I'll introduce more verbal forms next. That's what needs the most work :)
Yeah my goal was to combine my own a priori vocabulary with as many archaic IE features as I could, even ones that none of the IE daughter languages preserved.
As I mentioned in previous posts, the feminine gender is a marginal class in Lihmelinyan. The proto-language had only two genders: common and neuter. Lihmelinyan, however, has developed two feminine noun classes with distinct forms separate from masculine and neuter; they both involve long vowels in the stem. They are the ā-stem nouns and the ī-stem nouns. Though they are both athematic in origin, they behave like thematic nouns in that they do not undergo the root ablaut that athematic nouns undergo (when applicable), and the thematic adjective paradigm forms its feminine declension in the ā-stem class. I'll begin with the ā-stems:
ā-stem Feminine Nouns
The most common type of feminine noun is the ā-stem type (there are far more nouns in this class than the ī-stem type). This class easily formed feminine counterparts of masculine thematic nouns. Additionally, as I said above, all thematic adjectives have a feminine declension in -ā. I will discuss adjectives later on, but they are not difficult once you have the nouns down.
To exemplify the ā-stem forms, here is the declension of the word amíntā, "woman":
Notes: The dual nom/voc/acc form is from ā + e, which would normally lead to ā, but this being identical with the singular was replaced by -ē. The dative and locative singular differ only in the length of the diphthong. The allative singular (from ā + a) is necessarily homophonous with the nominative singular. Context makes them easy to tell apart, however.
ī-stem Feminine Nouns
The other major type of feminine noun declension is the ī-stem declension, which might be more appropriately called the ī/yā declension, as the stem ablauts between -ī in the strong cases and -yā in the weak cases.
While the ā-stem declension forms feminine adjectives in the thematic class, the ī-stem declension is used for feminine adjectives of the athematic (consonant, i-stem, u-stem) class. ī-stem nouns are sometimes feminine counterparts of i- or u-stem masculine nouns.
Here is the declension of ī-stem noun gánī "grandmother" (feminine counterpart of masc. "gánus", grandfather):
Notes: The endings aren't too different from the ā-stem forms (just place a <y> in front of the ā of the ā-stem endings to form the weak case endings). Again: the ablaut occurs only in the stem, not in the root or in the ending. Though the ī-stem and ā-stem nouns are a bit different, they share the basic element of a bare long vowel in the nominative, something found only in these two feminine classes.
Lihmelinyan adjectives are very closely related to nouns. Adjectives can be derived from various parts of speech, but they decline like nouns. Adjectives, like nouns, are either thematic or athematic. Thematic adjectives have a masculine form in -as that declines like antīlas, a neuter form in -an that declines like lédian, and a feminine form in -ā that declines like amíntā. The citation form of these adjectives look like this: minas-ā-an, "new".
Athematic adjectives can be formed in any class of athematic nouns: they can be i-stem, u-stem, or consonant stem (which I haven't covered yet, but are similar to the i- and u-stems, just using a consonant in place of a vowel or semivowel). All athematic adjectives, however, have a feminine form that declines in the ī-stem class and this form will be based on the "weak" stem (remember that ī-stem nouns do not undergo root ablaut like other athematic nouns do, if applicable). Athematic adjectives originally did not have a distinct feminine form (in Old Lihmelinyan, the -s ending masculine form was used to modify both masculine and feminine nouns); this is a derived form that borrows the form of the ī-stem declension.
An example of an athematic adjective would be the u-stem adjective neíblus, "tough, hard, rough".
Masculine singular forms: neíblus, neíblu, neíblun, nibleús, nibléwi, nibléwei, etc.
Neuter singular forms: neíblu, neíblu, neíblu, nibleús, nibléwi, nibléwei, etc.
Feminine singular forms: nibléwī, nibléwi, nibléwīn, niblúyās, niblúyai, niblúyāi, etc.
The feminine form is the zero-grade root (nibl-) + the e-grade stem in the strong cases (-eu/w), the zero-grade stem in the weak cases (-u) + the ī-stem endings shown above in the declension of gánī.
