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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 13 Aug 2014 17:44
by Dezinaa
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ɲ ƞ>
/p t c k ʔ/ <p t tʃ c ɂ>
/ɸ s ç x h/ <f ſ ʃ x h>
/β z ʝ ɣ/ <v z ʒ ɣ>
/ɾ l j ɥ ɰ w/ <r l ı ɥ ɯ u>
/i y ɯ u/ <ı ɥ ɯ u>
/e ə o/ <e ə o>
/æ ɑ/ <a ɑ>
(C)(L)V(L)(C)

Random words:
aɣı ɲətıraı ɯcɑſ tɥ təɯʒa nıɂukıtır ƞɑ

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 14 Aug 2014 16:00
by Dezinaa
(Sorry for the double-post)

The inventory for a proto-conlang:
/m n ŋ/
/p t k ʔ/
/ɸ s x h/
/r l j w/
/i u e ə o a/
C(r,l,j,w)V(C)

With the deletion of /ə/, and some other sound changes, I'm hoping to get something like this:
/m̥ n̥ ɳ̊ ɲ̊ ŋ̊/
/m n ɳ ɲ ŋ/
/p t c k/
/pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ/
/b d ɟ g/
/f v s z ɬ ʂ ʐ ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ h/
/t͡ɬ ʈ͡ʂ ʈ͡ʂʰ ɖ͡ʐ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ/
/ɾ l j w/
/i y u/
/e ø o/
/ɛ ɑ/
Maybe even with clicks. Now that I look at it, it looks a lot like Ngenggakii, one of my old conlangs.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 15 Aug 2014 01:29
by Nortaneous
shimobaatar wrote:
Dezinaa wrote:/m n/
/p t c k ʔ/
/f v s z h/
/r l j w/
/i u e ə o a/
/iː uː eː əː oː aː/
/r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/

Working on a romanization that I like.

Edit: Is this plausible? Lack of palatal fricatives or palatal nasal, voicing contrast only in frivatives, vowel length distinction with no change in quality, syllabic consonants but still having /ə/... Would it be plausible to add syllabic /v/ and /z/?
Everything you asked about seems entirely plausible to me, except for maybe syllabic /v z/. I'd say go for it, but you might want to wait on a second opinion.
Yi <u y> are similar to syllabic /v z/. There are sound samples on Youtube -- there's some allophony in those vowels. <u> can even have bilabial trilling. (cf. Abkhaz, where labialization is realized differently at different POAs, and some POAs take labial trilling)

Yi also has <ur yr>, which are 'tense' versions (no idea what's going on in the articulation) of <u y>: it essentially has five vowels, /i ə o v̩ z̩/, plus +/-tense, so the vowels written <i e o u y> are the 'lax' versions of the vowels written <ie a uo ur yr>. (<o> sounds like to me.)

Anyway, yes, fricated vowels are possible, and not uncommon in China -- Mandarin itself has one. They occur in Africa too IIRC. Oogami has syllabic /f s/ but everyone knows that already. Wobzi Lavrung could be analyzed as having syllabic /ʁ/: it's not analyzed that way currently, but /ʁ/ can have the same duration as a vowel, and it's not hard to see why given that it has words like ʁvdʑvər. http://www.academia.edu/4849253/What_li ... t_clusters

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 15 Aug 2014 01:59
by thetha
Nortaneous wrote:Oogami has syllabic /f s/ but everyone knows that already.
It has syllabic /v/ as well.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 15 Aug 2014 19:48
by Yrusia
X-SAMPA because I am on an iPhone. This started when I tried to make an anti-avrelang with WALS (I took the least common choice for everything). It still is for the most part, but I should have more consonants. I have no clue how to romanize this.

