New Indo-European Collablang

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Artaxes
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New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 16 Mar 2019 19:26

A new diachronic project, this time based on a series of surveys.

1. Satemization, part 1.:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276616,SozK.html

2. Satemization, part 2.:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276617,xegR.html

3. Plosives:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276618,RaZV.html

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 17 Mar 2019 15:39

We have a draw in questions of satemization. We are waiting for new voters.

3. Win: T D Dʰ → T T D

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 17 Mar 2019 16:52

1. Win: ḱ ǵ ǵʰ → k g gʰ

2. Win: kʷ gʷ gʷʰ → p b bʰ

4. Mid vowels:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276622,ZJGd.html

5. /r, l/

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276623,aoeC.html

6. Laryngeals:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276624,T70H.html

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 18 Mar 2019 16:31

6. All three laryngeals merged into /h/.

We are waiting for/r l/ question.

4. Mid vowels, part 2.:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276629,dRhw.html

7. Syllabic sonorant laryngeal:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276630,6iJ0.html

8. Thorn clusters:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276631,cwsG.html

9. Syllabic laryngeal:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276632,cEWG.html

10. Intervocalic laryngeal:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276633,SSRB.html

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 19 Mar 2019 19:07

4. Win: o → a
5. /r l/ → /ɾ/
7. R̩h → əRə
8. tk tp dg db → kt pt gd bd
9. #hC ChC Ch# → #əC CəC Cə#
10. V₁V₂ → V₁ː

5. /r, l/

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276623,aoeC.html
Last edited by Artaxes on 20 Mar 2019 12:07, edited 2 times in total.


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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 20 Mar 2019 16:01

Actual sound changes
Spoiler:
1. ḱ ǵ ǵʰ → k g gʰ
2. kʷ gʷ gʷʰ → p b bʰ
3.
p b t d k g → p t k
bʰ dʰ gʰ → b d g
4. o → a
5. r l → ɾ
6. h₁ h₂ h₃ → h
7. R̩h → əRə
8. tk tp dg db → kt pt gd bd
9. #hC ChC Ch# → #əC CəC Cə#
10. V₁V₂ → V₁ː
11. #sV-, VsV → h
12. #hV- → 0
13. /tj dj sj kj gj hj/ → /t͡s d͡z s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ/
14. Bartholomae's law is applied
15. Grassmann's law is applied
16. Greek Cowgill's law is applied
17. Germanic Cowgill's law is applied
18. Lachmann's law is applied
19. "boukólos" rule is applied
20. sb sd sg → sp st sk
21. /w/ → /β/
22. Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l mn/
23. Word-final /m/ delabialized into /n/
24. Short dipthongs /ai au ei eu oi ou/ → /ɛː ɔː iː uː iː uː/
25. Long diphthongs /āi āu ēi ēu ōi ōu/ → /aeː aoː ieː ioː oeː uoː/
26. Short /i u/ → /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/

New voting:

27. Word-final /s/

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276657,5Q92.html
Last edited by Artaxes on 20 Mar 2019 18:58, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Heinrich von Preußen » 20 Mar 2019 17:22

Is *h coming from *s- too lost?
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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 20 Mar 2019 18:52

Heinrich von Preußen wrote:
20 Mar 2019 17:22
Is *h coming from *s- too lost?
No. The list of changes was written temporarily according to the order of questions. Later they will be positionned in accordance with the diachronics.

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 21 Mar 2019 08:14

27. Word-final /s/ → /h/ → 0

Actual sound changes
Spoiler:
1. ḱ ǵ ǵʰ → k g gʰ
2. kʷ gʷ gʷʰ → p b bʰ
3.
p b t d k g → p t k
bʰ dʰ gʰ → b d g
4. o → a
5. r l → ɾ
6. h₁ h₂ h₃ → h
7. R̩h → əRə
8. tk tp dg db → kt pt gd bd
9. #hC ChC Ch# → #əC CəC Cə#
10. V₁V₂ → V₁ː
11. #sV-, VsV → h
12. #hV- → 0
13. /tj dj sj kj gj hj/ → /t͡s d͡z s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ/
14. Bartholomae's law is applied
15. Grassmann's law is applied
16. Greek Cowgill's law is applied
17. Germanic Cowgill's law is applied
18. Lachmann's law is applied
19. "boukólos" rule is applied
20. sb sd sg → sp st sk
21. /w/ → /β/
22. Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l mn/
23. Word-final /m/ delabialized into /n/
24. Short dipthongs /ai au ei eu oi ou/ → /ɛː ɔː iː uː iː uː/
25. Long diphthongs /āi āu ēi ēu ōi ōu/ → /aeː aoː ieː ioː oeː uoː/
26. Short /i u/ → /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/
27. Word-final /s/ disappears