Most "derived" adjectives (i.e. adjectives that are formed from noun or verb roots) are thematic; athematic adjectives tend to be "root" adjectives, though there are some exceptions, which you will see when I get into comparison of adjectives and participles. An example of a few adjective-forming suffixes:
-rk* - has the meaning of "characteristic of, similar to, like, typical of" (e.g. ándalas, "boy" --> andalárkas, "boyish, childish")
-n/ny - general adjective-forming suffix (e.g. tánas, "hair" --> tanányas, "hairy"; yéntes, "four" + maks, "foot" - yentimáhnas, "four-footed")
-ll - can mean "possessing, having", but can also mean "full of" (urnás, "red" + "tánas", "hair" --> urntanállas, "red-haired"; kúmā, "hill" --> kumállas, "hilly")
*-rk can be added to other adjectives to mean "somewhat", e.g. úrnas, "red" --> urnárkas, "reddish, somewhat red"
I wanted to say a few additional things about ablaut. Here are some general ablaut patterns you might see in Lihmelinyan:
a -> e, ∅
e -> ∅
ē -> e
ā -> a
au -> u
eu -> u
we -> u
ye -> i
ai -> i
ei -> i
el, al, le, la -> l, ḷ
er, ar, re, ra -> r, ṛ
You can see this most obviously in nouns between the strong (nom/acc/voc) stem and the weak (gen, etc.) stem:
1) *zápnis (nom. sing) zápneyes (nom. plur) zépneis (gen. sing.) - plow
2) maúdis (nom. sing) maúdeyes (nom. plur) mudeís (gen. sing) - crow, raven
3) glátār (nom sing) glátares (nom. plur) gḷtrés (gen. sing) - shield
4) gaúkēr (nom sing) gukrés (gen. plur) - stuff, material
*Why the different accent pattern with this one? A disyllabic noun with an accented á will change the á to é and the accent will remain the same in both the strong and weak cases IF no zero-grade form can occur. There can be no form *zpneís since /zpn/ is not a valid Lihmelinyan cluster. (Compare káru which becomes kreús in the genitive rather than *kéreus).
Essentially, in athematic nouns, zero-grade ablaut always occurs when it can, in as many syllables as it can. A zero-grade syllable can NEVER be accented, hence mudeís in 2) rather than *múdeis.
So for the Lihmelinyan word anyétēr ("dancer"), what would the genitive singular be?
Thought maybe I should also introduce some function words:
Conjunctions and Particles
Conjunctions are fairly straight forward. A number of them have cliticized forms that may have slightly different connotations than the "full" form. The "full" form may also be used for greater emphasis:
Words for 'and':
ak - basic word for "and". Joins clauses, phrases, and less commonly, individual words.
-ke - clitic form for "and". Same meaning as above, though primarily used for words and phrases.
ken - postpositive form, sentence-connecting particle. Translated as "And..." at the beginning of a sentence
mía - emphatic word for "and". Has connotations of "and also" or "and then".
ak...ak - both...and
Words for 'or':
uk - basic word for "or". Neither exclusive nor inclusive.
-me - clitic form for "or". Often has inclusive meaning.
ánlan...uk - whether...or
uk...uk - either...or
Words for 'but':
an - basic word for "but". Often at the beginning of a sentence and used in questions.
kína - postpositive, translated as "but" or "however".
hē - if
zan - thus, so, consequently
zánke - and so, and as a result
néwe - therefore, and therefore (post positive)
I'll add more to this list as I come up with them.
te - basic negation particle
ta - variation of the negation particle used with subjunctive and optative verbs
t- - clitic form of te. Often prefixed to verbs.
ténu - emphatic form ("definitely not")
le - emphatic particle, can be translated as "definitely, certainly". Emphasizes specific words. Smaígas le áti, kína pálami. "He is certainly ugly, but I love (him)."
un - emphatic particle, same meaning as above, though often sentence final. Emphasizes the entire sentence. Ušáwen te deíperans un. "We (both) did not see the thieves (I swear it)". This sentence could've also been written: deíperans ténu ušáwen.
ra...ra - sentence connective particle, indicates two simultaneous actions. (This...while that) or (On one hand...on the other hand). Hékā ra éhstem, ra ésat. "I walked, [while] he swam".
