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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 09 Dec 2017 23:14
by Frislander
/t k/ <t k>
/b d g/ <b d g>
/s̪ s̺ x/ <z s h>
/m n/ <m n>
/(w) l̪~ɾ (j)/ <(u) l~r (i)>

The liquid shows marked allophony; it is realised as a flap before and as a lateral when word-final or before a consonant, and additionally is not found word-initially.

/i u/ <i u>
/e o/ <e o>
/a/ <a>

Syllable structure is (C)(r)V(V)(C), where any single consonant may appear in the onset or coda and any obstruent may be followed by the liquid. There are no restrictions on vowel sequences, however sequences of two vowels where one of them is close syllabify as a single syllable. The sibilants, /n/ and the liquid may also occur as syllable nuclei, however these do not cluster with vowels.

Stress is weight-sensitive, usually penultimate unless the ultimate syllable is heavier, where a syllable is counted as heavy if it has either a complex nucleus or a sonorant coda.

---------------------------------------------------

/p t k/
/v ʃ h/
/m ɹ j n~ŋ/
/r/

The non-labial nasal shows a great deal of variation in pronunciation between speakers, however it is consistently pronounced as an alveolar before /t ʃ ɹ/ and as a velar before /k h/.

/i ʉ/
/e ə o/
/ɛ̃ ɔ̃/
/a ɑ/

Syllable structure is CV(C), where coda consonants are restricted to /t k h n~ŋ r/, where the nasal assimilates to the POA of the following consonant. Additionally /r/ is not permitted word-initially.

Stress may fall on either the penult or the ultima, and additionally the stress may have either a high or falling accent.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 15 Dec 2017 06:30
by Porphyrogenitos
A historical thing I might use sometime:

Word-final homorganic /NT/ and /ND/ clusters exist; there are allomorphic alternations between the two (e.g. klent / klend), owing to the addition of a vocalic suffix that triggered voicing (or blocked word-final devoicing) and was later dropped.

/mp nt ŋk/
/mb nd ŋg/

Then, word-final /ND/ > /N/, cf. English /ŋg/ > /ŋ/, /mb/ > /m/, and ongoing /nd/ > /n/.

Then, word-final /NT/ > /T/.

So then we have the following finals, which alternate in some words:

/p t k/
/m n ŋ/

Perhaps some inflectional endings were not lost, leading to preservation of intervocalic /ND/ in some forms, e.g.:

klend > klent > klet
klendu > klend > klen
klenda > klendə > klendə

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Dec 2017 21:12
by Frislander
Linguolabials! I haven't tried those before!

/p t̼ t t͡ʃ k/
/β ð̼ ɣ h/
/ⁿd~n/
/ɾ~ɹ r/

/i u/
/ɛ ʌ ɔ/
/ã/

The prenasalised stop is realised as a plain nasal before the nasal vowel, while the linguo-labials are not found before the rounded vowels /u o/ (in both cases this includes when an consonant intercedes). The flap and approximate are in free variation, but the trill is always a trill.

Syllable structure is (C)(C)V, where acceptable CC clusters are as follows: /t t͡ʃ k/ + /β ð̼/, /p t̼ t t͡ʃ/ + /ɣ/, /p t̼ t͡ʃ k/ + /ⁿd~n/ and /p t̼ t t͡ʃ k β ð̼ ɣ h ⁿd~n/ + /ɾ~ɹ r/. Additionally word-internally geminates contrast with single consonants. Additionally vowel sequences are permitted, however when /ã/ comes into contact with other vowels the nasality spreads, and additionally /ʌ/ becomes /ã/ when nasalised.

Morphophonologically there are some roots and affixes which cause gemination of a following single consonant. Additionally some roots also have a silent final consonant /p t̼ t t͡ʃ/ or /k/ which only surface before vowels and certain consonants.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Dec 2017 21:29
by Parlox
The phonemes of my relatively new conlang, Lozkazmat.

/m/
/p pʼ b t k g q/
/s z ʒ/
/t͡ʃ/
/ɸ β ɹ̥ ɹ j x h/
/l/

/e ø ɤ o/
/ə ɵ̞/
/a/

Syllable structure is (C)(C)VC.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 18 Dec 2017 16:30
by Frislander
/t’ t͡s’ t͡ɬ’ kʲ’ kʷ’ ʔ/ <t s l k kw ‘>
/tʰ sʰ ɬʰ kʲʰ kʷʰ h/ <th sh lh kh khw h>
/n j w/ <n y w>

/i ɨ u/ <i ü u>
/ɛ ɤ/ <e o>
/ɑ/ <a>

Addditionally there is a high-low tone distinction, with the contrast being on the syllable level.