p_> t_> k_>
p_>_j t_>_j k_>_j
t k
p_j t_j k_j
b_< d_< g_<
p\ B s z x G K L\ X
m n N N\
m_j n_j

e 2 o e_~

_H _M_L_M _H_M

_M_H _L_M _M_L
_L _M_H_M _M

pʼ tʼ kʼ
pʼʲ tʼʲ kʼʲ
t k
tʲ tʲ kʲ
ɓ ɗ ɠ
ɸ β s z x ɣ
ɬ ʟ̝̊ χ m n ŋ ɴ mʲ nʲ (I forgot that the L\ should have been a voiceless fricative)
e ø o ẽ
Tones: 1 3 5 13 35 53 31 131 535 (1 is high, 3 is medium, 5 is low)

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Aug 2014 05:02
by Harkani
p pʰ b t tʰ tʷ k kʰ kʷ
s sʰ sʷ
m n nʷ
l lʷ j
a e i o u
CV(V)(S)

Sample sentence:
kukasʰokiak sotʷekonu pae poi aesu josʰi manemijakema sʷulakalasʷekotosisukajasi.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Aug 2014 05:06
by shimobaatar
Harkani wrote:p pʰ b t tʰ tʷ k kʰ kʷ
s sʰ sʷ
m n nʷ
l lʷ j
a e i o u
CV(V)(S)

Sample sentence:
kukasʰokiak sotʷekonu pae poi aesu josʰi manemijakema sʷulakalasʷekotosisukajasi.
I like it. Does the example sentence have any real meaning, or is it gibberish meant simply to demonstrate phonotactics and such?

Speaking of phonotactics, I assume C and V are "any consonant" and "any vowel", but how do you define S? Is it only /s/, or maybe only the 3 "s sounds"?

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Aug 2014 05:24
by Harkani
shimobaatar wrote:
I like it. Does the example sentence have any real meaning, or is it gibberish meant simply to demonstrate phonotactics and such?

Speaking of phonotactics, I assume C and V are "any consonant" and "any vowel", but how do you define S? Is it only /s/, or maybe only the 3 "s sounds"?
The sentence is total gibberish. The phonotactics of S are "any obstruent", that is, not /m n l j/.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Aug 2014 05:26
by shimobaatar
Harkani wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:
I like it. Does the example sentence have any real meaning, or is it gibberish meant simply to demonstrate phonotactics and such?

Speaking of phonotactics, I assume C and V are "any consonant" and "any vowel", but how do you define S? Is it only /s/, or maybe only the 3 "s sounds"?
The sentence is total gibberish. The phonotactics of S are "any obstruent", that is, not /m n l j/.
Ah, OK. Thanks for the clarification. That definition of S is interesting, and I mean that in a good way. It seems more common for languages to forbid obstruents in codas rather than to have coda consonants be exclusively obstruents.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 16 Aug 2014 05:49
by shimobaatar
An idea I had for a small, extremely symmetrical phonology:

/p t k/ p t k
/f θ x/ f d x
/m n ŋ/ m n g
/β ɹ ɰ/ v r w

/ɨ ə a/ u e a

(C)(R)V(N)

C: any consonant
R: /β ɹ ɰ/
V: any vowel
N: /m n ŋ β ɹ ɰ/

dekuv /θəkɨβ/
tvage /tβaŋə/
gumew /ŋɨməɰ/

I'm not really sure what I want to do with this in terms of the language that would use this inventory.

What I do know is that I want the vowels to have many allophones based on the surrounding consonants. Maybe I'll do something like Marshallese, which is, in my opinion, the greatest vowel system I've ever come across thus far.

Speaking of small phonologies and <e> /ə/, here's something that I'm pretty sure started out as "hey, what if Hopi didn't have labial/labialized consonants?". The resemblance is only vague at best now.

