Yiingim (’iiŋìm) (NP: Comparatives)

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Re: ’iiƞìm (Dezinaa's octoberlang)

Post by Dezinaa » 14 Nov 2014 17:54

At last, verbs! I still have a lot of decisions to make. And I still have to figure out imperfective and perfective, even though they sound fairly straight-forward.

Verbs

The "verbal template" (Is that even what it's called?) of ’iiƞìm is negative-mood-voice-verb-aspect-tense-ergative.argument. I still have to decide exactly what moods and aspects I want. I can't wrap my brain around the antipassive, but maybe I'll include it sometime.

Negative: mù-
Moods: indicative (unmarked), imperative -uá-
Voices: active (unmarked), reciprocal, reflexive
Aspects: simple (unmarked), perfective, imperfective
Tenses: past -nù-, present (unmarked), future -in-

As you can see, I haven't made all of the affixes yet. And I might change some of this, but that's why this is a scratchpad.

Tense

’iiƞìm has present, past, and future tenses. All verbs take the same affixes. Here is ànma, "see", with the tense suffixes:

Code: Select all

PRS   ànma
PST   ànmanù
FUT   ànmain
Examples:

Tuuat ànmanùam.
tuu-at ànma-nù-am
DEM.DIST-NMLZ see-PST-1SG.ERG
I saw him.
Edit: Changed "Tuu" to "Tuuat".
’impàp mantainàì.
’impàp manta-in-àì
mango.ABS eat-FUT-3SG.ERG
She will eat mangoes.

Akip mùtúam!
akip mù-tú-am
tuna.ABS NEG-be-1SG.ERG
I'm not a tuna!
Last edited by Dezinaa on 22 Nov 2014 16:36, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ’iiƞìm (Dezinaa's octoberlang)

Post by Dezinaa » 14 Nov 2014 18:53

Other Orthography

Here are the three previous sentences in the ugly phonetic alternative orthography:

Tuz alnmanwolxm.
Qimbalp mandenel.
Ajhip mulrwohxm!


Since it's phonetic, it represents phones intead of phonemes, which can slightly be confusing.

[m n ɲ ŋ] <m n ṅ ň>
[p t c k ʔ] <p t c k q>
[b d ɟ g] <b d j g>
[β ɾ ʝ ɣ] <v r jh gh>

<i u a>
[je ej wo ow] <ye e wo o>
[V˥] <Vh>
[V˩] <Vl>
[ː] <z>
[˥˧ ˥˩ ˧˩ ˩˧ ˩˥ ˧˥] <hx hl xl lx lh xh>

Centralized and nasalized vowels are still written <i u a>.

The name of this conlang, [ʔĩː˧ɲɪ̃m˩], would be Qizṅilm.

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Re: ’iiƞìm (Dezinaa's octoberlang)

Post by Dezinaa » 22 Nov 2014 01:49

Demonstratives and Pronouns

There are five pronouns in ’iiƞìm, but no third person pronouns. Demonstratives are used instead of 3p pronouns.

Pronouns:

Code: Select all

    SG   PL
1   àn   in (EXCL), ƞaú (INCL)
2   í    pà
As you can see, there is a clusivity distinction in the 1p plural pronouns.

There are three distance contrasts in the demonstratives: proximal, medial, and distal.

PROX: aka
MED: mì
DIST: tuu

The demonstratives come after nouns. If they are used for pronouns, they take the nominalization suffix -at.

aka → akaat
mì → mìat
tuu → tuuat

Demonstratives and pronouns can have cases like nouns.
Last edited by Dezinaa on 16 Jan 2015 16:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ’iiŋìm (Dezinaa's octoberlang)

Post by Dezinaa » 29 Dec 2014 20:36

I've made some changes to ’iiƞìm. /ŋ/ is now written as <ŋ> instead of <ƞ>, which means the lang is now called ’iiŋìm. Also, IPA tone characters don't display right on my phone, so I'll use numbers now. 3 is high tone, 2 is mid tone (usually unmarked), and 1 is low tone.

