Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

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Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 17 Feb 2019 23:39

A small system with suprasegmental nasality

/p t c k/
/b d ɟ g/
/h/

/a i u/ + length

Syllable structure is (C)V(V). Stress is root-initial.

Both onsets and rhymes may bear nasality, but the voiceless obstruents and /h/ cannot bear nasality.

Underlying /b̃ d̃ ɟ̃ g̃ ã ĩ ũ/ are [m n ɲ ŋ ã ẽ õ]

Intervocalically, non-nasal /b d ɟ g/ are [β ɾ j ɣ]

Nasal harmony rule: Nasality always spreads leftwards within a phonological word (i.e. including clitics) until all available slots have been filled. Voiceless non-glottal segments are opaque; nasality cannot pass through or settle upon them. The voiceless glottal cannot bear nasality, but it is transparent to nasality.

Morphemes may carry inherent tone or not:

maci /b̃aci/ 'mother'
paci 'father'

Segments may become nasal through normal harmony rules:

-mu /b̃u/ adjectivizer + macimacĩmu /b̃acĩb̃u/ 'motherly'
a DEF + maciã-maci 'the mother'

But morphemes may also carry floating tone:

paha / ̃paha/ 'uncle'
-uku / ̃uku/ DU

a + pahaã-papa 'the uncle'
paha + -ukupãhãuku 'two uncles'

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 18 Feb 2019 18:43

Another bash at Sanskrito-Dravido-Australian

/p t̪ ʈ c k/
/m n̪ ɳ ɲ ŋ/
/ʋ~u l̪ ɭ j~i/
/r/

The glides alternate between syllabic and non-syllabic forms on the basis of ablaut, on which see more below. Similarly, the liquids may appear as syllabic consonants in the same context. Retroflex consonants

/(i iː u uː)/
/a aː/

Due to the effects of ablaut the only "true" vowels are the long and short variants of /a/. Short /i u/ occur as the syllabic variants of /j ʋ/ respectively as discussed above and the long versions of these vowels are alternants of /aj aʋ/ respectively when they do not occur before another vowel. After long vowels these glides break into /ji ʋu/ respectively before consonants and word-finally.

Now for disussion of ablaut. All roots are, at their most basic, of the shape CaC-, with a few exceptions of the form Caː-, which can be explained by recourse to a mophophone H. There are three grades of ablaut - full, reduced and lengthened. For roots which end in a stop or nasal, their full and reduced grades are identical. For those ending in anything else (i.e. a glide, liquid or H) the reduced grade instead shorts the syllabic form of the consonant (which in H's case is /a/). Lengthened grades show a long vowel in all forms, though in the case of Caː- roots this is the exact same as their full form, since overlong vowels are not found. The alternations can be summarised thusly:

Code: Select all

Full      Red.     Leng
CaT, CaN CaT, CaN CaːT, CaːN
CR̩       CaR      CaːR
Ca       Caː       Caː
Finally, when two coronals, or two dorsals except for pre-consonantal /j/ meet across a syllable boundary, a dental consonant assimilates to a retroflex and a velar assimilates to a palatal.

So some examples. The roots are /cak-/, /maɳ-/, /kaɲ-/, /ŋaʋ-/, /t̪aj-/, /ɲar-/, /l̪aː-/, and the inflections are /-t̪a/ "perfective (participle), /-aːn̪/ "1st person singular (imperfective)", /-kaɭa/ "1st person plural (imperfective), /-i/ "3rd person (imperfective).

