And there's a bit of syncretism of different case and number combinations, to make matters worse: gradŭ 'the city, of the cities', grade 'oh city!', grada 'of the city, the two cities', gradě 'in the city', gradu 'to the city, of/in the two cities', gradi 'the cities (nom.)', grady 'the cities (acc.), with the cities'.
Many Arabic dialects have emphatic m and b (and r!) as well, even though they're not indicated in writing. Maybe there's something reconstructible here.