/t k ʔ/ t k ʻ
/s x h/ s x h
/t͡s k͡x/ c q
/n/ n
/ɹ j ɰ/ r j w

/i œ/ i ö
/ə a/ e a
/ɯ ɔ/ u o

(C)V(R)(N)

C: any consonant
V: any vowel
R: /s x h t͡s k͡x ɹ j ɰ/
N: /t k ʔ t͡s k͡x n/

ʻöjan /ʔœjan/
urtet /ɯɹtət/
rohca /ɹɔht͡sa/

I'm also not sure what I want to do morphosyntactically with the language this inventory will belong to. Maybe something pretty synthetic, since I plan on having high vs. low vowel harmony (/i ə ɯ/ vs. /œ a ɔ/). I think I might also add tone somehow, maybe something to do with vowel clusters or coda consonants.

I get the feeling I want to make this conculture rather death-oriented, too.

I'm also planning a good deal of consonant allophony, including:

/k x k͡x n ɰ/ > [p ɸ p͡ɸ m β̞] before rounded vowels /œ ɔ/

/t k s x t͡s k͡x/ > [t' k' s' x' t͡s' k͡x'] around /ʔ h/

/n/ > [ŋ] around velars /k x k͡x ɰ/

I might do something to have a lateral show up allophonically.

Although the phonology is rather PIE-esque, I hope to make the grammar of this language, called Wêŋčūk for now, more North American (polysynthetic).

/p~b bʱ t d dʱ kʲ gʲ gʲʱ k g gʱ q ɢ ɢʱ/ b bh t d dh č j jh k g gh q c ch
/s ħ h/ s ḥ h
/m n ŋ/ m n ŋ
/j w/ y w
/ɽˠ/ r
/ɬ/ ł
/lˠ/ l

/i y e ɛ a/ i ü e ê a
/ɯ u o ɔ ɑ/ ū u o ô á

(C)(R)V(W)(H)(N)

C: any consonant
R: /s j w ɽˠ ɬ lˠ/
V: any vowel or syllabic /s ħ h m n ŋ ɬ/
W: the non-syllabic version of any vowel or /s ħ h m n ŋ ɬ/
H: /ħ h j w ɽˠ ɬ lˠ/
N: /p~b t d kʲ gʲ k g q ɢ s m n ŋ/

kseḥrŋ /kseħɽˠŋ/
wêŋčūk /wɛŋkʲɯk/
łáyôḥka /ɬɑjɔħka/

This language will eventually become a substratum for a later Ypsilonic language. As you might be able to tell, I'm already setting up Wêŋčūk with many opportunities to expand its vowel system. This proto-phonology was actually designed with diachronics in the very front of my mind, especially concerning one branch of the Wêŋčūk family.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 17 Aug 2014 20:33
by fivecountwings
Since I'll be very busy with college starting tomorrow, I figure I'll post this now so I actually get around to it.

The phonology for my protolang, Proto-Hàna:
/p pʰ b t tʰ d tʲ tʲʰ dʲ k kʰ g ʔ ʔʰ/ <pp p b tt t d tty ty dy q k g ' 'h>
/ɸ f s sʰ x h/ <ff f s š x h>
/l r j/ <l r y>
/m mʰ n nʰ/ <m mh n nh>
/ɪ i ɛ e æ a o u/ <i í e é à a o u>

I know the romanization is incredibly inconsistent. I've discovered that my language must please me aesthetically both visually and audially or I will abandon it. This sad bunch pleases me visually (well, except for pp....) and the phonemes please me audially (well, except for ɸ) but a lot of it will disappear thru sound change anyway...

P.S. I love my new computer!!! [:D] [<3]

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 17 Aug 2014 23:56
by Squall
Some vowel inventories:
/ä i u/
/a i o/
/ä ə i u/
/ɛ i ɔ u/
/ɛ i ɒ o/
/ä ê ô i u/
/ä ê ô i u ï/
/ä ɛ ɔ ɘ i u/
/æ ɒ ê ô i u/
/ä ɛ ɔ e o i u/
/ä ê ǿ ô i y u/
/ä ê ɤ ô i ɯ u/
/ä ê ɜ ô i ɨ u/
/ä ê ʌ ô i y u/
/æ ɒ ê ô i u ï/
/ä e o œ i u ʏ/
/ä e o ʌ i u ɯ/
/ä ə ɛ ɔ e o i u/
/ä ɛ ɔ e o i u ï/
/ä ə ɛ ɔ e o i u ï/
/ä ɛ œ ɔ e ø o i y u/
/ä ɛ ʌ ɔ e ɤ o i ɯ u/
/ä ə ɛ œ ɔ e ø o i y u/
/ä ə ɛ œ ɔ e ø o i y u ï/

