Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 956
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 08:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Linguifex » 27 Dec 2018 04:02

Something with a Pama-Nyungan flavor, salted with North and South American characteristics…

/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n nj ng
/p t tʲ k ʔ/ b d j g ʔ
/ts tʃ/ ts tsj
/s ʃ h/ s sj h
/tɬ/ dl
/ɬ/ l
/ɹ ~ ɹʲ ~ l/ r ~ l

It might be helpful to group the consonants into the coronals (alveolar, palatal), the peripherals (bilabial, velar), and radicals (glottals).

/a aː e eː i iː u uː/ a aa e ee i ii u uu
/aˤ aˤː eˤ eˤː iˤ iˤː uˤ uˤː/ ą ąą ę ęę į įį ų ųų
/eu euˤ ei eiˤ/ eu ęų ei ęį
/ui uiˤ iu iuˤ/ ui ųį iu įų

(C)V(V)(r/J/K), where J is any palatal sound (except for the palatalized allophone of r) and K is any velar
  • r behaves kind of weird. If in coda, it assimilates in place to a following coronal, if present (njar-sinjarsi, ir-dliiltli); geminates a following peripheral (rar-ngiranngi, nuur-banuubba); and deletes a following radical (sjir-hisjiri, duur-ʔeduure). Its otherwise-default realization is [ɹ].
  • Nasals assimilate to a following non-radical (denj-bademba, dang-jidanjji).
  • Radicals delete following peripheral obstruents (nag-ʔanaga; but nang-ʔanangʔa).
  • Radicals exhibit disharmony: There can only be one of the first radical, the rest having to be the second (ha-hahaʔa, ʔe-ʔeʔuuʔehehuu).
beʔe
baajja
njuugudlungu
danggu
deerrįų
daggą
tlągangdeje


jęęr-lajęęlla
jenj-jajenjja
jeng-gajengga
jenj-njajennja
jeng-ngajennga
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
DesEsseintes
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4577
Joined: 31 Mar 2013 13:16

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » 27 Dec 2018 05:39

Linguifex wrote:
27 Dec 2018 04:02
Radicals delete following peripheral obstruents (nag-ʔanaga; but nang-ʔanangʔa).
The phrasing of that rule did my head in; I parsed ‘delete’ as a transitive verb and expected your rule to do the exact opposite of what you meant. Then it clicked. [xD]
Radicals exhibit disharmony: There can only be one of the first radical, the rest having to be the second (ha-hahaʔa, ʔe-ʔeʔuuʔehehuu).
Love this rule. [<3]

Birdlang
greek
greek
Posts: 732
Joined: 25 Dec 2014 20:17
Location: Virginia

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 28 Dec 2018 15:01

Netzerk
/p d k/ <p t k>
/v θ ʐ~ɻ x ʕ ɦ/ <v d r g c h>
/ʣ ʧ/ <z j>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ñ ŋ>
/ɰ/ <w>
/ɫ/ <ł>
/ɺ/ <l>
/ɮ/ <s>

/i ʉ ʏ ʌ æ a/ <i u y o e a>
/iː yː ʊː ɛː ɔː ɑː/ <í ý ú é ó á>

Maband
/p b t d k g/ <p b t d k g>
/ð z ʒ ʝ ɦ/ <z s š j h>
/m n/ <m n>
/j w/ <y w>
/l/ <l>
/r/ <r>

/iː uː eː oː ɒː/ <ī ū ē ō ā>
/i u e o a/ <i u e o a>
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

Porphyrogenitos
sinic
sinic
Posts: 249
Joined: 21 Jul 2012 08:01
Location: Buffalo, NY

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 28 Dec 2018 21:01

Just a small thing with a surface vowel inventory generated from underlying /i e a/ and /w/:

/m n/
/p t k/
/b d g/
/s x/
/w/

/a e i/

All segments spelled as in the IPA.

Syllable structure is maximally CwVwC. Stress is word-final. Long/geminate vowels and consonants are forbidden; multiple adjacent instances of the same segment are reduced to one. Underlying consonants that are stranded outside a syllable are deleted.