Syllable structure is CV.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 19 Dec 2017 15:47
by Void
I've dabbled a bit with a diachronic, West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) conlang, with a bunch of diphthongs and wacky sound changes (taking Grimm's Law one step further, basically):

/m n ŋ/
/p t tʃ k/
/f s ʃ ɕ x ç h/
/z ɣ/
/w l r j/

/a ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ aː eː iː oː uː/
/au̯ wa wɔ jɛ wa: wo: je:/

Sa frestar skrie prio sam hyninge. (< Þa preswytar skrēb brewē þammē kyningē.)
[sa ˈfrɛstar skre: prɔ sam ˈhʏnɪŋɛ]
"The priest wrote a letter to the king."

Sie ywalen krimars tiez tiawaliskan rihoalan in siem oalzi. (< Þē ybilan grīmārios dēd diawoliskan rītualan in þēm woalþī.)
[ɕɛ ˈʏwalɛn ˈkriːmars ɕjɛs ˈɕjawaliskan ˈriːɣwalan in ɕɛm ˈwalzi]
"The wicked sorcerers performed devilish rituals in the forest."

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 19 Dec 2017 21:29
by Frislander
/p’ t’ t͡ʃ’ k’ ʔ/
/pʰ tʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ h/
/m n ɲ ŋ/
/l/

The aspirated stops /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ may be variably realised as affricates [p͡f t͡θ k͡x].

/i u/
/a/

In additional vowels may be in either modal, breathy or creaky voice.

Syllable structure is (C)CV, were acceptable clusters consist of homeorganic nasal + oral stop and /p’ k’ pʰ kʰ/ followed by /l/.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 20 Dec 2017 19:20
by Frislander
/p t t͡ʃ k q ʔ/
/m n ŋ/
/w l j/

/i ə o/
/a/

Syllable structure is CV(ʔ, ŋ, l), where /ŋ/ assimilates to the POA of a following consonant.

Stress is weight-based, appearing on the initial syllable unless the post-initial is heavier, where weight is determined by the presence vs. absence of a coda consonant.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 22 Dec 2017 17:07
by Vlürch
Some random inventories with ejectives and implosives, among other stuff...

/m n ŋ ŋ͡m/
/t d k q ʔ/
/pʰ t̪ʰ d̪ʱ ʈʰ ɖʱ kʰ/
/k͡p g͡b/
/pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ/
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/
/t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/
/t͡sʰ t͡ʂʰ t͡ɕʰ/
/s ʂ ɕ ʑ/
/sʼ/
/f v θ ð ɻ j ʁ ʕ h x͡ɸ ɣ͡β x͡θ/
/xʼ χʼ/
/r/
/l ɮ/
/ɬʼ/
/t͡ɬ/
/t͡ɬʼ/

/ɑ ɛ i ɔ u ə/
/æː eː oː/

The unaspirated /t d/ vary between dental [t̪ d̪], alveolar [t d] and retroflex [ʈ ɖ].
The aspirated /t̪ʰ d̪ʱ/ and /ʈʰ ɖʱ/ are always dental and retroflex respectively.
The ejective and implosive /tʼ ɗ/ vary between dental [t̪ʼ ɗ̪], alveolar [tʼ ɗ] and retroflex [ʈʼ ᶑ].

/m n/ <m n>
/pʼ tʼ kʼ/ <p t k>
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ <b d g>
/t͡s t͡ʃ/ <c j>
/sʼ/ <x>
/ɸ β θ ð j x/ <f v s z y h>
/ɾ~ɺ/ <r>
/t͡ɬʼ/ <l>

/a e i o u/ <a e i o u>

/a e/ are front [æ e] after ejective /pʼ tʼ kʼ sʼ t͡ɬʼ/, voiced /β ð j/
/a e/ are back [ɑ ɤ] after implosive /ɓ ɗ ɠ/, voiceless /ɸ θ x/
/a e/ are central [ɐ ɘ] after the nasals /m n/, the liquid /ɾ~ɺ/ and affricates /t͡s t͡ʃ/
/o u/ are central [ɵ ʉ] after the palatals /t͡ʃ j/, the liquid /ɾ~ɺ/
/u/ is unrounded [ɯ] after the affricates /t͡s t͡ɬʼ/ and the velars /kʼ ɠ x/