/ä: ə ɛ e: ɪ i: ɔ o: ʊ u:/
/æ: ɒ: ɛ e: ɪ i: ɔ o: ʊ u:/
/æ: ɜ~ə ɒ: ɛ e: ø ɔ o: ɪ i: y ʊ u:/ - /äɪ äʊ ɛɪ ɛʊ ɔʏ ɔʊ/ <ae a ao e ee eo o oo i ii iu u uu ai au ei eu oi ou>

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 18 Aug 2014 04:31
by Dezinaa
This is an alien phonology. It has 7 PoAs: linguolabial, alveolar, retroflex, apical velar, palatal, pre-velar, and velar.

/n̼ n̼͡n̼ n̼͋ n n͡n n͋ ɳ ɳ͡ɳ ɳ͋ ŋ̺ ŋ̺͡ŋ̺ ŋ̺͋ ɲ ɲ͡ɲ ɲ͋ ɲ̠ ɲ̠͡ɲ̠ ɲ̠͋ ŋ ŋ͡ŋ ŋ͋/
<m mm m̃ n nn ñ ṇ ṇṇ ṇ̃ nŋ nnŋ ñŋ ņ ņņ ņ̃ ņŋ ņņŋ ņ̃ŋ ŋ ŋŋ ŋ̃>
/t̼ t ʈ k̺ c c̠ k/
<p t ṭ tk c ck k>
/θ̼ ð̼ ð̼͋ s z z͋ ʂ ʐ ʐ͋ x̺ ɣ̺ ɣ̺͋ ç ʝ ʝ͋ ç̠ ʝ̠ ʝ̠͋ x ɣ ɣ͋/
<f v vn s z zn ṣ ẓ ẓn sh zg zgn ç j jn çh jg jgn h g gn>
/l̼ l ɭ ʟ̺ ʎ ʎ̠ ʟ/
<ĺ l ḷ lł ļ ļł ł>
/r̼ r ɽ͡r ʀ̟̺ ɟ̆͡r ɟ̠̆͡r ʀ̟/
<b r ṛ rġ ŗ ŗġ ġ>
/j ɨ̯ ɰ/
<y ÿ w>

/i ɨ ɯ/ <i į u>
/e ə ɤ/ <e ę o>
/a/ <a>
/e˞ ɤ˞/ <er or>
/á ā à á͡ā à͡ā á͡à/ <á a à á~a à~a á~à>
(C)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)V(V)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)

The nasals with a tie-bar mean that both nostrils are open, and a single nasal means one nostril is closed.
The tones with a tie bar are simultaneous tones.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 18 Aug 2014 15:43
by Incorruptus
Dezinaa wrote:This is an alien phonology. It has 7 PoAs: linguolabial, alveolar, retroflex, apical velar, palatal, pre-velar, and velar.