Code: Select all

     -t̪a   -aːn̪   -kaɭa   -i
cak- cakt̪a cakaːn̪ cakkaɭa caːki
maɳ- maɳʈa maɳaːn̪ maɳkaɭa maːɳi
kaɲ- kaɲt̪a kaɲaːn̪ kaɲcaɭa kaːɲi
ŋaʋ- ŋut̪a  ŋawaːn̪ ŋuːkaɭa ŋaːwi
t̪aj- t̪it̪a  t̪ajaːn̪ t̪iːkaɭa t̪aːji
ɲar- ɲr̩t̪a  ɲaraːn̪ ɲarkaɭa ɲaːri
l̪aː- l̪at̪a  l̪aːn̪   l̪aːkaɭa l̪aːji

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 20 Feb 2019 18:00

/p t t͡s k ʔ/
/ⁿb ⁿd ⁿd͡z ⁿg/
/m n ɲ ŋ/
/w ɾ/

The relationship between the the plain, prenasalised and nasal stop series is complicated and explained below.

/i o/
/e a/

Syllable structure is (C)V, and vowels show a true nasality contrast word-finally after /p t t͡s k ʔ w ɾ/. Otherwise vowel/consonant nasality is predictable. Pre-nasalised stops nasalise preceding vowels, while nasal consonants nasalise both preceding and following vowels. The glottal stop is transparent for nasality spread. Additionally, when a nasal vowel would appear before a plain stop, the stop becomes prenasalised (and /w ɾ/ become /m n/ in the same position, which cause further rightward nasal spread), while whenever a nasal vowel would follow a pre-nasalised stop, the pre-nasalised stop becomes a pure nasal. Additionally, pre-nasalised consonants do no occur root-initially, however certain inflections consist of a floating nasal element which causes a word-initial plain stop, /w/ or/ɾ/ to change in the same manner as word-internal pre-nasalisation.

So for example, "house", "married woman", "penis" and "tree" are /mãʔã/, /kãⁿbe/, /t͡soaɾa/ and /wito/ respectively, and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd person possessive forms are /-mẽ/, /-ko/ and /N-/, where /N/ stands for the initial nasal mutation. This gives the following inflected forms:

Code: Select all

1st mãʔãmẽ  kãmẽmẽ  t͡soaɾãmẽ witõmẽ
2nd mãʔãⁿgo kãⁿbeko t͡soaɾako witoko
3rd mãʔã    ŋãⁿbe   ⁿd͡zoaɾa  mĩⁿdo

/tʰ kʰ kʷʰ ʔ/
/p’~b t’~d k’~g kʷ’~gʷ q’~ɢ/
/f s ɬ ʃ ħ h/
/t͡s’~d͡z t͡ɬ’~d͡ɮ t͡ʃ’~d͡ʒ/
/m n/
/l j w/

The ejective stops are frequently pronounced as plain voiced stops when single in intervocalic position and after sonorants, but always ejective when geminated.

/i u/
/e o/
/ɛ ɑ/

Syllable structure is CV(C)(C), where licit consonant clusters are limited to /s ɬ ʃ/ + /f tʰ kʰ p’ t’ k’/ and /N l/ + /tʰ kʰ b d g f s ʃ d͡z d͡ʒ/, where N assimilates to the POA of a following consonant, plus intervocalically geminates are permitted as well. Additionally, the first C of a CC cluster may instead consist of a low vowel followed by a glide, which may occur before any single consonant - where morphology would cause a consonant cluster/geminate to immediately follow the diphthongs are monophthongised like so: /ɑj ɛj ɑw ɛw/ > /e e o o/.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 22 Feb 2019 20:42

A weird throwaway toy inventory and a weird rule that appeared in a small question on my phonology homework:

/n ŋ/
/p t t͡ʃ k/

/a e i o u/

t → t͡ʃ / _{a e i o u k ŋ}

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » 23 Feb 2019 09:10

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
22 Feb 2019 20:42
A weird throwaway toy inventory and a weird rule that appeared in a small question on my phonology homework:

/n ŋ/
/p t t͡ʃ k/

/a e i o u/

t → t͡ʃ / _{a e i o u k ŋ}
wow such a small phonology

I once had a conlang with 6 consonants and 4 vowels, with vowel harmony
...

