Participles

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Xing
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Participles

Post by Xing » 23 Mar 2015 22:25

A rather simple English sentence, with a couple of participles:

:eng:

A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.

Image Waku

Ko mite ta mwena laka me liki o ta polu, wilu a kia tami leyollu.
[ko mʲiːte ta mˠe̞ːna laːkɑ mʲeː liːkɨ oːta poːlu‿ɰᵊiːl aː kᵊiːa taːmʲi leːjolː]

Code: Select all

ko  mite ta mwena laka  me   liki    o     ta   polu   wilu        a   kia  tami     le-yollu
PFV go  SG  man   walk  PERL path   GEN    SG  street  whistle    ERG   3s  melody   PL-happy
There are no real participles in Waku; the verbs appear in their 'normal' form.
Last edited by Xing on 11 Apr 2015 00:02, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Participles

Post by Xing » 23 Mar 2015 23:24

Here is a very preliminary translation for Nizhmel. I haven't done much work on participles and such, so this is basically something I made up on the spot. It's subject to change.

:con: Nizhmel

Di kiu yisyen, kulnir shèmshal c’ayen t’alwo.
[tʲíː kʰʲýː ísʲen kʰú̞lnir ʂɛ`mʂal t͡ʂʼáːen tʼaloː]

Code: Select all

di     kiu     yis-yen    kulnir     shèm-shal   c’a-yen    t’al-wo
happy tune   whistle-PTCP  man      street-PROL  walk-PTCP   come-PST
"happy tune-whistling, man street-down walking came"

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Re: Participles

Post by Imralu » 24 Mar 2015 01:37

Xing wrote::eng:
A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.
In Ngolu / Iliaqu, it's done with adverbial clauses introduced by lo. In these clauses, the subject can be present, but is generally omitted if it is identical with the subject in the main clause.

atinie mu muja lo tuiu elue uaki (ju) lo usui (ju) zi lailiia xaba
[àtìɲémúmùʒálótùjúèlwéwàkí(ʒú)lówswí(ʒú)zílàjlìjáʃàbá]
be.LOC-be.this.1‹INCEP› NOM.3s.SPEC.ICS.REL be.man (NOM.3s.DEF.ICS) ADV walk travel.along be.street ADV whistle (NOM.3s.DEF.ICS) ACC.3s.SPEC.INAN.REL be.tune be.happy
come.here NOM.aspecific.person.who be.man with.that walk go.along be.street (NOM.the.person) with.that whistle (NOM.the.person) NOM.aspecific.thing.that be.melody make.happy
A man came/comes (to here) by walking along the street while whistling a happy tune.
Last edited by Imralu on 25 Mar 2015 02:02, edited 1 time in total.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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Re: Participles

Post by Lao Kou » 24 Mar 2015 12:30

Image Géarthnuns

Sö dhaubs lé höi chau gersaub veng nzdanezala'u zhö sa pmarazensat lwengzhínat çíhölala'u ftégöz.
INDEF man-NOM AUX.PAST PTCL DEF street-POST along walk.PRESPTPL-ADV and INDEF tune-ACC happy-ACC whistle.PRESPTPL-ADV approach
A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.
Last edited by Lao Kou on 28 Mar 2016 05:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Participles

Post by Nortaneous » 25 Mar 2015 02:36

Meung would only have one participle here, though the method markers on verbs of motion are diachronically descended from participles:

[skɑ̄ tɨ̆̃xæ̂i̯mbwɔ̃ t̪ˤɑ̄n̪ˤɨ̯ ʂˤɯ́i̯ nûə̯ ʕɯ̂sˤɨ̆nˤ sēə̯pĭ tsỹ̄]
INDEF=man PST-come.PST-walking LOC.DEF street CONJ.TOP whistle-PTCP INDEF=happy tune

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Re: Participles

Post by Arioch » 03 Apr 2015 15:54

:got:

Guma qam, gaggands and þo gatwon, miþþanei swiglodes hlasana saggw.
[ˈgumɑ kʷɑm ˈgɑŋgɑnts ɑnt θo: ˈgɑtwo:n ˈmiθ.ˌθɑni: ˈswiɣlo:ðe:s ˈxlɑsɑnɑ sɑŋkʷ]
man come.3RD-PST walk.PST-PART along the.ACC-FEM street.ACC while whistle.3RD-PST happy.ACC song.ACC
"A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune."