/n̼ n̼͡n̼ n̼͋ n n͡n n͋ ɳ ɳ͡ɳ ɳ͋ ŋ̺ ŋ̺͡ŋ̺ ŋ̺͋ ɲ ɲ͡ɲ ɲ͋ ɲ̠ ɲ̠͡ɲ̠ ɲ̠͋ ŋ ŋ͡ŋ ŋ͋/
<m mm m̃ n nn ñ ṇ ṇṇ ṇ̃ nŋ nnŋ ñŋ ņ ņņ ņ̃ ņŋ ņņŋ ņ̃ŋ ŋ ŋŋ ŋ̃>
/t̼ t ʈ k̺ c c̠ k/
<p t ṭ tk c ck k>
/θ̼ ð̼ ð̼͋ s z z͋ ʂ ʐ ʐ͋ x̺ ɣ̺ ɣ̺͋ ç ʝ ʝ͋ ç̠ ʝ̠ ʝ̠͋ x ɣ ɣ͋/
<f v vn s z zn ṣ ẓ ẓn sh zg zgn ç j jn çh jg jgn h g gn>
/l̼ l ɭ ʟ̺ ʎ ʎ̠ ʟ/
<ĺ l ḷ lł ļ ļł ł>
/r̼ r ɽ͡r ʀ̟̺ ɟ̆͡r ɟ̠̆͡r ʀ̟/
<b r ṛ rġ ŗ ŗġ ġ>
/j ɨ̯ ɰ/
<y ÿ w>

/i ɨ ɯ/ <i į u>
/e ə ɤ/ <e ę o>
/a/ <a>
/e˞ ɤ˞/ <er or>
/á ā à á͡ā à͡ā á͡à/ <á a à á~a à~a á~à>
(C)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)V(V)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)

The nasals with a tie-bar mean that both nostrils are open, and a single nasal means one nostril is closed.
The tones with a tie bar are simultaneous tones.
Oh, what a fantastically hideous ("alien") phonology!

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 18 Aug 2014 17:34
by wintiver
Northern and Southern Agmalh

This language is ostensibly the Ubykh of my world with the largest consonant count. There are two proper dialects Northern and Southern Agmalh. Southern Agmalh has the highest count.

Northern Agmalh
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p pʰ pʼ t̪ t̪ʰ t̪ʼ tʰ t tʼ k kʰ kʼ q qʰ qʼ ʔ/
  • Affricates: /t͡s t͡sʰ t͡sʼ t͡ɬ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬʼ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃʼ/
  • Fricatives: /ɸ β s z ɬ ʃ x χ h/
  • Nasals: /m̥ m n̪ n̥ n ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ/
  • Approximants: /l j̊ j ʍ w/
Vowels:
  • Short Vowels: /i u e o a ə/
  • Long Vowels: /i: u: a:/
Southern Agmalh
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p pʰ pʼ t̪ t̪ʰ t̪ʼ (t̪ʷ t̪ʷʰ t̪ʷʼ) tʰ t tʼ tʷʰ tʷ tʷʼ k kʰ kʼ kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ q qʰ qʼ qʷ qʷʰ qʷʼ ʔ/
  • Affricates: /t͡s t͡sʰ t͡sʼ t͡sʷ t͡sʷʰ t͡sʷʼ t͡ɬ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬʼ t͡ɬʷ t͡ɬʷʰ t͡ɬʷʼ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʷ t͡ʃʷʰ t͡ʃʷʼ/
  • Fricatives: /ɸ β s z ɬ ɬʷ ʃ ʃʷ x xʷ χ χʷ h/
  • Nasals: /m̥ m n̪ n̥ n nʷ ɲ ɲʷ ŋ̊ ŋ ŋʷ/
  • Approximants: /l j̊ j ɥ ʍ ɰ w/
Vowels:
  • Short Vowels: /i u e a ə/
  • Long Vowels: /i: ɨ: u: a:/
In Southern Agmalh there are a number of marginal phonemes or ones that in many cases are allophonic but syllable initially are phonemically distinct (xʷ and ʍ for instance).

Phonemic labialization started at the alveolar place of articulation except in the plosives where it spread (in some dialects) to the dental POA. Here it's often realized as an post-dental stop with a small labial trill or more often it's realized a bit like a labial-coronal consonant (à la Yelî Dnye's t͡p)

Sibilants used to have labialization but diachronically these fortified into affricates.

The voiceless nasals and approximants do not exhibit labialization (at least phonemically).