28. Nasalization of vowels:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276661,c32d.html

29. Vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ in final syllables:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276662,TNeC.html

30. Mid vowels before /ɾ m n/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276663,Xoba.html

Edit: Other votings today:
31. Cluster /mɾ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276666,mYeC.html

32. Cluster /nɾ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276667,mxbh.html

33. Intervocalic /d/ (← dʰ):

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276669,JkY3.html

34. Cluster /sɾ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276670,dq2c.html

35. Clusters /ɾn ɾs/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276671,7Jv9.html

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Frislander » 21 Mar 2019 16:17

Can I suggest instead for 34 and 35 sr > xr and rn, rs > nn, ss?

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 21 Mar 2019 17:52

Frislander wrote:
21 Mar 2019 16:17
Can I suggest instead for 34 and 35 sr > xr and rn, rs > nn, ss?
Yes, but I will need to write a new survey (these can not be edited) and renew counting.

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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 21 Mar 2019 22:52

Actual sound changes in sca² format
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Labiovelars

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂/g/_w
h₃/g/_w

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aeː/_
āu/aoː/_
ēi/ieː/_
ēu/ioː/_
ōi/oeː/_
ōu/uoː/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

V/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of dentals and velars with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

*Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#
Some testing words based on PIE
Spoiler:
wl̩h₃kʷos ‣ wolf
h₂r̩tḱos ‣ bear
dʰeǵʰōm ‣ earth
terseh₂ ‣ earth
deiwos ‣ deity
deinos ‣ day
wronkeh₂ ‣ hand
h₂erjos ‣ lord
swortos ‣ black
monǵʰis ‣ man, human being
wih₂ros ‣ human male
gʷēneh₂ ‣ woman
ḱr̩h₁dʰom ‣ heart
oiwos ‣ one
pr̩h₃mos ‣ first
duwoh₂ ‣ two
treies ‣ three
kʷetwores ‣ four
penkʷe ‣ five
sweḱsi ‣ six
septm̩ ‣ seven
h₃oḱtoh₃m ‣ eight
h₁newm̩ ‣ nine
deḱm̩ ‣ ten
ḱm̩tom ‣ hundred
wr̩h₁dʰom ‣ word
kʷōnos ‣ dog
leukos ‣ light
h₂elbʰos ‣ white
h₁rudʰros ‣ red
kr̩snos ‣ black
pōds ‣ foot
golweh₂ ‣ head
tauros ‣ bull
h₂ernos ‣ eagle
steh₂ros ‣ strong
newos ‣ new
gʰoldʰos ‣ gold
twordʰos ‣ hard
preh₂jos ‣ free
gʷouneh₂ ‣ cow
h₁eḱwos ‣ horse
nisdos ‣ nest
h₂r̩teh₂ ‣ truth
h₂erǵn̩tom ‣ silver
h₂erdʰwos ‣ high
mori ‣ sea
h₃eǵʰerom ‣ lake
h₂ekʷōneh₂ ‣ river
ph₂tēr ‣ father
meh₂tēr ‣ mother
h₃egʷnis ‣ fire
bʰreh₂tēr ‣ brother
swestēr ‣ sister
h₂erkʷeh₂ ‣ bow
h₃rēgʰs ‣ king
Last edited by Artaxes on 22 Mar 2019 19:41, edited 1 time in total.