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DV82LECM » 23 Feb 2019 22:06

k1234567890y wrote:
23 Feb 2019 09:10
Porphyrogenitos wrote:
22 Feb 2019 20:42
A weird throwaway toy inventory and a weird rule that appeared in a small question on my phonology homework:

/n ŋ/
/p t t͡ʃ k/

/a e i o u/

t → t͡ʃ / _{a e i o u k ŋ}
wow such a small phonology

I once had a conlang with 6 consonants and 4 vowels, with vowel harmony
I'm working on Eathut, again. It has seven consonants (sort of), and three vowels. Ironically, I created a syllabary that is actually an abjad that works as a syllabary.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 23 Feb 2019 22:57

Working on a small conlang as well to use a set of two syllabaries with. The phonology is influenced a little by Japanese in the consonants, and German and Sanskrit in the vowels.

/m n ŋ/ m n ñ
/p b t d k g/ p b t d k g
/f s x~ɣ/ f s h
/ʣ/ z
/j w/ j w
/l/ l
/ɽ/ r

/i y u ə ɛ œ ɔ aː/ i y u a e ȧ o ā
All can be long except /ə/ and /aː/ can be long because those 2 are a length pair. Long vowels are written with a macron above.

Allophone

/n t d k g s ɣ~x ʣ l/ after /j/ and before /i y/ become /ɲ ʨ ʥ c ɟ ɕ ʝ~ç ʤ ʎ/ ň ť ď ķ ģ ś ĵ ž ľ

The syllabary would have 2 types in a manner akin to Japanese.
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DV82LECM » 24 Feb 2019 00:12

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
22 Feb 2019 20:42
A weird throwaway toy inventory and a weird rule that appeared in a small question on my phonology homework:

/n ŋ/
/p t t͡ʃ k/

/a e i o u/

t → t͡ʃ / _{a e i o u k ŋ}
WAIT! /t͡ʃ/ is phonemic AND down-the-board, alternatively phonetic?!

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 27 Feb 2019 00:12

/pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ k͡x k͡xʷ/
/p’ t’ t͡s’ t͡ʃ’ k’ kʷ’ q’ qʷ’ ʔ/
/b d g gʷ/
/ɬ s ʃ χ χʷ ʜ h/
/ɮ z ʒ ʁ ʁʷ/
/m n/
/ɾ j w/

/i ɨ u/
/e o/
/ɛ ɑ/

All vowels shows a two-way length and tone contrast.

Syllable structure is C(F)V(C), where CF is a stop + fricative cluster out of the list /pɬ bɮ ps bz pʃ bʒ pχ bʁ tχ dʁ pʜ bʢ tʜ dʢ/ and consonantal onsets are obligatory. Coda consonants are severely restricted to /ɬ s χ n/, the first three of which assimilate to the voicing of a following obstruent, /s/ becomes /ʃ/ before postalveolars and /n/ assimilates to the POA of a following consonant.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DV82LECM » 27 Feb 2019 15:44

YET unnamed...

You all might make fun of me when I tell you where this is from. Fine, I am going to make a language out of what I imagine would be a native, ancestral language for the world of Tangled. (Am not a massive Disney fan, but I am a fan of that movie and had this idea when the movie came out.)

Phonology:
/m n/ <m n>
/p~b t~d~ʔ k~g/ <p t c>
/s~z h~v/ <s h/v>
/w ɾ~l j/ <u/w r/l i/y>

/i u/ <i u>
/e o/ <e o>
/a/ <a>

/ai au oi eu/ <ai au oi eu>
/ja jo ju wa we wi/ <ia io iu ua ue ui>

Onset clusters:
/sm sp st sk/
/pɾ kɾ/

Intervocal clusters:
/mb~m: nd~n: nz ŋ(g)/
/lm lp lt lk ls~ɬ lv/
/zm sp st sk/
/p: t: k: s: l:/
/pɾ kɾ/ (only after prefixes)

Syllable coda:
/-n -t [ʔ] -s -l/

Word only coda:
/-nt -ns -lt -ls -st/

<rapunsel>
[ɾa'punzel]
/rapuns-el/
'flower'-1pS GEN
"My flower"
Last edited by DV82LECM on 28 Feb 2019 18:53, edited 9 times in total.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 28 Feb 2019 07:09

DV82LECM wrote:
24 Feb 2019 00:12
WAIT! /t͡ʃ/ is phonemic AND down-the-board, alternatively phonetic?!
Yeah, it was really kind of a broken inventory. Really just intended to get us to write a rule with an unusual combination of features.