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 21 Aug 2014 04:06
by taylorS
Changed Future English's phonology slightly, again. :mrgreen:

/m m̥ n n̥ ɲ ɲ̥ ŋ ŋ̥/
/p pʰ t tʰ c cʰ k kʰ ʔ/
/pf ts tɬ cç kx/
/f v s z ʃ ʒ x/
/w j l l̥ ɫ ɫ̥/

/a e i o u ɘ æː ɛː eː iː ɑː ɔː oː uː/

3 tones: high, mid, and low.

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 21 Aug 2014 05:11
by wintiver
Consonants:
Plosives: /p b t d ʈ ɖ k q ʔ/ <p b t d ṭ ḍ k q ʔ>
Affricates: /t͡s ʈ͡ʂ t͡ɬ/ <c c̣ ƛ>
Nasals: /m n ɳ ŋ/ <m n ṇ ŋ>
Taps/Trills: /r ɽ ʀ/ <r l ř>
Approximants: /j w/ <j w>

Vowels:
Short vowels:
/ɪ ʏ ʊ/ <i y u>
/ɛ œ ə ɔ/ <e ø ë o>
/a/ <a>

Long Vowels:
/iː yː uː/ <ii yy uu>
/eː øː oː/ <ee øø oo>
/aː/ <aa>

Diphthongs:
a-series: /aɪ aʊ/ <ai au>
o-series: /ɔʏ/ <oy>
e-series: /ɛa ɛɪ ɛʏ/ <ea ei ey>
ə-series: /əʊ/ <ëu>


Syllable Structure:
(N)(C)(R)V1(V2)(N)(C): this is a bit of an oversimplification, but there are some maximal clusters which conform to this schematic.

For example:
  • ndroynt
  • mpraaŋk
  • ŋkreaṇc̣
  • ṇḍløøṇḍ

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 21 Aug 2014 06:28
by wintiver
Boredom be a harsh mistress:

But I do believe I'll use this perhaps as the language of one of the largest colonial powers of the era.

/p b t̼ t d k kʷ k͡p ɡ͡b/ <p b tw t d k kw kp gb>
/t͡s t͡ɬ / <c ƛ>
/ɸ β θ̼ ð̼ s z x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ/ <f v þ ð s z x xw g gw>
/m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋ͡m/ <m n ŋ ŋw ŋm>
/ɬ l r̥ r ʍ w/ <hl l hr r hw w>

/ɪ ʊ e̞ ə o̞ æ ɑ/ <i u e y o æ a>
/iː uː eː oː ɛː ɑː/ <ii uu ee oo ææ aa>

/æi̯ æu̯ æɑ̯/ <æi æu æa>
/ɑi̯ ɑu̯/ <ai au>
/ei̯ eo̯/ <ei eo>
/oi̯/ <oi>
/əi̯ əu̯/ <yi yu>
/iːə̯ uːə̯ eːə̯ oːə̯/ <iy uy ey oy>

Three tones: High, Mid, Low (Mid is unmarked)

Syllable maximum is: CVVCC, I'm not sure of the final phonotactics but I'm allowing the following structures:
  • /ɡ͡bæɑ̯rn/ <gbæarn>
  • /ʍəi̯lt͡ɬ/ <hwyilƛ>
  • /βuːskʷ/ <vuuskw>
  • /ŋʷɑu̯t͡sk/ <ŋwauck>
  • /ð̼eo̯pɸ/ <ðeopf>
  • /ŋ͡mɛːlx/ <ŋmeelx>
  • /ɣʷuːə̯ld/ <gwuyld>
  • /t̼æɑ̯nt͡ɬ/ <twæanƛ>

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 22 Aug 2014 01:31
by shimobaatar
Dezinaa wrote:This is an alien phonology. It has 7 PoAs: linguolabial, alveolar, retroflex, apical velar, palatal, pre-velar, and velar.