/w/ may occupy a syllable nucleus.

when occupying the beginning of the onset, /w/ > [v]
when acting as a glide following an onset consonant, /w/ > [w]
when occupying a syllable nucleus, /w/ > [u]
when occupying any coda position,

/iw/ > [y]
/ew/ > [ø]
/aw/ > [o]

This results in various surface-level alternations:

/aka/ 'see'
/wd/ 'know'
/w/ 1
/a/ 2
/∅/ 3
/∅/ sing.
/t/ du.
/i/ plu.

stem + person + number

[aˈko] 'I see'
[aˈka] 'you (sing.) see'
[aˈka] 'he/she/it sees'
[aˈkot] 'we two see'
[aˈkat] 'you two see'
[aˈkat] 'they two see'
[akaˈvi] 'we see'
[akaˈi] 'you all see'
[akaˈi] 'they see'

[uˈdu] 'I know'
[uˈda] 'you (sing.) know'
[ud] 'he/she/it knows'
[uˈdut] 'we two know'
[uˈdat] 'you two know'
[ud] 'they two know'
[uˈdwi] 'we know'
[udaˈi] 'you two know'
[uˈdi] 'they know'

Birdlang
greek
greek
Posts: 732
Joined: 25 Dec 2014 20:17
Location: Virginia

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 03 Jan 2019 14:40

Quick sketch
/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ɲ ŋ
/b t d k q/ b t d k g
/v ð s ʒ ʁ ʕ h/ v z s j ǥ ƹ h
/ʤ/ ǰ
/β̞ ð̞ j w ɰ ʁ̞ ʕ̞/ ƀ đ j w ǥ ȝ ع
/l ʎ/ l ɫ
/ɽ/ ɽ
/r/ r
/ɮ͝ð/ ꝇ

/i y ɪ ʏ e ø ɛ œ æ a/ i ü ị ụ̈ e ö ẹ ọ̈ ạ a
/ɨ ʉ ɪ̈ ʊ̈ ɘ ɵ ə ɷ ɜ ɞ ɑ̈ ɒ̈/ î û ị̂ ụ̂ ê ô ê̱ ô̱ ệ ộ ậ ạ̊
/ɯ u ʊ̜ ʊ ɤ o ʌ ɔ ɑ ɒ/ ï u ị̈ ụ ë o ẹ̈ ọ â å
Length is marked with a macron.
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

User avatar
Frislander
runic
runic
Posts: 3462
Joined: 14 May 2016 18:47
Location: The North

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 03 Jan 2019 17:05

/p t̪ ʈ t͡ʃ k kʷ ʔ/
/s h/
/m n/
/ɽ j w/

The contrast between plain and labio-velar is neutralised after rounded vowels in favour of the labio-velar, except word-finally where instead the plain velar wins out since labio-velars do not appear word-finally.

/i u/
/(e) eː ə (o) oː/
/(a) aː/

The long vowels are shortened before consonant clusters/coda consonants. Other cluster-simplifying changes then render these short non-high vowel marginally contrast.

Syllable structure is CV(C), where any consonant may appear in the coda bar /kʷ ʔ h j w/. Suffixes take the form -(ʔ, h)VC, where when the root ends in a stop the glottal stop is realised as gemination of the stop, and with /h/ it is only found overtly as gemination of /s/ and as /h/ after vowels, being deleted in all other contexts. These geminates and consonant + ʔ clusters are the only ones found both inside roots and across affix boundaries.

Birdlang
greek
greek
Posts: 732
Joined: 25 Dec 2014 20:17
Location: Virginia

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 19 Jan 2019 22:54

Another quick sketch that might turn into the language for the dog people
/p pʼ b ɓ t tʼ d ɗ c cʼ ɟ ʄ k kʼ g ɠ ʔ/ p ṗ b ḅ t ṭ d ḍ c ċ ȷ j k ḳ g ġ ɂ
/ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ X ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ/ ꝑ ƀ f v ŧ đ s z š ž ś ź ꝁ ǥ ꝗ ȝ ħ ɛ ꜧ ꝯ h ɦ
/pɸ bβ tθ dð ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ kx gɣ qX ɢʁ ʡʜ ʔh/ p̄ ḇ ṯ ḏ c ʒ č ǯ ḵ ḡ q̄ ƣ ƹ ɣ
/m ɱ n ɲ ŋ ɴ/ m ɱ n ŋ ɲ n̄
/β̞ ð̞ ɹ j ɥ ɰ w ʁ̞ ʕ̞ ʢ̞/ ƃ ƌ ɽ ĭ y̆ w̆ ŭ ʀ ɔ ə
/l ʎ/ l ƚ
/r/ r
/ɬ ɮ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝/ ł ɫ ꝉ ⱡ
/tɬ dɮ cʎ̝̊ ɟʎ̝/ ƛ λ ɬ l̈