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Heinrich von Preußen
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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Heinrich von Preußen » 22 Mar 2019 00:56

When are we going to choose a place where our language is used and it's name?
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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 22 Mar 2019 19:32

28. No vowel nasalizations
29. /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ in final syllables became /ə/
30. /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ iː uː/ → /e o eː oː/ before /ɾ m n/
31. /mɾ- -mɾ-/ → /bɾ- -mbɾ-/
32. /nɾ- -nɾ-/ → dɾ- -ndɾ-
33. Intervocalic /d/ → /l/
34. /sɾ- -sɾ-/ → /stɾ- -rː-/
35. ɾn ɾs → rː

New votings:

36. Cluster /bn/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276692,qooL.html

37. /tw dw kw gw/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276693,pgtc.html

38. Syllabic /m̩ n̩/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276694,DV7Q.html

39. Syllabic /r̩ l̩/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276695,nK2j.html

40. Should we have ejectives ?

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276696,LfDc.html

41. /kʷ gʷ/ → /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ before /i e j/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276697,dB9N.html

42. /i̯ u̯/ → /j w/ in intervocallic position:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276698,cQRW.html

43. /kʷ gʷ/ before other consonants:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276699,sUYs.html

44. /ts ds/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276700,GaBL.html

45. Mid vowel /oː/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276701,knw4.html

46. Unvoicing before unvoiced consonants:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276702,pNPh.html

47. Assimilation of nasals to next plosive:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276703,8GCn.html

48. Ns sN:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276704,0GK5.html

49. Intervoalic clusters /tn dn/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276705,sATZ.html

50. Clusters /ks gs/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276706,6PMO.html

51. Intervocalic lenition /b d g/ → /β ð ɣ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276707,gTEH.html

52. /p/ → /ɸ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276708,N5ee.html

53. Clusters /pj bj/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276709,W4KF.html

Also, make suggestions for the name of the language. My proposals:

h₂erioiskos / h₂erioḱos '(language) of masters'
preh₂ioiskos '(language) of free people'

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Labiovelars

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ń/ənə/_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

ə

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aeː/_
āu/aoː/_
ēi/ieː/_
ēu/ioː/_
ōi/oeː/_
ōu/uoː/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

V/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#
ḿ/ń/_#

;Palatalizations of dentals and velars with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

User avatar
Artaxes
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Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 23 Mar 2019 12:02

36. /bn/ → /mn/
37. /kw gw/ → /kʷ gʷ/
38. /m̩ n̩/ → /əm ən/
39. /r̩ l̩/ → /ər əl/
40. no ejectives
41. no palatalization of labiovelars
42. /i̯ u̯/ → /j w/ in intervocalic position
43. /kʷ gʷ/ become delabialized into /k g/ before other consonants
44. /ts ds/ become /t͡s d͡z/
45. /oː/ is retained
46. unvoicing before unvoiced consonants
47. assimilation of nasals to next plosive
48. Ns sN retained
49. Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/
50. Clusters /ks gs/ merged into /ks/
51. No intervocalic lenition
52. /p/ → /ɸ/
53. /pj bj/ retained

54. Word-initial sC-:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276723,6IcF.html

55. Evolution of aspirated plosives and devoicing /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k/ → /pʰ tʰ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ/ and
/b d d͡z d͡ʒ g/ → /p t t͡s t͡ʃ k/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276713,td5C.html

56. t͡s d͡z:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276714,sVj8.html

57. /β/ after unvoiced consonants:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276715,R5GO.html

58. Long vowel /ā/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276716,N70a.html

59. Long vowels are shortenned before /r l m n/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276717,gkMa.html

60. Accent:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276718,ZHDM.html

61. Shortenning of long vowels:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276719,hU4o.html

62. Word-initial /j/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276720,rJsm.html

63. /st͡ʃ sʃ/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276721,mVMp.html

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃
i/j/V_V
u/w/V_V
i/j/_V
u/w/_V

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;Velars /kw gw/ become labiovelars /kʷ gʷ/:

kw/kʷ/_
gw/gʷ/_
gʰw/gʷʰ/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Delabialization of labiovelars before other consonants

ʷ//[kg]_C/_ʰ

;Weak lenition of /p/:

p/ɸ/_

;Labiovelars become bilabials

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ńh/ənə/_

hḿ/ən/#_
hń/ən/#_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Long vowels (correction):

@ː/A/_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Insertion of schwa before syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/:

Ŕ/əR/_

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Clusters /ts ds/ become affricates /t͡s d͡z/:

ts/t͡s/_
ds/d͡z/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aē/_
āu/aō/_
ēi/iē/_
ēu/iō/_
ōi/oē/_
ōu/uō/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

@/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_
ː//_²

;Unvoicing of voiced plosives before unvoiced consonants:

G/K/_s
G/K/_K
G/K/_K
G/K/_K

K/G/_G
K/G/_G
K/G/_G

;Assimilation of nasals to next plosive and affricate:

m/n/_[tdkg]
n/m/_[pb]