/n̼ n̼͡n̼ n̼͋ n n͡n n͋ ɳ ɳ͡ɳ ɳ͋ ŋ̺ ŋ̺͡ŋ̺ ŋ̺͋ ɲ ɲ͡ɲ ɲ͋ ɲ̠ ɲ̠͡ɲ̠ ɲ̠͋ ŋ ŋ͡ŋ ŋ͋/
<m mm m̃ n nn ñ ṇ ṇṇ ṇ̃ nŋ nnŋ ñŋ ņ ņņ ņ̃ ņŋ ņņŋ ņ̃ŋ ŋ ŋŋ ŋ̃>
/t̼ t ʈ k̺ c c̠ k/
<p t ṭ tk c ck k>
/θ̼ ð̼ ð̼͋ s z z͋ ʂ ʐ ʐ͋ x̺ ɣ̺ ɣ̺͋ ç ʝ ʝ͋ ç̠ ʝ̠ ʝ̠͋ x ɣ ɣ͋/
<f v vn s z zn ṣ ẓ ẓn sh zg zgn ç j jn çh jg jgn h g gn>
/l̼ l ɭ ʟ̺ ʎ ʎ̠ ʟ/
<ĺ l ḷ lł ļ ļł ł>
/r̼ r ɽ͡r ʀ̟̺ ɟ̆͡r ɟ̠̆͡r ʀ̟/
<b r ṛ rġ ŗ ŗġ ġ>
/j ɨ̯ ɰ/
<y ÿ w>

/i ɨ ɯ/ <i į u>
/e ə ɤ/ <e ę o>
/a/ <a>
/e˞ ɤ˞/ <er or>
/á ā à á͡ā à͡ā á͡à/ <á a à á~a à~a á~à>
(C)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)V(V)(j ɨ̯ ɰ)

The nasals with a tie-bar mean that both nostrils are open, and a single nasal means one nostril is closed.
The tones with a tie bar are simultaneous tones.
[+1]

Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Posted: 22 Aug 2014 01:47
by shimobaatar
wintiver wrote:Northern and Southern Agmalh

This language is ostensibly the Ubykh of my world with the largest consonant count. There are two proper dialects Northern and Southern Agmalh. Southern Agmalh has the highest count.

Northern Agmalh
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p pʰ pʼ t̪ t̪ʰ t̪ʼ tʰ t tʼ k kʰ kʼ q qʰ qʼ ʔ/
  • Affricates: /t͡s t͡sʰ t͡sʼ t͡ɬ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬʼ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃʼ/
  • Fricatives: /ɸ β s z ɬ ʃ x χ h/
  • Nasals: /m̥ m n̪ n̥ n ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ/
  • Approximants: /l j̊ j ʍ w/
Vowels:
  • Short Vowels: /i u e o a ə/
  • Long Vowels: /i: u: a:/
Southern Agmalh
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p pʰ pʼ t̪ t̪ʰ t̪ʼ (t̪ʷ t̪ʷʰ t̪ʷʼ) tʰ t tʼ tʷʰ tʷ tʷʼ k kʰ kʼ kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ q qʰ qʼ qʷ qʷʰ qʷʼ ʔ/
  • Affricates: /t͡s t͡sʰ t͡sʼ t͡sʷ t͡sʷʰ t͡sʷʼ t͡ɬ t͡ɬʰ t͡ɬʼ t͡ɬʷ t͡ɬʷʰ t͡ɬʷʼ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʷ t͡ʃʷʰ t͡ʃʷʼ/
  • Fricatives: /ɸ β s z ɬ ɬʷ ʃ ʃʷ x xʷ χ χʷ h/
  • Nasals: /m̥ m n̪ n̥ n nʷ ɲ ɲʷ ŋ̊ ŋ ŋʷ/
  • Approximants: /l j̊ j ɥ ʍ ɰ w/
Vowels:
  • Short Vowels: /i u e a ə/
  • Long Vowels: /i: ɨ: u: a:/
In Southern Agmalh there are a number of marginal phonemes or ones that in many cases are allophonic but syllable initially are phonemically distinct (xʷ and ʍ for instance).

