Complement Clauses

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Imralu
roman
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Re: Complement Clauses

Post by Imralu » 20 Jan 2019 21:34

EPIC NECRO!

:con: Ngolu / Iliaqu

In Ngolu, the complementiser zuo inflects for case just as any nominal does: zuo in nominative and jo in accusative (underlyingly zu+o / zi+o, cf. the 3rd person singular indefinite specific inanimate nominals zu and zi in nominative and accusative respectively). Complement clauses are treated no differently than any other nominal phrase (argument/adjunct).

Because tunazoi "(be a) report", ba mahu "(be) sure" (literally ≈ very much know) and zoi "say" are all one part of speech in Ngolu, there is nothing particularly interesting to say except that, because tunazoi is embedded within a nominal phrase and its dependent complement clause must exist within that nominal phrase, modifying it, and must on no account begin a new nominal phrase (which would instead modify the predicate phrase), the prenasalising copula/verbaliser (glossed VB) is attached to the complementiser. Here, I opted for the nominative complementiser zuo, giving xi tunazoi nzuo ... "the report (which is) that ...", but another possibility would have been the topical case (marking a semantic topic, ≈ 'about', and not a grammatical topic), giving xi tunazoi mvejo ... "the report (which is) about that ..."

This prenasalising copula/verbaliser can also be seen in this examples in g-uni [ŋuní] VB-GEN.1S.ICS. Without it, the genitive "my" would not refer to the doctor, but back to the predicate phrase zoi meaning that he one who 'says' is somehow mine. The one who says is, of course, the doctor, as indicated by the nominative argument, but my relationship with this person is that they are my "doctor", not as my "person who says", so it really must refer back to the doctor. In other sentences, both g-uni and uni may be used with only a small, nuanced difference in meaning, but here, the copula/verbaliser g- must be used.

Ti zoizaha xi tunazoi [nzuo kue mienamiena ixu kuilakuaqa kikuoi].
[tí zojzahá ʃí tunazoí‿nzwó kwé mjenamjenâ‿jʃú kwilakwaʔá kikwoí]
The report [that mobile phones cause memory loss] has been challenged.

Ba mahu eni [zuo mie ja Zuzi].
[bá mahú ení zwǒ mjě ʒá zuzí]
I am sure [that Susie is coming.]

Zoi ju viaua guni [jo huna gegue nu lo bai].
[zoí ʒú vjawǎ ŋuní ʒó huná ŋeŋwě nú ló baí]
My doctor says [that I drink too much].

Here are the glosses and phrase breakdowns. For the dependency trees (which look more like vines) click here.

Code: Select all

(1)

 ti   zoi-zaha
 PRF  say-fight.without.weapons
[VP____________________________]




 xi               tuna-zoi  n- zuo    kue     mienamiena  ixu             ku-ila-kuaqa    ki-kuoi
 ACC.3S.DEF.INAN  text-say  VB-NOM.C  create  forgetful   NOM.3P.DEF.INAN tool-speak-far  without-string
[ACC....................................................................................................]
                  [VP___________________________________________________________________________________]
                              [NOM......................................................................]
                                     [VP________________][NOM...........................................]
                                                                         [VP____________________________]

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(2)

 ba       mahu      eni         zuo    mie     ja              Zuzi
 extreme  be.known  DAT.1S.ICS  NOM.C  on.way  NOM.3S.DEF.ACS  Susie
[VP_______________][DAT.......][NOM.................................]
                                      [VP____][NOM..................]
                                                              [VP___]

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(3)

 zoi  ju          viaua  g -uni         jo     huna   gegue       nu          lo   bai
 say  NOM.3S.ICS  doctor VB-GEN.1S.ICS  ACC.C  drink  intoxicant  NOM.1S.ICS  ADV  excessive
[VP_][NOM.............................][ACC.................................................]
                 [VP__________________]       [VP_______________][NOM.......][ADV...........]
                           [GEN.......]                                           [VP_______]
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
________
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Iyionaku
mayan
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Joined: 25 May 2014 14:17

Re: Complement Clauses

Post by Iyionaku » 21 Jan 2019 14:37

:chn: Mandarin (attempt)

Noun complements are always put in front of the head noun.

[关于手机导致记忆力​丧失]的报告被质疑了。
Guānyú shŏujī dăozhì jìyìlì​ sàngshī de bàogào bèi zhíyíle.
about phone cause memory loss ATTR report PAS question-PERF
The report that mobile phones cause memory loss has been challenged.

Adjective complements are more or less built the same way as in English (I assume, at least).

我相信苏西会来。
Wŏ xiāngxìn Sūxī huì lái.
1SG believe PROP FUT come
I am sure that Susie is coming.

Same for verbs (at least in this example?)

我医生告诉了我往往喝酒太多了。
Wŏ yīshēng gàosùle wŏ wăngwăng hējiŭ tài duōle
1SG doctor tell-PERF 1SG usually drink_alcohol too often 了
My doctor told me that I drink too much.
Wipe the glass. This is the usual way to start, even in the days, day and night, only a happy one.

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Reyzadren
greek
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Re: Complement Clauses

Post by Reyzadren » 21 Jan 2019 15:21

:con: griuskant (without the conscript)

kroit zhed laeza zhaed sterhorish tisa retuspanor raes ashaeistan.
/'krɔit ʒəd 'lezˤa ʒed 'stərhɔriʃ 'tisa 'rətuspanɔr 'res 'aʃeistan/
report REL show-V COMP hand.phone cause-V memory.decrease-V-PASS-EB-IMP 3SG anti-yes-V-PASS

aesk gathia zhaed suzi sula.
/'esk 'gaθia ʒed 'suzˤi 'sula/
1SG sure-A-V COMP Suzie come-V

aeskae stoene kiga zhaed aesk ilzis is opa.
/'eske 'stɯnə 'kiga ʒed 'esk 'ilzˤis 'is 'ɔpa/
1SG-POSS doctor-N talk-V COMP 1SG too many food-V
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