I'll add more to this list as I come up with them.
Can these two meanings be combined together in the same word, so if I wanted to say something like "somewhat childish" I could say something akin to andalarkárkas?
Thematic vs. Athematic
Lihmelinyan verbs are either thematic or athematic. Thematic verbs can be identified by containing an /a/ or /e/ before the personal endings (outlined on the previous page).
Athematic verbs attach the personal endings directly to the stem of the verb without an obligatory /a/ or /e/. This stem ends in either a consonant or a long vowel. Verbal stems never end in short vowels.
Verbal Stems and Aspect
Most Lihmelinyan verbs conjugate from three stems, ultimately deriving from their aspect: perfective (past/aorist), imperfective (present), and perfect (stative).
There are a number of different forms the perfective and imperfective stems can take. Most often, the imperfective stem is more marked than the perfective, but not always. I will go over some different forms the stems can take in the next section.
Perfect stems are always formed by reduplication. Not all verbs have all three stems.
I will start out by talking about thematic verbs because they are easier to understand.
Imperfective stems in thematic verbs can take a few different forms. What form they take will determine what form the perfective stem takes (and vice versa). One such type, for example, is the nasal infix. Thus the imperfective stem will contain an /n/ that the perfective stem will lack. Another example is redpulication. The imperfective stem will be redpulicated, so the perfective stem will not be. Sometimes it will simply be a matter of ablaut grade. The imperfective stem will contain an /e/ or /a/ (and thus be in "full grade") that the perfective stem will not have (and thus be in "zero grade"). All of these are examples where the imperfective/present stem is more marked (i.e. longer) than the perfective/aorist. This is the default in Lihmelinyan verbs.
So, for example, the verb sándami - "I clean, wash, cleanse". Its imperfective (present) stem is sand- (a nasal infix present). So the perfective stem is simply an a-grade form sad-, without the /n/. This will hopefully illustrate the difference between the present and aorist:
sándesi - you clean
ésades - you cleaned
The present comprises the imperfective stem + "primary" ending. The aorist contains augment + perfective stem + "secondary" ending.
The thematic vowel changes in a predictable pattern: The vowel is /a/ before all 1st person forms and 3rd plural; it is /e/ elsewhere. So the present active thematic endings will look like this:
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Singular Dual Plural 1st -ami -awen -amen 2nd -esi -efes -eten 3rd -eti -etes -anti
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Person Singular Dual Plural 1st sándami sándawen sándamen 2nd sándesi sándefes sándeten 3rd sándeti sándetes sándanti
Although this system is based on PIE, it's not a direct analogue of it. Imperfective/perfective formations are not treated as different verbs the way they essentially are in PIE. The treatment here is more like Greek or Latin. And you won't find many cases of suppletion in Lihmelinyan either.
To give a few examples of thematic present and aorist stems:
sándami - "I clean" - present stem sand-, aorist stem sad-
féndami - "I kill" - present stem fend-, aorist stem fed-
térgami - "I stop, cease" - present stem terg-, aorist stem tṛg-
zéldami - "I stretch" - present stem zeld-, aorist stem zḷd-
kéinami - "I step" - present stem kein-, aorist stem kin-
Common ablaut changes between stems (present --> aorist):
ā, ē --> a, e (respectively)
a --> e (when accent is retained), deleted
e --> deleted
ai, ei, ye, ya --> i
au, eu, we, wa --> u
ar, er, ra, re --> r
al, el, la, le --> l
These changes apply to noun stems (strong, weak) as well.
Now, perfect stems. The perfect stems are actually quite simple. They are always formed with reduplication. The general rule is that the first consonant is reduplicated with /e/, and the stem is then placed in a-grade. So for the verbs above, here are their 1st singular present perfect forms:
sesándahe - "I have cleaned" (this stem is already in a-grade so it does not change except for reduplication)
fefándahe - "I have killed"
tetárgahe - "I have stopped"
zezáldahe - "I have stretched"
kekáinahe - "I have stepped"
You get the idea :) Hope this makes sense! I'm going to hold off on athematic verbs because I'm still working out some of the kinks. I will go over the different tenses and their endings next.