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#/͡_
s/h/#_[jw]
s/h/V_[jw]

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of plosives with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;Labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

;Assimilation of bilabial voiced plosive to next nasal consonant:

/bn/ → /mn/

;Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/:

tn/nn/V_V
dn/nn/V_V

;Misc:

n/m/_β
ʊ̆/a/_V
ɪ̆/a/_V

User avatar
Artaxes
greek
greek
Posts: 804
Joined: 19 Aug 2010 00:39
Location: The Holy Eastern Empire of the Old Traditions
Contact:

Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 24 Mar 2019 13:14

54. Wor-initial sC- → ɪ̆sC
55. Voiceless plosives and affricates become voiceless aspirated and voiced become voiceless.
56. /t͡s d͡z/ → /s z/
57. /β/ after unvoiced consonants disappears without influence on other sounds.
58. Long vowel /aː/ is retained.
59. Long vowels are shortenned before /r l m n/.
60. Accent on penultimate syllable.
61. Shortenning of long vowels in unstressed positions.
62. Word-initial /j/ shifted into /d͡ʒ/.
63. /st͡ʃ sʃ/ → /ʃt͡ʃ ʃʃ/

The Indo-European grammatical Feminine gender disappears due to phonetic changes. Now we have two genders: Common and Neuter.

64. Vowel clusters /aī aū/ (before reductions and monophthongization):

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276734,EBuU.html

65. Stressed /ə/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276735,VlqJ.html

66. Name of the language would be based on:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276736,IKuK.html

67. Word for 'language, tongue' should be derived from:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276737,AbOE.html

68. Word for 'lord, master' should be derived from:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276738,gCeF.html

69. Location of language:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276740,03yV.html

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃
i/j/V_V
u/w/V_V
i/j/_V
u/w/_V

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;Velars /kw gw/ become labiovelars /kʷ gʷ/:

kw/kʷ/_
gw/gʷ/_
gʰw/gʷʰ/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Delabialization of labiovelars before other consonants

ʷ//[kg]_C/_ʰ

;Weak lenition of /p/:

p/ɸ/_

;Labiovelars become bilabials

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ńh/ənə/_

hḿ/ən/#_
hń/ən/#_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Long vowels (correction):

@ː/A/_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Insertion of schwa before syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/:

Ŕ/əR/_

;Shortenning of long vowels before sonorantal consonants:

A/@/_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Clusters /ts ds/ become affricates /t͡s d͡z/:

ts/t͡s/_
ds/d͡z/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aē/_
āu/aō/_
ēi/iē/_
ēu/iō/_
ōi/oē/_
ōu/uō/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

@/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_
ː//_²

;Unvoicing of voiced plosives before unvoiced consonants:

G/K/_s
G/K/_K
G/K/_K
G/K/_K

K/G/_G
K/G/_G
K/G/_G

;Assimilation of nasals to next plosive and affricate:

m/n/_[tdkg]
n/m/_[pb]

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#/͡_
s/h/#_[jw]
s/h/V_[jw]

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of plosives with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;Labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

;Assimilation of bilabial voiced plosive to next nasal consonant:

/bn/ → /mn/

;Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/:

tn/nn/V_V
dn/nn/V_V

;Word-initial cluster sC- became ɪ̆sC-

/ɪ̆/#_sC

;Alveolar affricates become fricatives:

t͡s/s/_
d͡z/z/_

;Stress accent shifted into penultimate syllable:

/./V_(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)V(V)(V)(V)(V)(C)(C)(C)#

;Shortenning of long vowels in unstressed positions:

A/@/_/_.

;Voiceless plosives and affricates become voiceless aspirated and voiced become voiceless:

t͡ʃ/t͡ʃʰ/_
d͡ʒ/t͡ʃ/_

/ʰ/K_
/ʰ/K_
ʰ//_²
G/K/_

;/β/ disappears after voiceless consonants without influence on other sounds:

β//K(ʰ)_
β//[sh]_

;Assimilation of sibilant fricative to next postalveolar consonant:

s/ʃ/_t͡ʃ
s/ʃ/_ʃ

;Misc:

.//_
n/m/_β
ʊ̆/a/_V
ɪ̆/a/_V

User avatar
Artaxes
greek
greek
Posts: 804
Joined: 19 Aug 2010 00:39
Location: The Holy Eastern Empire of the Old Traditions
Contact:

Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 25 Mar 2019 11:01

64. /aī aū/ became /āi āu/
65. stressed /ə/ shifted into /ʊ̆/ after bilabials and velars, and into /ɪ̆/ in other positions
66. Name of the language will be based on deh₂nowiskos (from deh₂nu 'river, also name of goddess)
67. Word for 'language, tongue' will be derived from dn̩ǵʰweh₂s
68. Word for 'lord, master' will be derived from 'h₂erios'

69. Location, part 2:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276748,w0Gw.html

70. Stressed short vowel become long:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276749,GxKO.html

71. Aspirated plosive become unaspirated before /s z/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276750,sbZa.html

72. Intervocalic /ɸs βs/ → /ss/:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276751,H4qh.html

73. Voiced plosives and affricates became reintroduced through loanwords:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276752,qTMQ.html

74. Gender system:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276753,gK9b.html

75. Noun case:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276754,Nnpy.html

76. Merger of Ə-Declension and A-Declension:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276755,QkY9.html

77. Full merger of A-Declension with remnants of former Ā-Declension:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276756,JiZ7.html

78. Consonantal declension (words ended on consonant):

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276757,7F2C.html

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃
i/j/V_V
u/w/V_V
i/j/_V
u/w/_V

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;Velars /kw gw/ become labiovelars /kʷ gʷ/:

kw/kʷ/_
gw/gʷ/_
gʰw/gʷʰ/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Delabialization of labiovelars before other consonants

ʷ//[kg]_C/_ʰ

;Weak lenition of /p/:

p/ɸ/_

;Labiovelars become bilabials

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ńh/ənə/_

hḿ/ən/#_
hń/ən/#_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Long vowels (correction):

@ː/A/_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Diphthongization of some vowel clusters:

aī/āi/_
eī/ēi/_
oī/ōi/_

aū/āu/_
eū/ēu/_
oū/ōu/_

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Insertion of schwa before syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/:

Ŕ/əR/_

;Shortenning of long vowels before sonorantal consonants:

A/@/_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Clusters /ts ds/ become affricates /t͡s d͡z/:

ts/t͡s/_
ds/d͡z/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aē/_
āu/aō/_
ēi/iē/_
ēu/iō/_
ōi/oē/_
ōu/uō/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

@/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_
ː//_²

;Unvoicing of voiced plosives before unvoiced consonants:

G/K/_s
G/K/_K
G/K/_K
G/K/_K

K/G/_G
K/G/_G
K/G/_G

;Assimilation of nasals to next plosive and affricate:

m/n/_[tdkg]
n/m/_[pb]

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#/͡_
s/h/#_[jw]
s/h/V_[jw]

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of plosives with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;Labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

;Assimilation of bilabial voiced plosive to next nasal consonant:

/bn/ → /mn/

;Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/:

tn/nn/V_V
dn/nn/V_V

;Word-initial cluster sC- became ɪ̆sC-

/ɪ̆/#_sC

;Alveolar affricates become fricatives:

t͡s/s/_
d͡z/z/_

;Stress accent shifted into penultimate syllable:

/./V_(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)V(V)(V)(V)(V)(C)(C)(C)#

;Shortenning of long vowels in unstressed positions:

A/@/_/_.

;Stressed /ə/ become /ʊ̆/ after bilabials and velars, and // in other positions:

ə./ʊ̆./[pbɸβmkgh]_
ə./ɪ̆./_

;Voiceless plosives and affricates become voiceless aspirated and voiced become voiceless:

t͡ʃ/t͡ʃʰ/_
d͡ʒ/t͡ʃ/_

/ʰ/K_
/ʰ/K_
ʰ//_²
G/K/_

;/β/ disappears after voiceless consonants without influence on other sounds:

β//K(ʰ)_
β//[sh]_

;Word-initial /j/ become /d͡ʒ/:

j/d͡ʒ/#_

;Assimilation of sibilant fricative to next postalveolar consonant:

s/ʃ/_t͡ʃ
s/ʃ/_ʃ

;Misc:

.//_
n/m/_β
ʊ̆/a/_V
ɪ̆/a/_V

User avatar
Artaxes
greek
greek
Posts: 804
Joined: 19 Aug 2010 00:39
Location: The Holy Eastern Empire of the Old Traditions
Contact:

Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 26 Mar 2019 13:37

69. The language is located in Caucasus.
70. Stressed short vowels became long.
71. Aspirated plosives became unaspirated before fricatives.
72. Intervocalic /ɸs βs/ → /ss/.
73. Voiced plosives and affricates became reintroduced through loanwords:
74. Gender system should be based on opposition Common-Neuter.
75. There will three cases.
76. Ə-Declension is not merged with A-Declension
77. Merger of A-Declension with remnants of former Ā-Declension
78. Consonantal declension merged with Ə-Declension.