/i y e æ a/ i y e ă a
/ə/ ĕ
/ɯ u o ɔ/ w u o ŏ
Long vowels occur, which are marked with a macron.
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

wintiver
sinic
sinic
Posts: 219
Joined: 09 Oct 2012 03:37

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by wintiver » 24 Jan 2019 18:34

This idea is for a language spoken by an isolated group of people. There's an archipelago that is surrounded by a thousand miles of ocean on any side of it.

/m n ŋ/ m n ŋ
/p t k q ʔ/ p t k q '
/p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x q͡χ/ pf ts ch kh qh
/p̕ t̕ k̕ q̕/ p' t' k' q'
/f s ʃ x χ h/ f s sh x ȟ h
/l r j~ɥ ɰ~w ʁ̞/ l r y w ř
  • The approximants are underdefined for rounding. I only indicated the variance in this where there was a standardized IPA symbol, but in rounded vowel environments /l r ʁ̞/ become /lʷ rʷ ʁ̞ʷ/.
  • The affricate series is the direct result of a strongly aspirated series of plosives which diachronically gained more of an affricativized nature.
  • After the loss of the aspirated series of plosives, the unaspirated series became under-defined for aspiration, generally having a light-to-moderate aspiration.
  • Ejectives only occur at onset.
  • In some dialects there is a retention of /t͡ʃ̕/
/i y ɯ u/ i ü ï u
/ɛ œ ʌ ɔ/ e ö ë o
/ä/ a
  • The long vowels are split up into two dialectal groups. Dialect Group A, generally lengthens most of their vowels, maintaining a monophthong realization and in Dialect Group B, most of the vowels are centering diphthongs with a schwa as the second component of the diphthong. The long vowels that are orthographized with an umlaut take on a double-acute accent (I would display this but this box simply doesn't display it right).
  • High vowels tend to be come near-high or mid-close in realization before or after uvulars and glottals (including glottalized segments like the ejectives).
/l̩ r̩/ĺ ŕ

There is a remote part of the archipelago spoken by around 30,000 where there are syllabic nasals as well. I haven't thought of the details on this yet though.

Syllable structure is roughly CV(n,l,r)(C),

brblues
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 89
Joined: 03 Aug 2018 15:34

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by brblues » 27 Jan 2019 20:05

For my second conlang I want to do at least some diachronics, so have sketched some stages of the language. Sorry for not using the correct notation, I will get on that, likely with lots of questions ( ;) ), once I know I will have something I could generally work with, and am kind of just throwing this out here now...


Baseline phonology would be this:

Inventory:
Spoiler:
CONSONANTS
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Nasal m n
Fricative s z (ʃ) (ʒ) x ɣ h
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral approximant l

VOWELS
Close i (ɯ) u
Near-close
Close-mid e o
Mid (ə)
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open
Open a (ɑ)
The ones in () will only be added later on during the process.

Phonotactics
Syllable shape: CV(N), except for the end of a word, which can be CVC


Now the following changes would happen over multiple stages:

Stage 1

-> Sound change: syllable shape CV(C) permitted everywhere
-> Sound change: Allophones /ɯ/ and /ɑ/ for /u/ and /o/ if syllable does not contain a labial consonant

Stage 2:

-> Sound change: Devoicing in clusters
-> Sound change: /s/ and /z/ change to /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ respectively before front vowels
-> Sound change: voiced consonants at the end of a word followed by a short /ə/

Stage 3:

-> Sound change: fricatives become stops in consonant clusters, e.g.:
tastu (water.INSTR)=> tattu
bustu (head.INSTR) => buttu

-> Sound change: Unstressed /ɛ/ turns into /ə/

Stage 4:

-> Sound change: Dissimilation of geminates by replacing the second consonant by glide /j/ (except for /p/ and /m/, where /w/ is used to replace the second consonant), e.g.:

mottu (house.INSTR) => motju
tattu (water.INSTR) => tatju
buttu (head.INSTR) => butju


