What did you accomplish today?

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
gokupwned5
sinic
sinic
Posts: 292
Joined: 12 Aug 2016 16:05

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by gokupwned5 » 12 Apr 2019 03:21

I finished making a basic outline of the grammar for a postapocalyptic conlang I made, Cuvao. Here is an example sentence from a translation challenge on Reddit.

Ela no tenía querzo pa azeutal, pro parre sujo li oliwama.
/ela no tenia kerzo pa azewtal pro parre suʒo li oliwama/
3FS.NOM NEG have.PST.SG want.PRT.PST to agree-INF but father 3S.POSS 3S.OBL force-PST.SG
She would not have agreed (to marry), but her father forced/pressured her.
Last edited by gokupwned5 on 12 Apr 2019 21:15, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
bbbourq
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 137
Joined: 12 Mar 2017 18:31
Location: Los Angeles, CA
Contact:

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by bbbourq » 12 Apr 2019 15:15

I recently discovered a new marker (prefix?) which changes the state of a tangible noun to an intangible concept.


Spoiler:
Image
I do not think this applies to all tangible nouns—more research is needed.
https://lortho.conlang.org

"Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn't." - Mark Twain

User avatar
Dormouse559
moderator
moderator
Posts: 2789
Joined: 10 Nov 2012 20:52
Location: California

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Dormouse559 » 12 Apr 2019 18:51

gokupwned5 wrote:
12 Apr 2019 03:21
I finished making a basic outline of the grammar for a postapocalyptic conlang I made, Cuvao. Here is an example sentence from a translation challenge on Reddit.

Ela tenía querzo pa azeutal, pro parre sujo li oliwama.
/ela tenia kerzo pa azewtal pro parre suʒo li oliwama/
3FS.NOM have.PST.SG want.PRT.PST to agree-INF but father 3S.POSS 3S.OBL force-PST.SG
She would not have agreed (to marry), but her father forced/pressured her.
It's looking quite nice. I see some clear Spanish influence. I can't seem to find any kind of negation in the gloss of the first clause. Is that intentional?
bbbourq wrote:
12 Apr 2019 15:15
I recently discovered a new marker (prefix?) which changes the state of a tangible noun to an intangible concept.
It doesn't mean the same thing as "psyche" or "mind", but your derivation reminds me of :eng: "headstate". I like it. [:)]

gokupwned5
sinic
sinic
Posts: 292
Joined: 12 Aug 2016 16:05

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by gokupwned5 » 12 Apr 2019 21:15

Dormouse559 wrote:
12 Apr 2019 18:51
gokupwned5 wrote:
12 Apr 2019 03:21
I finished making a basic outline of the grammar for a postapocalyptic conlang I made, Cuvao. Here is an example sentence from a translation challenge on Reddit.

Ela tenía querzo pa azeutal, pro parre sujo li oliwama.
/ela tenia kerzo pa azewtal pro parre suʒo li oliwama/
3FS.NOM have.PST.SG want.PRT.PST to agree-INF but father 3S.POSS 3S.OBL force-PST.SG
She would not have agreed (to marry), but her father forced/pressured her.
It's looking quite nice. I see some clear Spanish influence. I can't seem to find any kind of negation in the gloss of the first clause. Is that intentional?
No, that was a mistake. The sentence should be:

Ela no tenía querzo pa azeutal, pro parre sujo li oliwama.
/ela no tenia kerzo pa azewtal pro parre suʒo li oliwama/
3FS.NOM NEG have.PST.SG want.PRT.PST to agree-INF but father 3S.POSS 3S.OBL force-PST.SG
She would not have agreed (to marry), but her father forced/pressured her.

And you were right about the Spanish influence. It is supposed to be a descendant of Caribbean Spanish. Also, here's the same sentence but replaced with the words from Modern Spanish:

Ella no tenía querido para aceptar, pero padre suyo le obligaba.

User avatar
HJH
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 41
Joined: 16 Feb 2019 13:00

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by HJH » 15 Apr 2019 19:48

I created some words for birds in Casia:

Singular, Plural

fiev, fiez- blackbird /fjytɬ/ /fjyɬ/

hox, huoho- woodpigeon /hɔx/ /hwɔhɔ/ (Onamatopoeic derivation from a pigeon's call)

tmean, nean- bluetit /tmean/ /ɲean/

korl, korla- goldfinch /kʌrl/ /kʌrla/

ham, xem- greater woodpecker /hɒm/ /xœm/ (Another example of onamatopoeia from the noise that woodpeckers make)

mand, danma- green woodpecker /mɶnd/ /danma/

uax, auia- parrot /wɒx/ /awjɒ/ (Derived from parrot's call)

wle, wlea- magpie /tɕʎʉ/ /tɕʎea/

goerw, coerwa- crow /cçoertɕ/ /coerdʑɒ/

jeas, sjea- jay /ɥeas/ /zɥea/

qlaolna, qlaolne- sparrow /ʝlaolna/ /ʝlaolna/

oqo, toqo- starling /oʝɔ/ /toʝɔ/

epjelm, hohuo- feral pigeon /ebjɨlm/ /hɔhwɔ/ (The plural form is another onamatopoeia)
:con: Casia- Grammar- Thread