:got: Nidrosian

En gume kvimde, gangende and den gode, meden sveglede en las søng.
[n̩ ˈku:mə ˈkvimə ˈkɑŋənə aˀn tn̩ ˈko:ðə me:ðn̩ ˈsvejləðə n̩ las søˀŋ]

:got: Baltogothic

Gums kvimāju gangājis ant gatvi, sviglūjis lasu sangu.
[gums ˈkvima:ju ˈgaŋga:jis ant ˈgatvi ˈsviglu:jis ˈlasu ˈsaŋgu]

:got: Athalic

Ver quimavit gangans and gatvonem, sviglens lasum sangem.
[wær kʷɪˈma:wɪt ˈgaŋga:ns ˈand gaˈtwo:nɛm ˈswɪgle:ns ˈlasʊm ˈsaŋgɛm]
:got:

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Re: Participles

Post by Ahzoh » 03 Apr 2015 16:41

Haz ma ṛ-mazʾir humtat, šul hufurfar.
A man is walking upon the road, he is whistling (a tune).

Vrkhazhian doesn't have participles, so I use the present progressive verb stems.
I also made "whistle" an onomatopoeic verb f-r-f-r.
Last edited by Ahzoh on 10 Aug 2015 01:39, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Participles

Post by Xing » 21 Jul 2015 20:25

:con: Leopardish III

Mava soqoomo ugaka sivikki zaio galo visiomo.

Code: Select all

Mava soqo-omo      ugaka    sivi-kki     zai-o      galo      tisi-omo
man   walk-PTCP.PRS move street-LOC happy-FEM tune whistle-PTCP.PRS
[ˈmava ˈsəʔəːmə ˈuɣaxa ˈsivikːi ˈzaiə ˈgal̪ə ˈt̪isiəmə]

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Re: Participles

Post by conlangingftw » 10 Aug 2015 01:18

:con: Lancúhea:

Chóba mela í waçe meíl chelí móme n'áloceha yaíll.
[ˈhobə ˈmɛlɛ ˈvadʒə milˈlɛli ˈmomɪ ɡaˈlɤke jɯ ]
happy-PRES;FEM song PAT breath-INST sing-PRES;3SG man-PAT street-on down-walk-INF-by go-IMPF;PAST;3SG
LIT: A man who is whistling a happy tune, went walking down the road.

A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.

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Re: Participles

Post by clawgrip » 10 Aug 2015 03:24

Yabushionese has neither participles nor a verb for "whistle", but I worked something out. To make it natural, I had to turn the whistling participle phrase into a relative clause, while the walking one is an adverbial phrase.

:con: Yabushionese
口笛して陽氣の曲を吹きつつの男性が道を歩きい來け。
Kuchibue shite yọ̄ki no kyokọ̄ fukitsutsu no dansei ga michọ̄ arukī kike.

Kuchibue shite yọ̄ki no kyoku-ọ fuk-i-tsutsu no dansei ga michi-ọ aruk-i-i k-i-ke.
whistling INST cheerful ATTR song-ACC blow-ADV-while ATTR man NOM street ACC walk-ADV-ADV come-ADV-PST

A man whistling a happy tune came walking down the street.

The double adverbial ending appears when there is no further morpheme to be added to the verbal stem. In more formal language, the redundant one can be dropped.

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Re: Participles

Post by Dormouse559 » 10 Aug 2015 04:15

Silvish has present participles, but it doesn't use them as often as English. For instance, "walking" gets translated as "con márce", literally "at a walk", and most speakers wouldn't even include that, unless it were needed for contrast.

:con: Silvish:

N'um descendèi le czarréi (con márce), en sigglánt ne melodì urós.
[nõː dɛ.ɕãˈdaːɪ̯ lə tɕaˈreːɪ̯ (kə̃ ˈmɛɾ.tɕə) ə̃ sɪˈglã nə mɛlɔˈde ʊˈɾo]
INDEF=man come_down-PST.3SG DEF-OBL street[OBL] (INS walk-OBL) in whistle-PRS_PTCP INDEF-F.OBL tune[OBL] happy[F.OBL]

A man came (walking) down the street, whistling a happy tune.
Last edited by Dormouse559 on 10 Aug 2015 05:35, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Participles

Post by clawgrip » 10 Aug 2015 04:53

Your translation seems to be missing the "happy tune" part.

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Re: Participles

Post by Dormouse559 » 10 Aug 2015 05:37

Picky, picky. Well, it just so happens "a happy tune" is implied as the object of all Silvish verbs unless explicitly stated otherwise. But to make you happy, I've added it to my translation.