The above examples have all been active, but Lihmelinyan has one other verbal voice, the mediopassive. The mediopassive is so-called because it is a combination of a true middle voice and a passive voice. Which meaning is intended depends on context and the semantics of the verb. A passive construction will often have an agent in the instrumental case, a middle construction will often be reflexive, but these are not always the case.
The mediopassive has its own set of personal endings which are separate from the active endings (although in some cases seem to be derived from them). As usual, in thematic verbs the endings follow an /a/ or /e/, but in athematics they attach directly to the stem.
Here are the mediopassive endings:
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Person Singular Dual Plural 1st -her -waz -maz 2nd -fer -htā -zwe 3rd -tar -htē -rar
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Person Singular Dual Plural 1st -he -wet -met 2nd -fe -tā -zwe 3rd -ta -tē -ra
The mediopassive conjugates in the same tenses as the active.
So, using our example verb sándami, the present mediopassive forms would be:
Sándaher mékkas istérei.
mékkas (adverb) - always
istéras - (thematic masc. noun) - morning
"I always wash in the morning" (middle)
**the endings -waz and -maz are from PIE -wosdh and -mosdh. The change is -wos-dh --> was-da --> waza --> waz. The final /a/ is present in Old Lihmelinyan, but drops out in modern Lihmelinyan due to the restriction on the accent not appear further back than the antepenultimate. A similar change affects the 1st dual and plural of the aorist.
The aorist would be:
Pūkkilās šúyayai esádara.
"The floors were washed yesterday" (passive)
pūkkilā (feminine noun) - floor, surface
šúyayai (adverb) - yesterday
*Normally, the dual 2nd and 3rd person endings are preceded by /e/, but the presence of the laryngeal causes the thematic vowel to change to /a/. It was /e/ in Old Lihmelinyan and still is in some dialects. This change is complete in standard Lihmelinyan, however, despite the uncommon nature of these forms (let's face it, dual mediopassive is probably the least used of all Lihemlinyan verbal forms!)
Note that all mediopassive endings contain a vowel that is either /a/ or /e/. This is different from the active endings, where some of the endings contain /i/ or consist only of a consonant.
The imperfect in Lihmelinyan is a combination of past tense and imperfective aspect. It's usually translated into English with the past progressive, but that may not always be appropriate. It sometimes has a habitual sense and a translation with habitual modals "would" and "used to" work better.
The imperfect is easy to form. It is formed with [augment] + [present stem] + [secondary endings]
Taking the verb hástami - "I walk", the present stem is hast-, thus the imperfect active forms would be:
"We were walking to the shops. "
ínsanes - allative pl. of ínsas, "store, shop"
The so-called "injunctive" is not really a mood. What it is is an unmarked form of the verb that fulfills a number of miscellaneous functions. The injunctive has two forms. One appears as an augmentless imperfect, the other as an augmentless aorist. I will cover the so-called "imperfect injunctive" first:
An imperfect injunctive would look just like the forms above, sans the e-. Thus: hástan, hástes, hástet, etc. An aorist injunctive would look the same, only using the aorist stem.
The injunctive has three functions:
1. Injunctions (Prohibitions) - This is where the form gets its name. The 2nd person injunctive forms are used with the prohibitive particle gē, "do not". Gē hástes - "do not walk!"
2. Gnomic statements - The injunctive can also be used to form general statements without respect to time. Take the injunctive of dándami - "I fly" (dándan, dándas, dándet, etc.) You could use the injunctive with féres "birds" to create the following statement:
féres dándant "birds fly (i.e. that's what they do)"
Cf. with present indicative:
féres dándanti "the birds are flying" (a specific statement about something happening in the present)
3. Sequences of verbs - Finally, the injunctive is used in sequences of verbs that all have the same tense in the same sentence. This is where the aorist injunctive comes in. In storytelling, you may find sequences of aorist verbs. Only the first verb in a sentence need have the augment; the rest may be in the injunctive (the imperfect injunctive would be used in this way for a sequence of imperfect verbs):
We walked to the shops, bought five necklaces, and waited for the women (sorry for these absurd sentences!)