User avatar
Ahzoh
korean
korean
Posts: 5764
Joined: 20 Oct 2013 02:57
Location: Toma-ʾEzra lit Vṛḵaža

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Ahzoh » 15 Apr 2019 22:00

I made a nightmare language with over 100 vowels but only 11 consonants. It is called Hööˤñÿăăˤ:

/æ æː ɐ ɐː ɑ ɑː e eː ø øː ə əː ɤ ɤː o oː i iː y yː ɨ ɨː ɯ ɯː u uː/
<ä ää ă ăă a aa e ee ö öö ĕ ĕĕ ë ëë o oo i ii ü üü ĭ ĭĭ ï ïï u uu>

/æ̃ æ̃ː ɐ̃ ɐ̃ː ɑ̃ ɑ̃ː ẽ ẽː ø̃ ø̃ː ə̃ ə̃ː ɤ̃ ɤ̃ː õ õː ĩ ĩː ỹ ỹː ɨ̃ ɨ̃ː ɯ̃ ɯ̃ː ũ ũː/
<äñ ääñ ăñ ăăñ añ aañ eñ eeñ öñ ööñ ĕñ ĕĕñ ëñ ëëñ oñ ooñ iñ iiñ üñ üüñ ĭñ ĭĭñ ïñ ïïñ uñ uuñ>

/æ̰ æ̰ː ɐ̰ ɐ̰ː ɑ̰ ɑ̰ː ḛ ḛː ø̰ ø̰ː ə̰ ə̰ː ɤ̰ ɤ̰ː o̰ o̰ː ḭ ḭː y̰ y̰ː ɨ̰ ɨː ɯ̰ ɯ̰ː ṵ ṵː/
<äˤ ääˤ ăˤ ăăˤ aˤ aaˤ eˤ eeˤ öˤ ööˤ ĕˤ ĕĕˤ ëˤ ëëˤ oˤ ooˤ iˤ iiˤ üˤ üüˤ ĭˤ ĭĭˤ ïˤ ïïˤ uˤ uuˤ>

/æ̰̃ æ̰̃ː ɐ̰̃ ɐ̰̃ː ɑ̰̃ ɑ̰̃ː ḛ̃ ḛ̃ː ø̰̃ ø̰̃ː ə̰̃ ə̰̃ː ɤ̰̃ ɤ̰̃ː õ̰ õ̰ː ḭ̃ ḭ̃ː ỹ̰ ỹ̰ː ɨ̰̃ ɨ̰̃ː ɯ̰̃ ɯ̰̃ː ṵ̃ ṵ̃ː/
<äˤñ ääˤñ ăˤñ ăăˤñ aˤñ aaˤñ eˤñ eeˤñ öˤñ ööˤñ ĕˤñ ĕĕˤñ ëˤñ ëëˤñ oˤñ ooˤñ iˤñ iiˤñ üˤñ üüˤñ ĭˤñ ĭĭˤñ ïˤñ ïïˤñ uˤñ uuˤñ>

/m n/<m n>
/p t k~q/<p t k>
/s h~ħ/<s h>
/j ɥ ɰ~ʁ w~ʁʷ/<y ẅ ÿ w>

The alternation between velar and uvular is based on whether the following vowel is creaky voiced or not.

Some grammar:
skööˤ "human being"
ĭppëët "meat"

Animate plural:
-üsää/-usaa/-ẅsää/-wsaa
e.g. skööˤ > skööˤẅsää "people"

Inanimate plural:
-ühää/-uhaa/-ẅhää/-whaa
e.g. ĭppëët > ĭppëëtuhaa "meat"

It has polypersonal agreement:

eeˤsĭk-paahaˤ-kuuw-naaˤñ
2>1s-see-PST-PL
/ḛːsɨkpɑːʁʷɑ̰kuːwnɑ̰̃ː/
You all saw me.

What have I done?
Image Ӯсцьӣ (Onschen) [ CWS ]
Image Šat Wərxažu (Vrkhazhian) [ WIKI | CWS ]

shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 11580
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 23:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by shimobaatar » 15 Apr 2019 22:25

Could you theoretically analyze creaky voice and nasalization as being the surface realizations of underlying consonants? That would add a few consonants to your inventory, but that would leave you with, if I'm counting correctly, 26 phonemic vowels (13 qualities x 2 lengths). Unless the goal is to have a number of vowels that seems obscenely high?

In any case, are the conditions for the /ħ~h/ alternation the same as those for the velar~uvular alternations?