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Re: Participles

Post by Xing » 07 Sep 2015 20:48

:con: Leopardish VII

Ahan tina keherin ya visorin cunun tiun.
ahan tina kehe-rin ya viso-rin cunu-n tiun
man come walk-PRESP and whistle-PRESP happy-ANIM tune
[ahan tina kɛhɛrin ja visɔrin t͡ʃʉhʉn tiʉn]

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Re: Participles

Post by HoskhMatriarch » 07 Sep 2015 23:56

I'm not sure whether to post here or not, because I don't have an actual translation at this point, but I do know how to do this:

came walking = walked + a prefix that has the meaning "come" when on a motion verb
whistling a happy tune = he whistled a happy tune + switch-reference so there's not really a "he"

In other words, no participles. There might not actually end up being any participles in the language either, it depends.
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Re: Participles

Post by Alessio » 03 Oct 2015 08:27

Hajás does this by distinguishing instrumental gerunds - that explain how an action was performed, such as "walking" in your sentence - and comitative gerunds - which barely tell us that something was ongoing at the same time as something else, such as "whistling". Of course these terms have nothing to do with cases, but they seemed the most suitable and easy to remember to me.
Anyway, the sentence would be:

:con: Hajás
E sjend näzvelsel pëjnürj ej vímát, wolunug e qusjin lídamajnan.
/e ʃend nε'zveɫseɫ 'pøjnyr̝ ej 'viːmaːt 'wɔlunug e 'xuʃin 'liːdamajnan/
IND person INVERT.go.PAST walk.STRGER in.OPEN street.LOC whistle.COMGER IND cheerful.ACC music.DIMIN.ACC
A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.

Note that the translation of "came" is not accurate. I wouldn't normally use any other verb than "walk" here, but if I hadn't used "come" as well this post would have been useless.
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Re: Participles

Post by k1234567890y » 03 Oct 2015 09:08

:con: Lonmai Luna:

hi-les dal sedo nel gotis falo tok on itok dala sipun hi-les sipuno haiye
one-CLF person come and walk along road the and 3.SG sing one-C:F song be.happy(interlinear)
A person came walking along the road, singing a happy song.

No participles in Lonmai Luna
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Re: Participles

Post by elemtilas » 03 Oct 2015 15:58

Xing wrote:A rather simple English sentence, with a couple of participles:

:eng:

A man came walking down the street, whistling a happy tune.
In Mentolatian:

quafirum ogpadmman firum woffehtu: leilulaem cuwarzuw hing issirtyos::
qua-firum og-padmman firum wof-fehtu: le-i-lulaem cu-w-arzuw hi-ng i-ssirt-yo-s::


/kwafirum ogpadman firum wofeχtu lejilulajɜm kwarzu hiŋ isirtjos/

TOPIC.man.ACC LOC.go.MID.INFIN man.ACC LOC.road ACC.POSS.tune INTENS.merry.ADJ he.LIAIS PROTH-V.whistle.ACT.IMPF

Concerning the man at to walk him the man on the road: a tune of true jollity he whistled.

Not much in the way of participles in Mentolatian. The first one appears as the locative of a verbal noun, the second as a simple verb.

Arzuw is interesting in that it is one of those chain-derivation words you meet with rather frequently in the lanugage. O.Ment. *vezer (springtime) gives Mod.Ment. fezur; through its nom.pl. zrunnás we derive zrunan (to grow) and zeruwinno (growth, surging); through its pl. wrzinní we derive arzuts (joy) and its adjectival form arzuw. cuw (true, excellent) (< *ə1esu-) is a common adjectival intensifier.
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Re: Participles

Post by Xing » 11 Jun 2016 21:16

:con: Mīrna

Kiyāl mīpallar paccāma pā, vuckiranna cāza tinuk.
kiyāl mī-pallar paccām-a pā vusckir-anna cāza tinuk
man down-walk street-GEN PROL whistle-ACTIVE.PTCPL happy tune
[kɪʝaːl miːpɐlːɐr pɐʦːaːmɔ paː vʊskɪrɐnːɔ ʦaːzɔ tɪnʊx]

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Re: Participles

Post by Creyeditor » 11 Jun 2016 22:41

Indonesian and German both seem to have a coocurence restriction on 'walk' and 'come', so I used 'came running'
:ind: Indonesian
Orang datang berlari di jalan sambil bersyul-syul kegirangan.
orang datang ber-lari di jalan sambil ber-syul~syul ke-girang-an
human come INTR-run LOC street while INTR-whistle~ITE NMLZi-happy-NMLZi
Someone came running down the street, while whistling in excitement.

:deu: German
Ein Mann kam - ein fröhliches Lied pfeifend - die Straße runter gerannt.
ein Mann kam ein fröhliches Lied pfeif-end die Straße runter ge-rann-t
INDEF.SG.M.NOM come\PST.1SG INDEF.SG.N.ACC happy-SG.N.ACC song whistle-PTCPi. DEF.SG.F.ACC street down PTCPj-run\NPRS-PTCPj
A man came running down the street, whistling a happy song.

This sounds really old-fasioned to me, though.
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