Phonemic labialization started at the alveolar place of articulation except in the plosives where it spread (in some dialects) to the dental POA. Here it's often realized as an post-dental stop with a small labial trill or more often it's realized a bit like a labial-coronal consonant (à la Yelî Dnye's t͡p)

Sibilants used to have labialization but diachronically these fortified into affricates.

The voiceless nasals and approximants do not exhibit labialization (at least phonemically).
Is "Agmalh" an endonym? If so, how is it pronounced?

I like how you've managed to make something realistic-looking yet still resembling large inventories like Ubykh's. I can't say no to symmetry personally, so most of my larger inventories have 100+ consonants. It's a mess.
wintiver wrote:Consonants:
Plosives: /p b t d ʈ ɖ k q ʔ/ <p b t d ṭ ḍ k q ʔ>
Affricates: /t͡s ʈ͡ʂ t͡ɬ/ <c c̣ ƛ>
Nasals: /m n ɳ ŋ/ <m n ṇ ŋ>
Taps/Trills: /r ɽ ʀ/ <r l ř>
Approximants: /j w/ <j w>

Vowels:
Short vowels:
/ɪ ʏ ʊ/ <i y u>
/ɛ œ ə ɔ/ <e ø ë o>
/a/ <a>

Long Vowels:
/iː yː uː/ <ii yy uu>
/eː øː oː/ <ee øø oo>
/aː/ <aa>

Diphthongs:
a-series: /aɪ aʊ/ <ai au>
o-series: /ɔʏ/ <oy>
e-series: /ɛa ɛɪ ɛʏ/ <ea ei ey>
ə-series: /əʊ/ <ëu>


Syllable Structure:
(N)(C)(R)V1(V2)(N)(C): this is a bit of an oversimplification, but there are some maximal clusters which conform to this schematic.

For example:
  • ndroynt
  • mpraaŋk
  • ŋkreaṇc̣
  • ṇḍløøṇḍ
This looks interesting, the diphthongs and the use of <l> in particular.
wintiver wrote:Boredom be a harsh mistress:

But I do believe I'll use this perhaps as the language of one of the largest colonial powers of the era.

/p b t̼ t d k kʷ k͡p ɡ͡b/ <p b tw t d k kw kp gb>
/t͡s t͡ɬ / <c ƛ>
/ɸ β θ̼ ð̼ s z x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ/ <f v þ ð s z x xw g gw>
/m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋ͡m/ <m n ŋ ŋw ŋm>
/ɬ l r̥ r ʍ w/ <hl l hr r hw w>

/ɪ ʊ e̞ ə o̞ æ ɑ/ <i u e y o æ a>
/iː uː eː oː ɛː ɑː/ <ii uu ee oo ææ aa>

/æi̯ æu̯ æɑ̯/ <æi æu æa>
/ɑi̯ ɑu̯/ <ai au>
/ei̯ eo̯/ <ei eo>
/oi̯/ <oi>
/əi̯ əu̯/ <yi yu>
/iːə̯ uːə̯ eːə̯ oːə̯/ <iy uy ey oy>

Three tones: High, Mid, Low (Mid is unmarked)

Syllable maximum is: CVVCC, I'm not sure of the final phonotactics but I'm allowing the following structures:
  • /ɡ͡bæɑ̯rn/ <gbæarn>
  • /ʍəi̯lt͡ɬ/ <hwyilƛ>
  • /βuːskʷ/ <vuuskw>
  • /ŋʷɑu̯t͡sk/ <ŋwauck>
  • /ð̼eo̯pɸ/ <ðeopf>
  • /ŋ͡mɛːlx/ <ŋmeelx>
  • /ɣʷuːə̯ld/ <gwuyld>
  • /t̼æɑ̯nt͡ɬ/ <twæanƛ>
I really like this one, especially because you've said it's the language of a large colonial power. That in particular piques my interest because of how different this language looks from the languages of Earth's colonial powers. I especially like the linguolabials.