ínsanes ehéstame, šílke zapúrnā múdame, amíntābaske steléxame.
zapúrnan - necklace
maúdami - "I buy, purchase"
The verbs here are all 1st plural aorist indicative, but múdame and steléxame are missing the augment. These verbs all have the same person, but they don't need to. As long as they are indicative, all have the same tense, and are in a sequence, the injunctive forms may be used.
I thought I would at least try and introduce the demonstratives here. Not the most exciting addition to the grammar, but important, and fun because the proximal demonstrative has forms that are homophonous with my name :)
Proximal Demonstrative, "This"
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Case Singular Dual Plural Nominative kas kā kai Accusative kan kā kans Genitive káša kéyaus kaísahan Locative kásmi kéyaus kaísu Dative kásmei kaíban kaíbas Ablative kásmāt kaíban kaíbas Instrumental kánah kaíban kāis Allative ka kánā kánes
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Case Singular Dual Plural Nominative kā kē kās Accusative kān kē kāns Genitive kášās kāus kāsahan Locative kášai kāus kāsu Dative kášāi kāban kābas Ablative kášāt kāban kābas Instrumental kāh kāban kābi Allative kā kānā kānes
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Case Singular Dual Plural Nominative kat kai kā Accusative kat kai kā Ergative kánza kántā kántes
The distal demonstrative "that" is simply the above, but replace /k/ with /y/: yas, yā, yat
yas ánkas úrnas láti yášai šákai suhpì. - "That red house is beside that temple".
kans férans šúyayai ūšen. - "I saw these birds yesterday"
kas fēr átr entēi edádat ak átr yaísu kumaísu - "This bird flew over the river and over those hills".
kai tánās wilándās lénti, tan yai. "These hairs are yellow, but not those."
átr - over, above
éntis - river
kúmas - hill
tan - but not (te + an)
suhpí - beside, next to
Note that the demonstrative almost always precedes the noun. The demonstratives can also sometimes be used as nouns to mean something like "this one", "this man", "this woman", depending on the context and gender.
Notes on Declension
The declension of demonstrative (and pronouns, which share this declension scheme) differ from noun declensions. They share some elements with the thematic nouns, which have borrowed some forms from the pronoun declension (such as the masculine/neuter locative plural in -aisu, the instrumental plural in -āis, and the genitive singular in -aša). But there are some key differences:
-extension of -ai in the case ending to the dual and plural dat/abl forms (which is absent in the thematic nouns)
-use of three stems in masc/neut: one in ka-, one in kasm-, one in kana- (instr. sing. only)
-the feminine endings are identical to the ā-stem declension. The difference is in the stems. The gen/loc/dat/abl sing have a unique stem in kaš-
-genitive plural has an -s- not present in any noun declension
This highly unusual declension scheme simply has to be memorized, but the good news is it's the same for all pronouns and demonstratives, except for the personal pronouns which have their own issues (and which I will cover next).
1 - ams
2 - héyā
3 - méyes
4 - yéntes
5 - šilk(e)
6 - nark(e)
7 - drūs
8 - kuéntā
9 - úttar
10 - kátā
The first four numbers are subject to change. I'm not sure I like the presence of /j/ in three out of four of them. /j/ has never been my favorite sound.
Numerals are usually placed before the nouns they modify.
ams declines as an acrostatic m-stem noun. ams, am, áman, ems, émei, émi, emh, etc.
héyā declines as a thematic dual. The nominative form is identical in all three genders.
méyes declines as a plural i-stem noun. méyes, méyes, mīns, etc.
yéntes declines as a plural t-stem noun with static accent. yéntes, yéntes, yéntans, yéntān, yéntmas, etc.
The rest are indeclinable. The -e in šilk and nark generally only appears when the following word begins with a consonant. It is ultimately archaic.
héyā ándalā zébi estelégetan igmì. "Two girls waited for me in the road"
(This is a weird-sounding sentence. Lihmelinyan is weird)
ánter - once
heíter - twice
míter - thrice
yénter - four times
Beyond "four", the suffix -ters is added directly to the number:
šílketers - five times
I haven't created the ordinal numbers yet, but I will add them to this page when I do.