Stage 5:

-> Sound change: assimilation of /np/ -> /mp/
-> Sound change: deletion of /ə/
-> Sound change: deletion of /ʔ/ unless intervocalic

Thanks in advance if anybody wants to comment/help [:)]

Solarius
roman
roman
Posts: 1196
Joined: 30 Aug 2010 01:23

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Solarius » 27 Jan 2019 23:34

Which one of these do you think is the most pleasing? I have inventory 1 for my current project, but I've been thinking of switching to 2, as I quite like the minimalism:

Inventory 1:
/p b t d t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k g q/
/t͡s' t͡ʃ' k' q'/
/s z/
/s'/
/m n ŋ/
/l ɾ w/

Inventory 2:
/p b t d t͡s d͡z k g q/
/s z/
/m n ŋ/
/l ɾ w/

My main concern is that jettisoning the ejectives in particularly will give the phonology too much of a European appearance, as well as weaken the vaguely Ethiopian Semitic qualities which inspired a lot of the language. What do yall think?
Check out Ussaria!

User avatar
LinguoFranco
greek
greek
Posts: 452
Joined: 20 Jul 2016 17:49
Location: U.S.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by LinguoFranco » 29 Jan 2019 16:02

A quick phoneme inventory I came up with for an experimental proto-language. I hope it isn't too weird or unnatural.

/m n ŋ/
/p b t ʈ d ɖ k ʔ/
/v s z x ɣ ɬ ɮ/
/l ɫ ɻ/
/j w/
/t͡s d͡z/

/i iː u uː/
/a aː/

The syllable structure is CV(C).

User avatar
Frislander
runic
runic
Posts: 3462
Joined: 14 May 2016 18:47
Location: The North

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 30 Jan 2019 00:57

/p t t͡ʃ k/
/mb nd ɲd͡ʒ ŋg/
/s x/
/m n ɲ ŋ/
/w ɺ j/

The stops show some significant allophonic variation. The main thing to note is that pernasalised stops are devoiced before voiceless consonants and absolute phrase-finally and voiceless stops become pre-glottalised before another voiceless stop, a nasal and phrase-finally. For example /æːmbpə/ [jæˑmpːə], /uːtmik/ [wuˑˀtmɪˀk], /ɑːtxuŋg/ [ɑːtxʊŋk]

/i iː u uː/
/eː ə oː/
/æː ɑː/

The short vowels are centralised slightly before glottalisation and geminates, and the long vowels are similarly slightly shortened in the same environments.

Syllable structure is CV(C), where any consonant bar /t͡ʃ ɲd͡ʒ ɲ w j/ may appear in the coda. There are some significant distributional restrictions on which consonants may appear word-initially - only stops (plain and pre-nasalised) and fricatives may appear in this position, with other sonorants being restricted to word-internal position, with the exception that word-initially before front vowels /j/ is automatically inserted and similarly for /w/ and rounded vowels. Additionally the nasal-prenasalised stop contrast is neutralised after consonants in favour of the plain nasals, indicating that the latter likely developed from the former in some contexts. Finally there is some degree of place assimilation - when two stops come together the first assimilates to the place of the second producing a geminate (with glottalisation), and the same applies to nasals before stops/nasals, e.g. /oːt-kət͡ʃ/ [woˑˀkːəˀt͡ʃ], /kæːⁿd-mbuɺ/ [kæːⁿdmuɺ], /xum-ⁿdɑːs/ [xʊnːɑːs]. When a nasal assimilates to a voiceless stop like this they coalesce into a single prenasalised stop, e.g. /t͡ʃeːn-t͡ʃin/ [t͡ʃeːɲd͡ʒin].

The vowels are similarly constrained - the long vowels are entirely restricted to the first syllable of roots, which is also the primary stressed syllable. All subsequent vowels in a root, and in most of affixes, are exclusively from the "reduced" set /i u ə/, and there is even a diminutive reduplication where a reduplicant with a long vowel has its vowel reduced as follows: /iː eː æː uː oː ɑː/ > /i i ə u u ə/, e.g. /ɲd͡ʒæːx-ɲd͡ʒəx/ [ɲd͡ʒæːxɲəx], /soːŋgəɺ-suŋgəɺ/ [soːŋgəɺsuŋgəɺ]. No such reduplication takes place in compounds however (outside of certain frozen forms), and certain affixes, likely of recently grammaticalised status, show full vowels.

