Yunivah

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Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 578
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

Yunivah

Post by Squall » 29 Jul 2015 15:15

Phonology
/m n (ŋ)/
/p b t d k g/
/f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h/
/ts dz tʃ dʒ/
/r l/
/w j/
/a e̞ i o̞ u/
/a: e̞: i: o̞: u:/
/ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ/
/ɨ/

Allophones and dialectal differences
/ɾ~r/
/ɲ~nj/
/ʎ~lj/
Nasal vowel and /ŋ/ in the coda.
Voiced and unvoiced codas <-sb-> is either /s.b/ or /zb/.

Orthography
IPA-like: b d f g h k l m n p r s t v z

sh: /ʃ/ zh: /ʒ/ ch: /tʃ/ j: /dʒ/
ph: /f/ th: /ts/ kh: /x/
bh: /v/ dh: /dz/ gh: /ɣ/

Double vowel means long vowel.
Double consonant means gemination.
Nasal vowels are represented with <m> before /p b m f v/, <n> before other consonants, <ng> in the end of the word.

The penultimate syllable has the default stress if the word ends with vowel, S, R, M, N or NG. The last syllable is stressed if it ends with consonant or long vowel.
In other cases, the stress is marked with an acute accent.

<ca co cu ce ci> are /ka ko ku tse tsi/
<x> is /s/ before a consonant, and /ks/ otherwise - <x> is only used for Latin and Greek roots.

/kw gw/ are spelled <qu gu>
<y> is /i/ or /j/ - <y> is /i/ only in Greek roots.
<w> is /w/

Clusters
/ɨ/ is an epenthic vowel added after consonants. It is not represented in the orthography.
In words that end with <m n>, <m n> are pronounced /mɨ nɨ/.
In words that end with voiced coda, /ɨ/ is added to the end.
In words that start with <kn pt ks ps mn>, /ɨ/ is added after the first letter.
In words that start with <sp st sk sl>, /ɨ/ is added before the first letter.

Importing roots

Old Greek
ph th ch -> <ph th kh>/f ts x/
rh -> <rh>/r/
y -> <y>/i/
/(d)z/ -> /z/

Latin
ae oe -> <e e>/e e/
ce ci -> <ce ci>/tse tsi/
ge gi -> <je ji>/dʒe dʒi/
ca co cu qu -> <ca co cu>/ka ko ku kw/
x -> x
cl cr -> cl cr

Sanskrit
/ʈ ɖ ɳ ɽ ʂ/ -> /t d n r s/
/bʱ dʱ ɡʱ/ -> <bh dh gh>/v dz ɣ/
/ɕ ɦ/ -> /ʃ h/

Old Hebrew
It uses vowels from modern Hebrew.
/tʼ kʼ sʼ/ -> /t k s/
/θ ð ħ ʕ/ -> /ts dz x ɣ/
/ʔ/ -> removed

Japanese
/ɯ ɸ ɕ ʑ/ -> /u f ʃ ʒ/
/ts/ -> <ts>/ts/

English
Greek/Latin roots are reverted to the original language.
/ɹ θ ð/ -> /rw dz ts/
/pʰ tʰ kʰ/ -> /p t k/
/ə/ -> It is pronounced as its orthographic letter.
/i ɪ/ -> /i/, /u ʊ/ -> /u/, /ɛ/ -> /e̞/, /ɔ/ -> /o̞/, /æ ɒ ɜ ʌ/ -> /ä/
/eɪ oʊ/ -> <ei ou>/ej ow/

French
The pronunciation uses rules of the conlang.
The word will be oxytone and may receive an acute accent.
Example: cliché -> cliché /kli'tʃe̞/, résumé -> resumé /re̞su'me̞/
<ç> -> <ss>
<ñ> -> <ny>

Malay
/ɲ/ -> <ny>
/ŋ/ -> <ng>
/tʃ/ -> <ch>

Swahili
Prenasalized consonants nasalize the preceding vowel instead.
Aspirated consonant become tenuis.
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ -> /b d g/
/ʄ/ -> /dʒ/

Italian and Spanish
The spelling is kept, but the pronunciation is changed.

Russian
The pronunciation is kept, but the spelling is changed.

Others
/q/ -> <q>/k/
/c ɟ/ -> <ky gy>/kj gj/

Grammar
Pronouns
1sg.m: me
1sg.f: mi
2sg.m: tu
2sg.f: ti
3sg.m: hi
3sg.f: shi
3sg.inanimate: ith
1pl: wi
2pl: yu
3pl: hem

Suffixes for nouns (optional)
If the noun ends with vowel and the suffix starts with vowel, the last vowel is removed from the noun.
If the noun ends with consonant and the suffix starts with consonant, /ɨ/ is added in cases of forbidden consonant cluster.

Female: -essa
Male: -acho
Diminutive: -ning
Augmentative: -aung
Plural: ?

Particles
Definite article: le
Prepositions (Latin): ad ab de per via cum in circa

Verbs
Infinitive: It is a noun and has no affixes.
Past: -et
Present: -as
Future: -il
Passive: izi-
Gerund/Adjective: -ing

Negation: nong-, non-, nom-

To be (irregular verb):
Infinitive: ubí
Past: were
Present: es
Future: wibi
Passive: izeing
Gerund/Adjective: behing
Last edited by Squall on 30 Jul 2015 23:22, edited 1 time in total.
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 578
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

Re: Yunivah

Post by Squall » 29 Jul 2015 15:20

Any comments about weird things are welcome. I do not know if I have an excessive number of phonemes.
I have four questions and I need suggestions.

I need a plural affix. Is plural with <-s> common in the world?

Is /ɨ/ a good filler vowel to simplify consonant clusters?

Are adjectives common in world languages? Do they use static verbs instead?

Can I force the use of natural genders and keep the neuter? In the following sentences, the gender is unknown in English, but it is specified in my natlang: "Shinobu is a teacher"; "The teacher is here". I want to make the use of gender mandatory in those sentences, and keep it neuter in "We need a teacher".
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

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