79. Location, part 3.:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276762,TgwQ.html

80. Stressed /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ becomeː

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276763,ZTE2.html

81. Which case disappears as first ?

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276765,wOs6.html

82. What with PIE subjunctive and optative ?

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276766,u5rx.html

83. Medial voice:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276767,N8WI.html

84. Imperative:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276768,P3FH.html

85. Aorist:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276769,X00R.html

86. Perfect:

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276770,U2zp.html

87. Dual number

https://sonda.hanzo.pl/sondy,276771,ORdj.html

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃
i/j/V_V
u/w/V_V
i/j/_V
u/w/_V

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;Velars /kw gw/ become labiovelars /kʷ gʷ/:

kw/kʷ/_
gw/gʷ/_
gʰw/gʷʰ/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Delabialization of labiovelars before other consonants

ʷ//[kg]_C/_ʰ

;Weak lenition of /p/:

p/ɸ/_

;Labiovelars become bilabials

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ńh/ənə/_

hḿ/ən/#_
hń/ən/#_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Long vowels (correction):

@ː/A/_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Diphthongization of some vowel clusters:

aī/āi/_
eī/ēi/_
oī/ōi/_

aū/āu/_
eū/ēu/_
oū/ōu/_

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Insertion of schwa before syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/:

Ŕ/əR/_

;Shortenning of long vowels before sonorantal consonants:

A/@/_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Clusters /ts ds/ become affricates /t͡s d͡z/:

ts/t͡s/_
ds/d͡z/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aē/_
āu/aō/_
ēi/iē/_
ēu/iō/_
ōi/oē/_
ōu/uō/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

@/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_
ː//_²

;Unvoicing of voiced plosives before unvoiced consonants:

G/K/_s
G/K/_K
G/K/_K
G/K/_K

K/G/_G
K/G/_G
K/G/_G

;Assimilation of nasals to next plosive and affricate:

m/n/_[tdkg]
n/m/_[pb]

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#/͡_
s/h/#_[jw]
s/h/V_[jw]

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of plosives with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;Labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

;Assimilation of bilabial voiced plosive to next nasal consonant:

/bn/ → /mn/

;Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/:

tn/nn/V_V
dn/nn/V_V

;Word-initial cluster sC- became ɪ̆sC-

/ɪ̆/#_sC

;Alveolar affricates become fricatives:

t͡s/s/_
d͡z/z/_

;Stress accent shifted into penultimate syllable:

/./V_(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)V(V)(V)(V)(V)(C)(C)(C)#

;Shortenning of long vowels in unstressed positions:

A/@/_/_.

;Stressed /ə/ become /ʊ̆/ after bilabials and velars, and // in other positions:

ə./ʊ̆./[pbɸβmkgh]_
ə./ɪ̆./_

;Voiceless plosives and affricates become voiceless aspirated and voiced become voiceless:

t͡ʃ/t͡ʃʰ/_
d͡ʒ/t͡ʃ/_

/ʰ/K_
/ʰ/K_
ʰ//_²
G/K/_

;/β/ disappears after voiceless consonants without influence on other sounds:

β//K(ʰ)_
β//[sh]_

;Word-initial /j/ become /d͡ʒ/:

j/d͡ʒ/#_

;Assimilation of sibilant fricative to next postalveolar consonant:

s/ʃ/_t͡ʃ
s/ʃ/_ʃ

;Stressed short vowels became long:

@./A/_

;Aspirated plosives became unaspirated before fricatives:

ʰ//_[szʃʒh]

;Intervocalic /ɸs βs/ → /ss/:

[ɸβ]s/ss/V_V

;Consonantal declension merged with Ə-Declension:

/ə/[ptkbdg]_#

;Misc:

.//_
n/m/_β
ʊ̆/a/_V
ɪ̆/a/_V

User avatar
Artaxes
greek
greek
Posts: 804
Joined: 19 Aug 2010 00:39
Location: The Holy Eastern Empire of the Old Traditions
Contact:

Re: New Indo-European Collablang

Post by Artaxes » 27 Mar 2019 16:11

79. Language will be located in Azarbaijan.
80. Stressed /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ became /eː aː/.
81. Both subjunctive and optative will be removed from verbal system.
82. Medial voice takes passive meaning.
83. Original imperative disappears.
84. Aorist takes Perfective meaning.
85. Perfect takes Perfective meaning.
86. Dual number only in some fossilized forms.