And on the topic of features, I'm trying to think of a "cubic" consonant inventory based on a 2x2x2 contrast of three [+/-] features. It's kind of tricky. If you use two of the features on manner of articulation, you end up with only one for place, which is weird. Like this:

[+/-nasal] [+/-continuant] [+/-coronal] (or [+/-central])

/t k~kʷ/
/ɹ ɰ~w/
/n ŋ~ŋʷ/
/z̃ ɣ̃~ɣ̃ʷ/

Idk, and if the nasal continuants were glides they'd probably just merge with the regular nasals, but nasalized fricatives would be extremely unusual to have in an inventory this size.

If I had [+/-nasal] and two overlapping place features, it would produce something...remotely naturalistic. Like a tiny Australian inventory. But what two [+/-] features can interact in such a way that every cell can be filled? Maybe I could do something with [+/-central] or [+/-peripheral] like in some Australian consonants, but what could I cross that with? Maybe [+/-dorsal]?

/t c/
/p k/
/n ɲ/
/m ŋ/

I guess that technically works, but it seems kind of weird to cross [+/-central] with [+/-dorsal]. Oh well. Just a weird little puzzle I made for myself.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by cedh » 28 Feb 2019 08:45

What about [+/-nasal], [+/-dorsal], [+/-labial], giving something like the following?
/p t/
/kʷ k/
/m n/
/ŋʷ ŋ/

This could even be expanded to vowels:
/y i/
/u ɑ/
/ỹ ĩ/
/ũ ɑ̃/


Or else, [+/-voiced], [+/-continuant], [+/-labial]:
/p t~k/
/b~m d~ɡ~n~ŋ/
/f s~ʃ~x~h/
/w r~l~j/

Depending on whether you count nasals as stops (as most phonological theories do) or as continuants (because they can easily be syllabic), [m n~ŋ] might also be possible allophones of /w r~l~j/ instead.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Creyeditor » 28 Feb 2019 22:21

I always thought that [+/-sonorant],[+/-continuant] and [+/-alveolar] is the perfect cube.

/n ŋʷ~m/ [+sonorant,-continuant]
/t kʷ~p/ [-sonorant,-continuant]
/s xʷ~f/ [-sonorant,+continuant]
/j w/ [+sonorant,+continuant]

For vowels, you can substitute height features for stricture featues (and alveolar for [+/-front]) and you will still get something sensible.

/i u/ [+high,+tense]
/ɪ ʊ/ [+high,-tense]
/e o/ [-high,+tense]
/æ ɑ/ [-high,-tense]

If you start from the classic Turkish vowel cube on the other hand you will get something entirely different.

[-round][+round][-round][+round]
[-back,+back]
/i y ɨ u/ [+high]
/e ø a o/ [-high]

Assuming that [+/-high] still corresponds to [+/- sonorant] and that [+/-round] becomes [+/-labial(ized)]. Also [+/-back] could become [+/- dorsal]. This would yield the following:

/p t k kʷ/ [-sonorant]
/m n j w/ [+sonorant]

Still looks okay, I think.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » 01 Mar 2019 00:48

cedh wrote:
28 Feb 2019 08:45
What about [+/-nasal], [+/-dorsal], [+/-labial], giving something like the following?
/p t/
/kʷ k/
/m n/
/ŋʷ ŋ/

Or else, [+/-voiced], [+/-continuant], [+/-labial]:
/p t~k/
/b~m d~ɡ~n~ŋ/
/f s~ʃ~x~h/
/w r~l~j/
Creyeditor wrote:
28 Feb 2019 22:21
I always thought that [+/-sonorant],[+/-continuant] and [+/-alveolar] is the perfect cube.