/n kʼ ɠ t͡ʃ sʼ x ɾ~ɺ/ are palatal [ɲ cʼ ʄ t͡ɕ ɕʼ ç ʎ] before /i/
/ɾ~ɺ/ is an alveolar or retroflex approximant [ɹ~l~ɻ~ɭ] word-finally
/pʼ tʼ kʼ sʼ t͡ɬʼ/ are [ʔə̆p ʔə̆t ʔə̆k ʔə̆s ʔə̆ɬ] word-finally
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ are [ʔə̆m ʔə̆n ʔə̆ŋ] word-finally
/ɸ β θ ð/ are released stops [pᵊ bᵊ t̪ᵊ d̪ᵊ] word-finally

/m n/ <m n>
/pʼ tʼ kʼ/ <p t k>
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ <b d g>
/d͡ʒ/ <j>
/s/ <s>
/v j h/ <v y h>
/r̝/ <r>
/ɮ/ <l>

/ə ɪ ʊ/ <a i u>
/ɛˑ ɔˑ/ <e o>
/ɑː iː uː/ <â î û>
/eɪ̯ oʊ̯/ <ê ô>

/pʼ tʼ kʼ/ are [ʔə̆f ʔə̆θ ʔə̆x] word-finally.
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ are [β ð ɣ] before /pʼ tʼ kʼ/, [p t k] word-finally.
/d͡ʒ/ is [t͡ʃ] before voiceless sounds and word-finally.
/s/ is [z] between voiced sounds, [θ] word-finally.
/h/ is [ʕ~ɦ] intervocalically.
/r̝/ is [ɹ̝̊] before voiceless consonants and word-finally.
/ɮ/ is [ɬ] before voiceless sounds and word-finally.

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p b t̪ d̪ ʈ ɖ k g/
/pʰ bʱ t̪ʰ d̪ʱ ʈʰ ɖʱ kʰ gʱ/
/pʼ tʼ kʼ/
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/
/t͡s ʈ͡ʂ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/
/t͡sʰ ʈ͡ʂʰ t͡ɕʰ/
/s ɕ/
/ʂˤ ʐˤ/
/f v ç j w x ɣ/
/ɸˤ βˤ ɻˤ χˤ ʁˤ/
/ɾ/
/ʎ̮/
/t͡ɬʼ/

/a̘ i̘ ø̘ ʉ̘ ə̘̀ ə̘́/
/ɑ̙ ɯ̙ ʉ̙ ə̙̀ ə̙́/

Vowel harmony: concurrent ±ATR and back/front.
Only the schwa has phonemic tone.
Pharyngealised and retrfolex consonants can only occur in words with back+RTR.
Voiced aspirated plosives can only occur in words with front+ATR.

/bʱø̘tʼə̘̀kʼø̘ɾə̘́/ [bʱø̘̄t̪ʲʼɘ̘̀kʲʼø̘̄ɾ̠ʲɘ̘́]
/t̪a̘tʼø̘ŋi̘/ [t̪ǣ̘t̪ʲʼø̘̄ŋʲːī̘]
/ə̙̀ɻˤɑ̙t͡ɬʼə̙̀ʁˤɯ̙ʈ͡ʂʰə̙́/ [ɚ̙̀ɻˤɑ̙̀t͡ɬʼə̙̀ʁˤɯ̙̄ʈ͡ʂʰə̙́]
Void wrote:
19 Dec 2017 15:47
I've dabbled a bit with a diachronic, West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) conlang, with a bunch of diphthongs and wacky sound changes (taking Grimm's Law one step further, basically)
Interesting! I'd like to see more of that.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 23 Dec 2017 07:51
by Porphyrogenitos
A variation on a thing I've thought of before:

/m n/
/p t k (ʔ)/
/s/
/ɾ l j w/

/a e i o u/

Syllable structure is (C(R))V(C). R represents the resonants /ɾ l j w/, which may follow a syllable-initial obstruent.

Cross-syllabic sequences /j.j/ and /w.w/ are automatically reduced to /.j/ and /.w/

Coda nasals assimilate in place to the following consonant.

The non-glottal obstruents each have an intervocalic and a post-nasal allophone:

/p t k s/
[f θ x h]
[b d g (d)z]

The language features extensive ablaut processes similar to triconsonantal/templatic morphology, producing allophonic alternations like /akˈsaka/ [akˈsaxa] vs. /akesˈka/ [axesˈka]

/ʔ/ probably has a place in this phonology, since it's inspired by Hebrew, what I'm not sure what.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 23 Dec 2017 17:46
by Frislander
/t~ɾ s x ʔ/ <r s x ‘>
/ⁿb ⁿd ⁿd͡z ⁿg/ <b d z g>
/w j/ <w y>

/e ə o/ <e 1 o>
/a/ <a>

1 the schwa is unwritten.