Lexicon

Here is the lexicon so far. This is mainly for me to use, but feel free to look at it if you want. I'm putting it here mostly so it's in more than one place.
I might also change some of the words to fit the aesthetics of the language.
Spoiler:
Lexicon: 122-ish roots

NOUNS
’akíŋka- deer
’àŋ’à- eclipse
’impàp- mango
a’ítu- mountain, hill
áanŋu- tree bark
àìtpu- town, village
akip- tuna
ámtim- weight, load
aŋŋù- egg
aŋika’- theater, play
atpaŋu- husband
i’utup- fishing spear, trident
íámnat- nature, outer space
iŋkúpaaí- praying mantis
ìpmíka- eagle
íkìà’- old bones, skeleton
iŋaa- grass
ipa- sound, noise
kà’unú- beeswax
ki’ti- rabbit
kìptú- plank
kùnúi- bridle
ma’aŋká- hip
minu’- volcano
mipi- bird
mù’- container that is difficult to open
ná’ímu- caterpillar
nààmiŋ- fox
nakpú- whale
napai- navel
ŋátan- dough
ŋúnaa- human, person
ŋaúúpaì- city
ŋíp- berry
niùt- tree
nù’ùm- (old) woman
nù’uak- (old) man
ŋúa’a- language
núŋŋak- cheese
pá’íp- shadow, shade
paànmú- house
patu- in-law relative
piapà- moss
pìmaí- dog
putu- ship
takùùn- bone
tippu- page
ti- bread
tipìpá- spice
tùnúmpu- coast, coastline
ú’ùki- fish
uiìkpi’- cupcake
ukip- sword
uta’- host, caregiver
úúntak- hawk

VERBS
’àkna- exceed, surpass (used in comparatives)
’amíta- mix, stir
’antà- turn purple
’immì- hide
’ú’ùm- cough
ámiat- begin, introduce
ammuì’- become drowsy, start nodding off
ànma- see
íìma- thank, be grateful for (alternative: án)
íkŋa- reside
ìna’a- endorse
inàŋa- dance
ínnu’níp- have trouble breathing
ip’ú- sneeze
iu’aŋa- give a signal
kat’a- post, send a message
manàp- throw
manta- eat
màp- sleep
mi’má- fish, go fishing
ŋáánaù- enrage
namtí- greet, welcome
nanmá’- say
ŋiip- turn into, become
nímma’- praise
ŋùúk- drink
ŋúpà’- drink out of one's hands
ŋuùtún- check, verify
pu’ŋuŋì- sleepwalk, wander, walk cautiously
puita- love
puún- like, enjoy
ta’iim- study
tààm- deliver
tikka- make a snap, crackle, or pop noise
tíŋtì- v/aux v to work hard, try hard (to X)
tú- be
tuk’a- avoid
túpímu- knead

ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS
’ítu- only
á’ua- happy, cheerful
aíkanpù- wise, learned > aíkanpùat wise man, teacher > aíkanpùmiì wisdom
áŋiuta’- senseless, easy to anger
ataku- beautiful, pretty > atakuat- possible future spouse
àíŋauk- hard-working
áŋta- awesome, good, nice, great
ità’- morally good
kàmu- strange, foreign, unrecognizable
ŋá’ka- angry
napak- strong
niŋka- expensive
ŋíuma- green
pánum- last, final
taùu’- clever, ingenious
tìpù- verdant, green with grass
túnŋi- smooth, creamy tasting (food)
uni’- quick, fast
úktuŋ- dark

inù’- once

SG PL
1 àn in (EXCL), ŋaú (EXCL)
2 í pà

aka- proximal
mì- medial
tuu- distal

-im- ergative
=nu- genitive
-a’- dative
=’ai- locative

-am- 1SG.ERG
-íŋmí- 2SG.ERG
-àì- 3SG.ERG
-kii 2PL.ERG

-nù-- past tense
-ti-- fut.
mù-- negative
-uá-- imperative (between neg and verb)

nàá- who
aun- what, which
na’- and
pim- but, however
tunta- here
kána- there

-at- one who _____s, who is _____
-miì- -ness
-ik- one/sth that is _____ed

Numbers:
nì’a- two
Last edited by Dezinaa on 30 Jan 2015 00:06, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: ’iiŋìm (NP: Comparatives)