/n ŋʷ~m/ [+sonorant,-continuant]
/t kʷ~p/ [-sonorant,-continuant]
/s xʷ~f/ [-sonorant,+continuant]
/j w/ [+sonorant,+continuant]
These are all great! Better than what I came up with. Now I wonder if a "hypercubic" 2x2x2x2 system is possible. Well, if you add secondary articulations, like [+/-glottalized] or [+/-palatalized] it would be fairly easy, but I wonder if there's another "basic" feature that could be introduced.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 01 Mar 2019 01:49

/p t t͡ʃ k kʷ q/ (the "stops")
/v l j ɣ ɣʷ ʁ/ (the "continuants")
/m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ (ɴ)/ (the nasals)

The continuants are devoiced to /f ɬ ʃ x xʷ χ/ respectively when they occur geminated or before a stop. /ɴ/ is fairly marginal - its distribution is explained below.

/i ə u/
/a/

Syllable structure is CV(C)(C), of which only the stops and nasals bar /ɴ/ may occur in the coda singly, and coda clusters are restricted to continuant or nasal plus stop, where the nasal assimilates to the POA of the stop. Additionally in intervocalic position geminates consonants are permitted, and geminate stops may also have a preceding continuant/nasal as in codas.

There are some distributional restrictions on which consonants can occur word-initially, namely that only the stops and nasals bar /ɴ/ may appear in this position. /ɴ/ itself only ever appears as a geminate or preceding /q/.

There are several radical assimilation processes which help explain these distributions. Firstly place assimilation - the stops and nasals assimilate in place to any following consonant (e.g. /qaŋut + kin/ > /qaŋukːin/, /muliɲ + ŋʷa/ > /muliŋːʷa/). Secondly manner assimilation - after place assimilation takes place, a continuant assimilates to the preceding nasal (e.g. /kʷatən + ʁa/ > /kʷatəɴːa/) and a nasal or continuant to the preceding stop (e.g. /t͡ʃiɬp + nuŋ/ > /t͡ʃiɬtːuŋ/).

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » 02 Mar 2019 16:18

Frislander wrote:
01 Mar 2019 01:49
/p t t͡ʃ k kʷ q/ (the "stops")
/v l j ɣ ɣʷ ʁ/ (the "continuants")
/m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ (ɴ)/ (the nasals)

The continuants are devoiced to /f ɬ ʃ x xʷ χ/ respectively when they occur geminated or before a stop.
Blesséd be for posting this at this very moment, Fris. I’m revisiting an old conlang of mine, and this gave me exactly the ideas I needed. :mrgreen:

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by LinguoFranco » 03 Mar 2019 03:21

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p t c k ʔ/
/mb nd ŋɟ ŋg/
/f s ɕ x θ/
/l ʀ/
/ʋ ɥ/
/t͡s t͡ɕ/

/i iː u uː/
/a aː/

I don't know if it is odd to have palatals, but no /j/. /mb nd ŋɟ ŋg/ are supposed to be prenasalized, but I don't know how to type that. It's syllable structure is CV(S), where S stands for any sonorant.

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Creyeditor » 03 Mar 2019 17:26

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
01 Mar 2019 00:48
Now I wonder if a "hypercubic" 2x2x2x2 system is possible. Well, if you add secondary articulations, like [+/-glottalized] or [+/-palatalized] it would be fairly easy, but I wonder if there's another "basic" feature that could be introduced.
So, I think the combination of the two I had above yields something sensible, though it includes labialization.