User avatar
Frislander
runic
runic
Posts: 3462
Joined: 14 May 2016 18:47
Location: The North

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 31 Jan 2019 12:22

/p ⁿd̪ tˤ tʃ k/
/s x/
/m n~ɾ/

The flap is restricted to single intervocalic position, where single /n/ is not found. The pharyngealised alveolar stop lowers adjacent vowels/backs /a/ to [ɑ]

/i~j ɨ~ɰ u~w/
/e a o/

The high vowels are found as glides before low vowels, but are deleted before other high vowels. This can lead to the creation of contour tones on high vowels (see below). When low vowels are adjacent they form a true diphthong.

There is a two-way tonal contrast between high and low, both of which can be free-floating and neither being unmarked. These tones are to some extent free-floating, with tones being assigned to fully vocalic elements only, with deleted/de-syllabified high vowels permitting their tones to float to the nearest vowel e.g. /màtʃì-ún/ > [màtʃǔn], /pósé-èⁿd̪/ > [pósêⁿt̪], /tˤàɾɨ́-èⁿd̪/ > [tˤɑ̀ɾɰêⁿt̪].

Syllable structure is (C)(V)V(C), where VV stands for either a dipthong or a sequence of vowel and glide in either order, and a coda C may consist of any consonant. There are some assimilations which take place when consonants are adjoined. Firstly /n/ assimilates to the POA of a following consonant, e.g. /séèn-kù/ > [sêŋkù], /ⁿd̪òtˤìn-mà/ > [ⁿd̪ɔ̀tˤèmːà]. Secondly coda /ⁿd̪/ devoices word-finally and assimilates to a following obstruent, e.g. /pàùàⁿd̪/ > [pàwàⁿt̪], /kìóⁿd̪-t͡ʃí/ > [kjǒⁿt͡ʃːí]. Finally /tˤ/ adjacent to another consonant spreads it pharyngealisation through said consonant, e.g. /nɨ́p-tˤò/ > [nɘ́pˤtˤɔ̀].

Birdlang
greek
greek
Posts: 732
Joined: 25 Dec 2014 20:17
Location: Virginia

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 01 Feb 2019 00:15

Central Birdish
Aa Āā Ää Ǟǟ Bb Ḅḅ Cc Čč Dd Ḏḏ Ḍḍ Ee Ēē Ff Gg Ġġ Hh Ḫḫ Ii Īī Jj Kk Ḳḳ Ll Ḷḷ Ɫɫ Ḻḻ Mm Nn Ŋŋ Ṉṉ Oo Ōō Öö Ȫȫ Pp Ṗṗ Rr Ṙṙ Ṟṟ Ss Šš Tt Ṯṯ Ṭṭ Uu Ūū Üü Ǖǖ Ww Ŵŵ Yy Ŷŷ Zz Žž Ẑẑ ⁷
/i y u e ø o æ a/ i ü u e ö o ä a
Vowel length is indicated by a macron
/p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ/ p b t d ṯ ḏ k g ⁷
/pʼ~ɸ ɓ~β tʼ~θ ɗ~ð kʼ~x ɠ~ɣ/ ṗ ḅ ṭ ḍ ḳ ġ
/f v s z ʃ ʒ ʝ ʁ ʕ h/ f v s z š ž j ṙ ḫ h
/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ṉ ŋ
/ʦ ʣ ʧ/ c ẑ č
/j ɥ w ɰ/ y ŷ w ŵ
/l ʎ/ l ḻ
/r r̝/ r ṟ
/ɬ ɮ/ ḷ ɫ
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

User avatar
Frislander
runic
runic
Posts: 3462
Joined: 14 May 2016 18:47
Location: The North

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 04 Feb 2019 19:16

/p k ʔ/
/b~m d~ɾ~n/
/s h/
/w j/

/ɪ~e ɘ ʊ~o/
/a/

Nasalisation is a suprasegmental feature which primarily manifests on vowels but causes the nasalisation of voiced stops and spreads through /ʔ m n h w j/ in either direction.

