Wutung allows initial clusters up to CCCC, but these are highly constrained. The only attested CC clusters are:
/hb hd hdʒ hl hm hn hɲ hw/
/ʔb ʔd ʔdʒ ʔl ʔm ʔw/
/pl bl fl ml/
The only attested CCC clusters are /hɲdʒ/, /hmb/, /ʔbl/, and /ʔml/, and the only attested CCCC cluster is /hmbl/.
Wutung also has no velars outside loans, and doesn't allow coda consonants except (very rarely) word-internal /m/ or /n/.
Khroskyabs (Wobzi Lavrung) has highly complex clusters:
ʁjnzdəjnzdə 'cause to buy each other things for their own benefit'
There are also some details of resyllabification of word-internal clusters, which I won't try to describe here.
The related language Japhug doesn't allow initial clusters greater than CCC, but doesn't adhere to the standard sonority hierarchy:
ɲcɣaʁ 'birch bark'
wɕaʁ 'he repents for it'
wstɯm 'he serves him'
wrɟaŋ 'he stretches it (skin)'
zɲɟa 'a type of plant'
Itelmen has both large initial clusters and large final clusters:
ntʼnuaɬkicen '(we) will eat'
əsxɬi- 'wake up'
txtum 'dugout canoe'
ksxliɬ 'with sled runners'
kʼɸəʔnk 'at the nails'
kɬqzukneʔn 'they were'
sitɬxpkʼeɬ 'with embers'
ntkskqzu 'if we made it'
tɸscŋin 'you are carrying it'
mskceʔn 'I will make them'
kʼənsɬxc 'boil it!'
Omzinesý wrote: ↑
11 Aug 2019 18:22
Chechen allows geminates on onset.
Word-initial geminates existed in Proto-Micronesian and are preserved in Woleaian:
lyːtyː / nːyːtyː 'jump'
xaʃeː-j / kːaʃe 'throw'
raxo-mi / tʃːaxo 'hug'
ʃaxeː-j / tʃːaxe 'chase'
ɸʷuxa / pʷːuxa 'boil'
peʃa-ŋi / pːaʃa 'stick to'
saweː-j / sːawe 'go alongside'
taɸʷeː-j / tːaɸʷe 'follow'
feraxi / fːeraxi 'be spread'
There are some singleton/geminate mismatches: ɸʷ > pʷː, r > tʃː, ʃ > tʃː, x > kː, l > nː.
Word-initial geminates are also preserved in Chuukese. Pohnpeian shifted geminates to NC clusters, but preserves geminate nasals: /mmet/ 'full', /ŋŋar/ 'see'. It also allows word-final geminate liquids.
Initial geminates also exist in some Malay dialects (e.g. Pattani and Kelantan), Arop Lokep (only m: n: l: r:, I think), Luganda, Ikema Miyako, Leti, Doku, Dorig, Nyaheun, and Hiw. Polish also allows initial geminates, but apparently it's better analyzed as allowing, in word-initial position, an additional syllable onset with no nucleus or coda.
Speaking of Dorig, its syllable template is CCVC, but it doesn't have a sonority hierarchy:
ⁿbtɔt 'canoe pegs'
lkɔn 'an island'
The related language Hiw treats /w/ as a fricative and allows word-initial FC clusters, except for sC:
Ser wrote: ↑
29 Jul 2019 22:21
Xhosa has a strict rule that all content words (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs) must be at least two syllables long. In the situations where a verb in the singular imperative could end up with only one syllable, an extra meaningless yi- prefix is added so that the verb conforms to the rule. Ukutya 'to eat' should become just *tya in the singular imperative, but the actual form is yitya.
This is common in some branches of Austroasiatic, and the prefixed material differs by language, but I forget the details.