[-dorsal][-dorsal][+dorsal][+dorsal]
[+labial][-labial][-labial][+labial]
/p t k kʷ/ [-sonorant,-continuant]
/f s x xʷ/ [-sonorant,+continuant]
/m n ŋ ŋʷ/ [+sonorant,-continuant]
/β̞ l ɰ~j w/ [+sonorant,+continuant]

The resulting vowel system would also be a combination of the ones above.

[-round][+round][-round][+round]
[-back,+back]
/i y ɨ u/ [+high,+tense]
/ɪ ʏ ɨ̈ ʊ/ [+high,-tense]
/e ø ə o/ [-high,+tense]
/ɛ œ ɑ ɒ/ [-high,-tense]

IMHO, these look a bit strange. One way to avoid the labialization is to come up with new binary place features. I thought maybe [+/- dorsal] and [+/-coronal]. The combination of [+dorsal] and [+coronal] could be palatals and postalveolars. [+/-coronal] could be translated for vowels as [+/-front] with [+back,+front] combinations yieldings diphthongs.

[-dorsal][-dorsal][+dorsal][+dorsal]
[-coronal][+coronal][+coronal][-coronal]
/p t c k/ [-sonorant,-continuant]
/f s ʃ x/ [-sonorant,+continuant]
/m n ɲ ŋ/ [+sonorant,-continuant]
/w l j ɰ~h/ [+sonorant,+continuant]

[+front][-front][-front][+front]
[-back,+back]
/i ɨ u uɪ̯/ [+high,+tense]
/ɪ ɨ̈ ʊ ʊɪ̯/ [+high,-tense]
/e ə o oɪ̯/ [-high,+tense]
/ɛ ɑ ɒ aɪ̯/ [-high,-tense]

The diphthongs are a bit weird though. Maybe one could add more manner/height features instead.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » 03 Mar 2019 22:24

An unnamed Slavic language.
/m n ɲ/ m n ń/ň
/p b t d c ɟ k g/ p b t d ť ď k g
/f v s z ʃ ʒ ɕ ʑ x ɣ/ f w s z š ž ś ź ch h
/ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ʨ ʥ/ c dz č dž ć dź
/j w/ j ł/ŭ/v
/l ʎ/ l ĺ/ľ
/r r̝/ r ŕ/ř

/i y ɨ u e o œ a/ i ü y u e o ö a
The long vowels are written with an acute.
/aː/ á
The umlauted long vowels are marked with a double acute.
/œː yː/ ő ű
/ɔ̃ æ̃/ ą ę
/ɔ̃ː æ̃ː/ ǎ ě
I mixed Czech, Polish and Hungarian orthography together. It is spoken in Slovakia and Czech Republic and would be similar to Czech and Slovak.
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » 13 Mar 2019 14:46

/p t ɬ ʂ t͡ʃ k kʷ/
/β ð l ʐ j ɣ ɣʷ/
/m n/
/ɾ/

Out of these only /t ɬ ʂ t͡ʃ k kʷ m n/ occur word-initially in native words, while /p/ occurs word-initially in loanwords.

/i ɨ u/
/a ɔ/

/a/ merges with /ɔ/ and /ɨ/ merges with /u/ before labivelars.

Syllable structure is (C)V(N), where the only permissible clusters are NT, where T is a voiceless obstruent and N assimilates to the POA of the following stop.

There is a process of lenition which takes place when certain prefixes are added to a root. The alternations consist of the following.

Code: Select all

t  ð
ɬ  l
ʂ  ʐ
t͡ʃ  j
k  ɣ
kʷ ɣʷ
m  β
n  ɾ
With vowel-initial roots in the same contexts assimilations occur. These consist of the following:

Code: Select all

  i  ɨ  u  a  ɔ
i i  iu iu ia iɔ
ɨ ui ɨ  u  ua uɔ
u ui u  u  ua uɔ
a ai a  au a  ɔ
ɔ ɔi ɔ  ɔu ɔ  ɔ
With prefixes that don't trigger lenition, -p- is inserted before a vowel-initial root.

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