Syllable structure is (C)V(C), where V syllables only occur word-initially and consonants are restricted to /ʔ b d h/. /d/ is flapped intervocalically when not nasalised.

User avatar
DesEsseintes
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4577
Joined: 31 Mar 2013 13:16

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » 11 Feb 2019 16:32

The phonology of Project Narwhal, which is at the tinkering stage.

/m n/ m n
/p t t͡s t͡ʃ k ʔ/ p t c ć k ’
/b d d͡z d͡ʒ g/ b d z j g
/s ʃ h/ s ś h
/l r j w/ l r y w

/a e o/ a e o

Syllable structure is mostly CN, where N is a simple or complex nucleus. In word-final position, a consonant coda is permitted. I’m still undecided whether there are any word-internal clusters, but at the very least medial geminate consonants will occur.

Complex nuclei consist of a vowel followed by one of the six resonants m n l r y w. A nucleus can be short or long. When a complex nucleus is lengthened, it is mostly the resonant offglide that is audibly longer in duration. Length is indicated with an interpunct written after the nucleus.

The inventory of possible nuclei is therefore as follows:

a am an al ar ay aw
e em en el er ey ew
o om on ol or oy ow

a· am· an· al· ar· ay· aw·
e· em· en· el· er· ey· ew·
o· om· on· ol· or· oy· ow·
Last edited by DesEsseintes on 11 Feb 2019 17:05, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
Zekoslav
sinic
sinic
Posts: 211
Joined: 07 Oct 2017 16:54

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Zekoslav » 11 Feb 2019 16:59

/m n ŋ/
/p t t͡s k/
/f s χ*/
/r/
/i e ɛ a ɔ o u/

*voiceless uvular fricative, i.e. Greek Chi

(C)V(C), with geminates, nasal + stop clusters, /tk/ and /sχ/ at the least (exact phonotactics are as of yet undecided - I might go for an Algonquian-like distribution).
Languages:
:hrv: [:D], :bih: :srb: [;)], :eng: [:D], :fra: [:|], :lat: [:(], :deu: [:'(]

A linguistics enthusiast who would like to make a conlang, but can't decide what to call what.

- Tewanian languages
- Guide to Slavic accentuation

Birdlang
greek
greek
Posts: 732
Joined: 25 Dec 2014 20:17
Location: Virginia

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 13 Feb 2019 01:48

Working on Proto-Birdic because I’m still trying to work on the Birdic languages.

/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ñ ŋ
/p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ/ p b t d ť ď k g q
/f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ ħ ʕ h ɦ/ f v ţ ḑ s z š ž x ǥ ẋ ḩ h ğ
/ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ/ c ʒ č ǯ
/ɻ l j ɥ ɰ w/ ż l j ÿ ẅ w
/r/ r

/i y ʉ u ʊ e ø ɵ o ə ɛ ʌ ɔ æ a ɒ/ + length: i ü y u ŭ e ö œ o ï è ä ò æ a å + macron

Old Birdic

/m n ŋ/ m n ñ / ḿ ń ŋ
/p b t d k g/ p b t d k g / ṗ ḅ ť ď ǩ ǧ
/f v s z ɕ ʑ ɣ h/ f v s z ś ź x h / ḟ ṿ š ž ĝ ĵ
/l j w/ l j w / ľ ŵ
/r/ r / ř
All consonants except ś, ź and j can be palatized, written as the second option.

/i ʉ u ʊ e ɤ o ʌ a ɒ/ i y û u e ö o ǔ a ō

Middle Birdic

/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ỹ g̃
/p b t d c ɟ k g q ɢ ʔ/ p b t d t̃ d̃ k g ḳ ġ q/ʼ (second at end of words or syllable)
/f v s z ʃ ʒ ɕ ʑ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ/ f ƀ s z š ž ś ź ṡ ż ķ ģ ḫ ǥ ḥ ə h ĥ
/p͝f b͝v ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ʨ ʥ c͝ç ɟ͝ʝ k͝x g͝ɣ q͝χ ɢ͝ʁ ʔ͝h/ ƥ ɓ c ʒ č ǯ ć ʒ́ ċ ʒ̇ k̂ ĝ ɋ ȝ ƽ
/l j w/ l j v
/r/ r
/ɬ ʎ̝̊/ ƚ ⱡ