Syllable structure is C(G)V(G), where G is a glide. Phonetic <i u> are underlyingly /əj əw/. /t~ɾ/ is realised as [t] word-initially and [ɾ] in other places.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 24 Dec 2017 00:56
by Shemtov
Proto-Chaskian
/p t ʈ k/
/t͡s t͡ɬ ʈ͡ʂ ʈ͡ꞎ /
/s ɬ ʂ ꞎ h/
/m n ɳ ŋ/
/j w/
/l ɭ/

/i u e o a/
/i: u: e: o: a:/
/ɚ ɚ/
/l̩ l̩:/

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 26 Dec 2017 22:18
by LinguoFranco
Here is a set I am working on. I think it needs more phonemes. I know it needs more fricatives, although I don't know if I want a voiced/voiceless distinction and how many I want. What do you think of the inventory I have so far?

/æ ɑ e i o u/
/k kʰ t tʰ ʔ/
/m n/
/h/
/j w/

Coda Consonants: /n k t/

I have a slight preference for /v/ over /w, but I don't dislike /w/, it's just that it seems somewhat unusual (from what I have researched, at least) for the many languages to distinguish between the two. The only natlangs I know of that do distinguish them as separate phonemes are English and Swahili. There's also Spanish, but I think /w/ is rare unless it is a loan word. I want CʷV as an acceptable syllable, like /kʷa/, for example.

Also, what would you think of having /ɲ/ as an independent phoneme? I know it occurs in Spanish, but I don't think it's all that common.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 26 Dec 2017 23:13
by Frislander
/p~ɸ t~ɾ t͡ʃ~ʃ k~x ʔ/
/pː tː t͡ʃː kː/
/s/
/sː/
/m n l/
/mː nː lː/
/w j/

The ungeminated stops are lenited as shown when intervocalic and in the coda. The glides do not occur word-initially.

/i u/
/e o/
/a ɑ/
/ie uo ea oɑ/

Syllable structure is (C)V(C), where coda consonants are restricted to single consonants. Coda nasals assimilate to the POA of a following consonant.
LinguoFranco wrote:
26 Dec 2017 22:18
Here is a set I am working on. I think it needs more phonemes. I know it needs more fricatives, although I don't know if I want a voiced/voiceless distinction and how many I want. What do you think of the inventory I have so far?
You definitely don't need more phonemes, there are much smaller inventories out there, and frankly I can only recommend reading a lot more widely.
I have a slight preference for /v/ over /w, but I don't dislike /w/, it's just that it seems somewhat unusual (from what I have researched, at least) for the many languages to distinguish between the two. The only natlangs I know of that do distinguish them as separate phonemes are English and Swahili. There's also Spanish, but I think /w/ is rare unless it is a loan word. I want CʷV as an acceptable syllable, like /kʷa/, for example.
There are plenty such languages out there, e.g. Hopi, Kabardian and Vietnamese. Basically don't worry about it, and the labio-velars are fine too.
Also, what would you think of having /ɲ/ as an independent phoneme? I know it occurs in Spanish, but I don't think it's all that common.
Tha's perfectly fine! It's actually really quite common, though having it without having /ŋ/ as Spanish does is more rare, but that shouldn't worry you.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 27 Dec 2017 07:50
by Ser
The phonology of this language is intended to be very simple.

Consonants:
p t c k
m n
s
r
y
c is /tʃ/, and y is /j/.
/n/ assimilates for place of articulation before a palatal or a velar: /nc nk ny/ [ɲtʃ ŋk ɲɟʝ].
/r/ is [r] at the beginning of a word or intervocalically, and is [ɾ] otherwise (except for /nr, sr/ [nr, sr]).
/j/ undergoes fortition in clusters: /nj sj rj/ [ɲɟʝ, sɟʝ, ɾɟʝ]. /jj/ can be [jː] (particularly for men) or [ɟʝː] (particularly for women).

Monophthongs
i e a u
e is /ə/.

Diphthongs
ei ai ui eu au

Hiatuses
ie iu
In other words, [i.ə] and [i.u].