Post by Dezinaa » 22 Jan 2015 02:11

I'm thinking about giving ’iiŋìm an easier-to-type exonym. Something like Yiingim.
Anyway, this post will mainly be about...

Comparatives

’iiŋìm's method for making comparatives is by using the verb ’àkna, "exceed, surpass". The usual way of making comparatives is by changing the adjective to a noun possessed by the patient, addding the agent before that, then ’àkna. It might be easier to see what I mean with some example sentences.

Ìpmíkaim ki’ti napakmiìnu ’àknaàì.
[ɪp˩mi˥ɣẽjm ɟɪʔtĩ naβɐkmĩː˧˩nu ʔɐk˩naː˧˩i˩]
ìpmíka-im ki’ti napak-miì=nu ’àkna-àì
eagle-ERG rabbit.ABS strong-NMLZ=GEN exceed-3SG.ERG
The eagle is stronger than the rabbit. (lit. The eagle exceeds the rabbit's strength.)

*This is also one of the rare cases of [ɟ], which only appears after a nasal and before /i/.

Mìat uni’miìnu ’àknaíŋmí.
[mjeɾ˩˧ ũnɪʔmĩː˧˩nu ʔɐknẽjɲ˧˥mi˥]
mì-at uni’-miì=nu ’àkna-íŋmí
DEM.MED-NMLZ fast-NMLZ=GEN exceed-2SG.ERG
You are faster than him.

’iiŋìmim Ínnìt áŋtamiìnu ’àknaàì.
[ʔĩːɲĩ˩mĩm ɪ̃n˥niɾ˩ ɐ̃ŋ˥dãmĩː˧˩nu ʔɐk˩naː˧˩i˩]
’iiŋìm-im Ínnìt áŋta-miì=nu ’àkna-àì
’iiŋìm-ERG English.ABS cool-NMLZ=GEN exceed-3SG.ERG
’iiŋìm is cooler than English. (Well, that's just an opinion.) [:P]

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Re: ’iiŋìm (NP: Comparatives)

Post by shimobaatar » 22 Jan 2015 04:09

Dezinaa wrote:I'm thinking about giving ’iiŋìm an easier-to-type exonym. Something like Yiingim.
[+1]
Dezinaa wrote:’iiŋìm's method for making comparatives is by using the verb ’àkna, "exceed, surpass". The usual way of making comparatives is by changing the adjective to a noun possessed by the patient, addding the agent before that, then ’àkna. It might be easier to see what I mean with some example sentences.
Like I think I said in the other thread, I quite like this idea of yours! [:)]
Dezinaa wrote:*This is also one of the rare cases of [ɟ], which only appears after a nasal and before /i/.
I also continue to be impressed by the language's allophony.

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Re: ’iiŋìm (NP: Comparatives)

Post by Dezinaa » 22 Jan 2015 05:22

shimobaatar wrote:
Dezinaa wrote:’iiŋìm's method for making comparatives is by using the verb ’àkna, "exceed, surpass". The usual way of making comparatives is by changing the adjective to a noun possessed by the patient, addding the agent before that, then ’àkna. It might be easier to see what I mean with some example sentences.
Like I think I said in the other thread, I quite like this idea of yours! [:)]
Thanks!
shimobaatar wrote:
Dezinaa wrote:*This is also one of the rare cases of [ɟ], which only appears after a nasal and before /i/.
I also continue to be impressed by the language's allophony.
Thanks!
Oh, and it also appears as the realization of /ŋ/ utterance-initially before /i/.

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