My newest project

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Omzinesý
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My newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 19 Aug 2019 16:16

Phonology

pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ <p t c k>
b d ɟ g <b d j g>
mʰ nʰ ɲʰ ŋʰ <mh nh ñh ?>
m n ɲ ŋ <m n ñ ?
f s ɕ <f s x>
l <l> (I'm still considering if there should be more laterals.)
j ɰ w <i y u>

Velars don't appear before front-vowels.
Because syllable structures are very simple, no remarkable allophony appears.

i ɯ u <i y u>
e ɘ o <e a o>
æ ɑ ɒ <ẹ ạ ọ>

Stops and nasals can form sc. harmonic clusters where two consonants of the same MOA form a cluster (pt, kp, jd, dg mñ etc.). A palatal and a velar cannot however form a harmonic cluster. The first of them doesn't have its own explosion. They are handled like single consonants in the patterns below.

Stressed syllables have two possible tones: a rising one <á> and a falling one <à>.

Nouns are usually of the pattern CV(C) where the vowel is stressed. The last vowel can only be a nasal or a lateral.
Verbs are usually of the pattern CV without an own stress.
Last edited by Omzinesý on 05 Sep 2019 17:43, edited 4 times in total.

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Re: My newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 20 Aug 2019 16:06

The verbs are more or less copied from my older project viewtopic.php?f=6&t=7001&p=292394#p292394

All verbs are monosyllabic and of the pattern CV. They don't have their own tone.

They have only one inflectional/derivational category: orientation (or trigger or voice if you wanna call it that).
It is formed by changing the vowel (ablaut). The vowels are unpredictable.
Sometimes orientation has a voice-like meaning expressing the semantic role of the topic, but with some verbs the pairs of orientation differ dramatically in meaning.

Verbs is an open class. Their meanings are:

Meanings of the verbs

Attitude
- like, have an opinion
- dislike, have a negative opinion

Mental activity
- think
- know
- be ignorant

Communication
- express (say, speak)
- perceive (hear, see)

Action
- do (maintain, practice, work)
- make, accomplish, create
- destroy
- be disable to do
- reject doing
- to use (not consume)
- to use all, consume
- not to use
- touch, meet, hit

Movement
- go to
- move about

States
- be (be a member of the group of Xs)
- equal (be the X)
- be located, stand, have
- be located, lie, have
Adjectival verbs
- be light
- be dark
- be big
- be small
- be new/young
- be old
- be good
- be bad

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Re: My newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 27 Aug 2019 14:58

Next, I'm going to syntax.
chris_notts wrote:
19 Oct 2018 23:12
I'm (kindof) back after a long time away! I was re-reading "Intransitive Predication" by Stassen, and I thought it might make a good conlang quiz, one which I may or may not have done before. Without going into too many details, Stassen looks at patterns in the encoding of the following and how they compare with the typical verbal strategy in different languages:

1. Nominal predication

Examples of nominal predicates expressing identity and class membership, encoded on English with a copula verb:

Identity: he's the man I saw yesterday
Class membership: he's a man

Commonly encoded by a copula verb, copula particle (i.e. with distinct morphology/syntax compared to verbs), or by apposition of nouns. Some languages use the verbal strategy and apply person/TAM affixes/clitics to predicate nouns.

2. Locative predication

Expressions of location. Typically encoded by one or a small class of verbs together with a locative argument. Verbs may simultaenously encode posture or orientation of the figure. Sometimes expressed by just a noun and location with no verb present.

A separate but related class is existential clauses, which may be identical to locationals, differ in word order or pragmatic marking (compare English "A man is there" to "There is a man"), or use completely different supporting verbs.

3. Predicate adjectives

Typically marked either by the same strategy as predicate nouns (e.g. supported by a copula verb), or by the same strategy as verbs (taking verbal agreement and TAM marking). Stassen claims that in languages with inflectional tense marking on verbs predicate adjectives will tend to use the nominal strategy, othereise they'll tend to use the verbal strategy.

In a separate book, Stassen also looks at strategies for predicate possession, including:

Locational strategy = to/at Possessor there is/exists Possessee
With strategy = Possessor is with Possessee
Have strategy = Possessor has Possessee
Topic strategy = Possessor, Possessee exist (possibly with possessive marking on Possessee)

So, for your conlangs:

1. How is nominal predication expressed?
2. How is adjectival predication expressed?
3. How is locative predication expressed?
4. How are existentials expressed?
5. How is predicative possession expressed?
Nominal predication is expressed in a very SAE way, with copular verb gy.
(1)
Ré. gy pi pkàng
[ʑæ˧˥ gɯpʰip̚kɣŋ˨˩]
SG3 COP person male

Locative predication is expressed by verb io 'have'.
(2)
còm io mñí sí
table have cat on[it]
[cʰo˧˩ jo m̚ɲi˧˥ si˥]
'There is a cat on the table.'

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Re: My newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 01 Sep 2019 19:32

Basic clause types


1. Intransitive clause

A typical intransitive clause is of the pattern: [subject][verb] (possible adjuncts).
Because the verb does not have an own stress, the subject NP and a monosyllabic VP usually form phonetically one phrase.

(1)
[pʰi:˧˥bɑ]
Pì bạ.
person think.AG
'The person is thinking.'


2. Transitive clauses

A typical transitive clause is of the pattern: [subjectNP][[VP]] (possible adjuncts).
Transitive clauses thus have a clear phonetic VP.
The order of the verb and the object in the VP depends on definiteness of the object. Indefinite objects precede the verb, while definite objects follow it (2a) and (2b)

(2a)
[pʰi:˧˥ joɕæ:˥]
Pì io xẹ́.
person have toy
'The person has a toy.'

(2b)
[pʰi:˧˥ ɕæ:˥jo]
Pí xẹ́ io.
person toy has
'The person has the toy.'

The subject can be either the (generalized) agent (AG) or the (generalized) patient (PAT). Its role is coded in the verb by ablaut.

(2c)
[ɕæ:˥ pʰi:˧˥je]
Xẹ́ pí ie.
toy person belong
'The toy belongs to a person.'


3. Copula clauses

Copula clauses are formally alike with transitive clauses with indefinite objects: [subject][[copula verb][predicative noun]].
Copula clauses are thus very SAE.

(3)
[pʰi:˧˥ kɑɕæ:˥]
Pì kạ xẹ́.
person be.not toy
'The person is not a toy.'
Last edited by Omzinesý on 01 Sep 2019 19:39, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: My newest project

Post by Omzinesý » 01 Sep 2019 19:35

Dictionary

Nouns
pí 'person', 'human'
xẹ́ 'toy'

verbs
bạ 'think'
io 'have', 'be there'
- ie 'belong to', 'be owned'
kạ 'be not'

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