/i ɨ ɯ u e ɤ o ə ɑ/ i y w u e ö o ĕ a

Standard Pheasanti
/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ny ng
/p b t d k g kʷ gʷ/ p b t d k g kw gw
/f v s z ʃ ʒ ɕ ʑ h/ f v s z x j sy zy h
/ʧ ʤ ʨ ʥ/ ky gy ty dy
/j ʍ w/ y/ẏ hw w/ẇ
/l/ l
/r/ r

/i y u e o ə ʌ a/ i û u e o ə ʌ a
/aj aw ej ow oj ew ɥi ɥe/ aĭ aŭ eĭ oŭ oĭ eŭ ůi ůe
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

DV82LECM
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 108
Joined: 16 Dec 2016 03:31

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DV82LECM » 16 Feb 2019 20:57

Frislander wrote:
31 Jan 2019 12:22
/p ⁿd̪ tˤ tʃ k/
/s x/
/m n~ɾ/

The flap is restricted to single intervocalic position, where single /n/ is not found. The pharyngealised alveolar stop lowers adjacent vowels/backs /a/ to [ɑ]

/i~j ɨ~ɰ u~w/
/e a o/

The high vowels are found as glides before low vowels, but are deleted before other high vowels. This can lead to the creation of contour tones on high vowels (see below). When low vowels are adjacent they form a true diphthong.

There is a two-way tonal contrast between high and low, both of which can be free-floating and neither being unmarked. These tones are to some extent free-floating, with tones being assigned to fully vocalic elements only, with deleted/de-syllabified high vowels permitting their tones to float to the nearest vowel e.g. /màtʃì-ún/ > [màtʃǔn], /pósé-èⁿd̪/ > [pósêⁿt̪], /tˤàɾɨ́-èⁿd̪/ > [tˤɑ̀ɾɰêⁿt̪].

Syllable structure is (C)(V)V(C), where VV stands for either a dipthong or a sequence of vowel and glide in either order, and a coda C may consist of any consonant. There are some assimilations which take place when consonants are adjoined. Firstly /n/ assimilates to the POA of a following consonant, e.g. /séèn-kù/ > [sêŋkù], /ⁿd̪òtˤìn-mà/ > [ⁿd̪ɔ̀tˤèmːà]. Secondly coda /ⁿd̪/ devoices word-finally and assimilates to a following obstruent, e.g. /pàùàⁿd̪/ > [pàwàⁿt̪], /kìóⁿd̪-t͡ʃí/ > [kjǒⁿt͡ʃːí]. Finally /tˤ/ adjacent to another consonant spreads it pharyngealisation through said consonant, e.g. /nɨ́p-tˤò/ > [nɘ́pˤtˤɔ̀].
I don't know WHY, but this is phenomenal to me. I would adore more.

Jampot911
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 31
Joined: 25 Dec 2016 18:13
Location: Elgin, Scotland

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Jampot911 » 17 Feb 2019 22:54

Hey! A wee experimentation, sorta based on Swedish and Osage.

/p pʰ pː t tʰ tː k kʰ kː ʔ/ <b p hp/pp d t ht/tt g k hk/kk ’>
/f s ʃ x h/ <f s sj gj h>
/ʋ~w l j ʁ̞/ <v l j r>
/m n/ <m n>

/i ĩ y~ʉ/ <i į u>
/e ø o õ/ <e ö o ǫ>
/æ ɑ ɑ̃/ <ä a ą>

Allophony
Aspirated stops can realised as stop + [x] ([ʃ] before a high vowel).
Fricatives and plain voiceless stops voiced intervocalically.
/ʋ/ realised as [w] adjacent to a rounded vowel.
[n] assimilates in POA to match a following stop.
[ʃ] may be realised as [ɕ] before a front vowel, or even [ʃx] before a back vowel.
Like Swedish, a sequence of <r> + an alveolar consonant produces a retroflex consonant.
A coda geminated stop realised as /stop(ː)ə/.

pǫsjulö [pxõʒʉlø]
hkǫsökk [kːõzøk(ː)ə]
What can I say? I like making stuff up.

Lofdǣdum sceal in mǣgþa gehƿǣre man geþeon.

Post Reply