Syllabic structure
General: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Third/Fourth/etc.-to-last syllable: (C)V(C)
Second-to-last syllable: (C)(r)V(C)(C)
Last syllable: (C)(r)V(C)(C)

Consonant clusters
Initial: pr tr kr
Medial: pp tt cc kk yy mp sp rp nt st rt nc sc rc nk sk rk mm sm rm nn sn rn ns ss rs nr sr ny sy ry
Medial: (r)pn (r)cn (r)kn (r)ps (r)ks (m,s,r)pr (n,s,r)tr (n,s,r)kr
Final: st sk rt rc rk rn rs

Patterns of multiple instances of r
Allowed: (ar)prata, (ar)parta, (ar)prarta, (ar)partra, (ar)prartra
Forbidden: (ar)patra, (ar)pratra

Stress
It almost always falls on the second-to-last syllable.
The few instances of stress on the last syllable can be explained as effects of inflectional morphology.

Root structure
From one to three syllables.

Word length
All words that receive primary stress are at least two syllables long.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 31 Dec 2017 19:48
by Vlürch
/m n ŋ/
/b q ʔ/
/pʰ kʰ ʡʰ/
/tʼ kʼ qʼ ʡʼ/
/ɗ ɠ/
/qʷ ʔʷ/
/kʷʼ qʷʼ ʡʷʼ/
/k͡x q͡χ ʡ͡ħ/
/q͡χʰ/
/k͡xʼ q͡χʼ ʡ͡ʜʼ/
/ʛ̥͡χ/
/k͡xʷ q͡χʷ/
/k͡xʷʼ q͡χʷʼ/
/ʒ/
/j x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h/
/xʼ χʼ/
/ʕʷ/
/jˤ ɣˤ ʁˤ/
/ʀ̝̊ ʀ/
/ʀ̥ʼ/
/ɬ/
/ɮʷ/
/c͡ʎ̝̊/
/t͡ɬʼ k͡ʟ̝̊ʼ/

/ǽ ə́ í ý/
/áː éː/
/ɑ̀ ə̀ è ù/
/ɯ̀ː ɔ̀ː/
/ěɪ̯ êə̯ ǒɔ̯ ôʊ̯/

[:3]

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 01 Jan 2018 07:33
by Inkcube-Revolver
Void wrote:
19 Dec 2017 15:47
Sa frestar skrie prio sam hyninge. (< Þa preswytar skrēb brewē þammē kyningē.)
[sa ˈfrɛstar skre: prɔ sam ˈhʏnɪŋɛ]
"The priest wrote a letter to the king."

Sie ywalen krimars tiez tiawaliskan rihoalan in siem oalzi. (< Þē ybilan grīmārios dēd diawoliskan rītualan in þēm woalþī.)
[ɕɛ ˈʏwalɛn ˈkriːmars ɕjɛs ˈɕjawaliskan ˈriːɣwalan in ɕɛm ˈwalzi]
"The wicked sorcerers performed devilish rituals in the forest."
The results are very cool, I'd also like to see more of this in action.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 01 Jan 2018 13:05
by Frislander
/m n/ <m n>
/p~β t~ɾ k~ɣ ʔ/ <p t k ‘>
/t͡s’ k͡x’/ <s' k'>
/s h/ <s h>

The plain stops show their lenited forms when intervocalic.

/z̩ v̩/ <y v>
/i o/ <i o>
/ɛ ɑ/ <e a>

Syllable structure is CV(C), where coda consonants are restricted to /s n/, and /n/ assimilates to the POA of a following oral consonant.

The initial syllable (which is also stressed) may take one of 4 tones: /˥ ˧ ˥˧ ˨˩/. No tonal distinctions are found in subsequent syllables, however an important means of distinguishing the two falling tones is that the subequent syllable tends to have a lower pitch after the high fall and a high pitch after the low fall.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 04 Jan 2018 07:21
by Porphyrogenitos
Small sound shift idea:

g p > k b /N_
g p > h h

Optionally:
r w > g b

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 04 Jan 2018 10:57
by gestaltist
Porphyrogenitos wrote:
04 Jan 2018 07:21
Small sound shift idea:

g p > k b /N_
g p > h h

Optionally:
r w > g b
I get p > /N_ but why would /g/ get devoiced? It doesn't make much sense unless there is some context to this I'm missing.
The second rule is also a bit weird. It's probably g p > ɣ ɸ > h h, right? I guess it makes sense in a minimalist phonology with few fricatives. But I'm still a bit iffy about it being unconditional.

r w > g b makes more sense to me with some intermediate stages. Maybe r w > l w > ʟ w > ɡ b