I was thinking of is frequently used and is this:
If a word in the phrase is such that the entire phrase is the same part-of-speech as the word, then that word is the head-word of the phrase.

So for instance, since when you add an adjective to a noun, the resulting phrase is still a noun-phrase, the noun must be the head of its phrase.

————

In my conlang Arpien’s grammar I use a different definition of “head”.

——————

So, two suggestions:
1) for each individual phrase-type and each pair of word-classes in it, say which one comes first.
2) before using the labels “head-initial” and/or “head-final”, define what you mean by “head”.

——————

Anyway, it matters more that you tell us what your language does, than that you call it by the “correct” label.

I will keep following it!

Re: Nlokian 5

Posted: 23 Jul 2019 00:45
by Nloki
Classical Nlokian features three main types of verbs, depending on the final vowel of the infinitive: -a, -u, and -i verb classes. Spoken Nlokian retained the three of them, although the -i class dropped the /i/ from the infinitive. Each verb class is easily recognizable not just because of the vowel at the end of the infinitive, but rather by means of other general features characterizing them:

•"-I" type verbs are straightforward the simplest, mainly consisting of underived stems. Often these are the ones to which the synthetic conjugation is applied.

•"-A" type verbs have also a bunch of underived stems, but also others generally derived by means of initial glottalic nasalization or another derivation method except prenasalization. Actually, there are at least some synthetic -a verbs (at least not just exceptions such as in the next type), such as jeha "to go", and "ysa" to answer, not to mention that last’s variants nor the monosyllabic ones either.

•"-U" type verbs are exclusively derived by means initial prenasalization. Save few exceptions, these verbs do not undertake synthetic conjugation.

Also, there are certain verbs undertaking all required verb morphology without an auxiliary. Those are; synthetic verbs. Actually, the synthetic vs. periphrastic verb conjugations is one of the most notably characteristic features I've taken from Basque. In Nlokian, there are around 20 synthetic verbs, and a few of them tend to be fairly irregular. Some examples of those last are:
-Nā and tnā (copulae).
-Kā and hā (both "to have" in different senses)
-Tā and ēki ((again) both "to do" with different meanings depending on context).
-Edi ("to take, adquire")
-Dā ("to pick up, take, grasp, seize").
-Sā ("to speak (to)/say/tell").
-Beka ("to see").
-Jeha ("to go").
-Tolli ("to come").
And so on...


eldin raigmore wrote:
22 Jul 2019 21:14
2) before using the labels “head-initial” and/or “head-final”, define what you mean by “head”.
I would rather define "head" as the grammatically indispensable word for a phrase to make sense (for example, in the noun phrase "the wrecked oil rig", the noun is the head, since "the wrecked ..." doesn't make much sense if the noun is missing. Albeit "the wrecked one" makes sense since "one" acts here as a noun). Although, this definition doesn't seem to work for adpositional phrases, despite those (adpositions) being considered as the actual head an yet turning the phrase nonsensical without a noun to modify.

eldin raigmore wrote: Anyway, it matters more that you tell us what your language does, than that you call it by the “correct” label.
I agree.

eldin raigmore wrote: I will keep following it!
Thanks!

Irregular Synthetic Verbs’ Conjugation: coming soon!