Updated sound changes list
Spoiler:
@=aeiou
C=ptcqbdgmnklrhsćśγščńñŋηβǵʰm̩n̩l̩r̩ḱǵʷzžšçğjɉðf6θxvwɸθðɣʃʒɦhʝɟçʎɾʕħʁχʼɥɻʂʐɗɠɓʋɕʑǵ
Q=ptḱkbdǵgmnrlsz
A=āēīōū
K=ptk
G=bdg
N=mnŋ
R=rlmn
Ŕ=ŕĺḿń
V=äüöāēīōūaeiouáéíóúaɑɒæʌiɤɨɯəɘɐeɜɛouuuɵœøyʏɶɔɞ̞ː̆̃

;Rewrite stuff:

ḗ/ê/_
ṓ/ô/_
R/Ŕ/_̩
R/Ŕ/_̥
̩//_
̥//_
w/u/V_C
j/i/V_C
e/a/₂_
e/o/₃_
e/a/_h₂
e/o/_h₃
i/j/V_V
u/w/V_V
i/j/_V
u/w/_V

;Centumization:

ḱ/k/_
ǵ/g/_

;Velars /kw gw/ become labiovelars /kʷ gʷ/:

kw/kʷ/_
gw/gʷ/_
gʰw/gʷʰ/_

;"boukólos" rule:

kʷ/k/[uūw]_
gʷ/g/[uūw]_

;Germanic Cowgill's law:

h₂w/gʷ/R_
h₃w/gʷ/R_

;Delabialization of labiovelars before other consonants

ʷ//[kg]_C/_ʰ

;Weak lenition of /p/:

p/ɸ/_

;Labiovelars become bilabials

kʷ/p/_
gʷ/b/_

;Bartholomae's law:

K/G/_Gʰ
K/G/ʰ_
/ʰ/ʰG_

;Grassmann's law:

ʰ//_V(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_V(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_V(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)Cʷʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʰ
ʰ//_CV(V)CCʷʰ
ʰ//_ŔCʰ

;Lachmann's law:

@/A/_GK

;Deaspiration:

G/K/_/_ʰ
ʰ//_

;Epenthesis:

₁/e/Q_[Q#]/
[₂₃]/a/Q_[Q#]
₁/e/#_Q
[₂₃]/a/#_Q

;Short vowel /o/ became unrounded:

o/a/_

;Laryngeals disappears:

[₁₂₃]//_

ŕh/ərə/_
ĺh/ələ/_
r̩h/ərə/_
ḿh/əmə/_
ńh/ənə/_

hḿ/ən/#_
hń/ən/#_

̩//_

h/ː/@_

h/ə/#_C
h/ə/C_C
h/ə/C_#

h//_

;Long vowels (correction):

@ː/A/_

;Greek Cowgill's law:

o/u/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
o/u/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

ō/ū/[pbwm]_[rlmn]
ō/ū/[rlmn]_[pbwm]

;Diphthongization of some vowel clusters:

aī/āi/_
eī/ēi/_
oī/ōi/_

aū/āu/_
eū/ēu/_
oū/ōu/_

;Word-initial /w/ disappears before /r l m n/

w//#_[rlmn]

;Insertion of schwa before syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩/:

Ŕ/əR/_

;Shortenning of long vowels before sonorantal consonants:

A/@/_[rlmn]

;Merger of rhotic and lateral into flap:

[rl]/ɾ/_
ĺ/ŕ/_

;Clusters /ts ds/ become affricates /t͡s d͡z/:

ts/t͡s/_
ds/d͡z/_

;Thorn clusters:

tk/kt/_
tp/pt/_
dg/gd/_
db/bd/_

;Monophthongization of short diphthongs:

ai/ɛː/_
au/ɔː/_
ei/ī/_
eu/ū/_
oi/ī/_
ou/ū/_

;Evolution long diphthongs into vowel clusters:

āi/aē/_
āu/aō/_
ēi/iē/_
ēu/iō/_
ōi/oē/_
ōu/uō/_

;Reduction of vowel sequences:

@/ː/V_

aː/ā/_
eː/ē/_
iː/ī/_
oː/ō/_
uː/ū/_

ː//A_
ː//_²

;Unvoicing of voiced plosives before unvoiced consonants:

G/K/_s
G/K/_K
G/K/_K
G/K/_K

K/G/_G
K/G/_G
K/G/_G

;Assimilation of nasals to next plosive and affricate:

m/n/_[tdkg]
n/m/_[pb]

;Debuccalization of sibilant fricative /s/ word-initialy before any vowel, in intervocalic position and word-finally:

s/h/#_V
s/h/V_V
s/h/_#/͡_
s/h/#_[jw]
s/h/V_[jw]

;Word-final /m/ is delabialized:

m/n/_#

;Palatalizations of plosives with jotation:

tj/t͡s/_
dj/d͡z/_
sj/s/_

kj/t͡ʃ/_
gj/d͡ʒ/_
hj/ʃ/_

;Voiced plosives became unvoiced after sibilant fricative /s/:

G/K/s_

;Labiovelar approximant became bilabial:

w/β/_

;Short high vowels became ultra-short near-high:

i/ɪ̆/_
u/ʊ̆/_

;Word-final /h/ (← -s) disappears:

h//_#

;Ultra-short near-high vowels /ɪ̆ ʊ̆/ bacame central vowel /ə/

ɪ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#
ʊ̆/ə/_(C)(C)(C)#

;Strengthenning of /m n/ before /ɾ/:

mɾ/bɾ/#_
mɾ/mbɾ/_

nɾ/dɾ/#_
nɾ/ndɾ/_

;Lowering of high and near-high vowels before /ɾ m n/:

ɪ̆/e/_[ɾmn/
ʊ̆/o/_[ɾmn]
ī/ē/_[ɾmn]
ū/ō/_[ɾmn]

;Intervocalic /d/ became /l/:

d/l/V_V

;Steengthenning of /sɾ/:

sɾ/r/V_V
sɾ/r/C_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/r/_C
sɾ/stɾ/_

;/ɾɾ ɾn ɾs/ bacame rhotic /r/

ɾɾ/r/_
ɾn/r/_
ɾs/r/_

;Assimilation of bilabial voiced plosive to next nasal consonant:

/bn/ → /mn/

;Intervocalic /tn dn/ become /nn/:

tn/nn/V_V
dn/nn/V_V

;Word-initial cluster sC- became ɪ̆sC-

/ɪ̆/#_sC

;Alveolar affricates become fricatives:

t͡s/s/_
d͡z/z/_

;Stress accent shifted into penultimate syllable:

/./V_(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)V(V)(V)(V)(V)(C)(C)(C)#

;Shortenning of long vowels in unstressed positions:

A/@/_/_.

;Stressed /ə/ become /ʊ̆/ after bilabials and velars, and // in other positions:

ə./ʊ̆./[pbɸβmkgh]_
ə./ɪ̆./_

;Voiceless plosives and affricates become voiceless aspirated and voiced become voiceless:

t͡ʃ/t͡ʃʰ/_
d͡ʒ/t͡ʃ/_

/ʰ/K_
/ʰ/K_
ʰ//_²
G/K/_

;/β/ disappears after voiceless consonants without influence on other sounds:

β//K(ʰ)_
β//[sh]_

;Word-initial /j/ become /d͡ʒ/:

j/d͡ʒ/#_

;Assimilation of sibilant fricative to next postalveolar consonant:

s/ʃ/_t͡ʃ
s/ʃ/_ʃ

;Stressed short vowels became long:

@./A/_

ɪ̆./eː./_
ʊ̆./aː./_

;Aspirated plosives became unaspirated before fricatives:

ʰ//_[szʃʒh]

;Intervocalic /ɸs βs/ → /ss/:

[ɸβ]s/ss/V_V

;Consonantal declension merged with Ə-Declension:

/ə/[ptkbdgʰ]_#
e/ə/_ɾ#
ɾ//V_#

;Misc:

.//_
n/m/_β
ʊ̆/a/_V
ɪ̆/a/_V

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