User avatar
Ahzoh
korean
korean
Posts: 5764
Joined: 20 Oct 2013 02:57
Location: Toma-ʾEzra lit Vṛḵaža

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Ahzoh » 16 Apr 2019 00:03

shimobaatar wrote:
15 Apr 2019 22:25
Could you theoretically analyze creaky voice and nasalization as being the surface realizations of underlying consonants?
Nasalization as an underlying coda nasal archiphoneme, maybe. Creaky is definitely phonemic.
Unless the goal is to have a number of vowels that seems obscenely high?
The goal is to have an obscenely high number of vowels, or at least make it seem that way.
In any case, are the conditions for the /ħ~h/ alternation the same as those for the velar~uvular alternations?
Yes, /ħ/ before creaky, /h/ before modal.
Image Ӯсцьӣ (Onschen) [ CWS ]
Image Šat Wərxažu (Vrkhazhian) [ WIKI | CWS ]

Khemehekis
mayan
mayan
Posts: 2323
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Khemehekis » 16 Apr 2019 00:26

Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:03
Yes, /ħ/ before creaky, /h/ before modal.
What does "modal" mean, besides being the adjective for the moods of verbs?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 60,137 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 11580
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 23:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by shimobaatar » 16 Apr 2019 00:42

Khemehekis wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:26
Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:03
Yes, /ħ/ before creaky, /h/ before modal.
What does "modal" mean, besides being the adjective for the moods of verbs?
In regards to vowels, it's the "default" voicing. In this case, "not creaky".

Khemehekis
mayan
mayan
Posts: 2323
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Khemehekis » 16 Apr 2019 01:02

shimobaatar wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:42
Khemehekis wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:26
Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:03
Yes, /ħ/ before creaky, /h/ before modal.
What does "modal" mean, besides being the adjective for the moods of verbs?
In regards to vowels, it's the "default" voicing. In this case, "not creaky".
So modal means it's not nasal, not breathy, not creaky, not any of those things . . . right?
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 60,137 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

User avatar
Ahzoh
korean
korean
Posts: 5764
Joined: 20 Oct 2013 02:57
Location: Toma-ʾEzra lit Vṛḵaža

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Ahzoh » 16 Apr 2019 01:08

Modal means its phonation is default, as it is for voiced consonants. But you can have nasalized modal voiced vowels and consonants because nasalization is not a type of phonation. Creaky, slack-voiced, murmured, breathy, devoiced, voiceless, and modal are all phonation types.
Image Ӯсцьӣ (Onschen) [ CWS ]
Image Šat Wərxažu (Vrkhazhian) [ WIKI | CWS ]

shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 11580
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 23:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by shimobaatar » 16 Apr 2019 01:14

Khemehekis wrote:
16 Apr 2019 01:02
shimobaatar wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:42
Khemehekis wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:26
Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 00:03
Yes, /ħ/ before creaky, /h/ before modal.
What does "modal" mean, besides being the adjective for the moods of verbs?
In regards to vowels, it's the "default" voicing. In this case, "not creaky".
So modal means it's not nasal, not breathy, not creaky, not any of those things . . . right?
Not nasality. It's just related to phonation.
Edit: Ahzoh beat me to it.

náʼoolkiłí
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 15
Joined: 04 Apr 2019 20:06

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by náʼoolkiłí » 16 Apr 2019 01:14

Ahzoh wrote:
15 Apr 2019 22:00
I made a nightmare language with over 100 vowels but only 11 consonants. It is called Hööˤñÿăăˤ:

/æ æː ɐ ɐː ɑ ɑː e eː ø øː ə əː ɤ ɤː o oː i iː y yː ɨ ɨː ɯ ɯː u uː/
<ä ää ă ăă a aa e ee ö öö ĕ ĕĕ ë ëë o oo i ii ü üü ĭ ĭĭ ï ïï u uu>

/æ̃ æ̃ː ɐ̃ ɐ̃ː ɑ̃ ɑ̃ː ẽ ẽː ø̃ ø̃ː ə̃ ə̃ː ɤ̃ ɤ̃ː õ õː ĩ ĩː ỹ ỹː ɨ̃ ɨ̃ː ɯ̃ ɯ̃ː ũ ũː/
<äñ ääñ ăñ ăăñ añ aañ eñ eeñ öñ ööñ ĕñ ĕĕñ ëñ ëëñ oñ ooñ iñ iiñ üñ üüñ ĭñ ĭĭñ ïñ ïïñ uñ uuñ>

/æ̰ æ̰ː ɐ̰ ɐ̰ː ɑ̰ ɑ̰ː ḛ ḛː ø̰ ø̰ː ə̰ ə̰ː ɤ̰ ɤ̰ː o̰ o̰ː ḭ ḭː y̰ y̰ː ɨ̰ ɨː ɯ̰ ɯ̰ː ṵ ṵː/
<äˤ ääˤ ăˤ ăăˤ aˤ aaˤ eˤ eeˤ öˤ ööˤ ĕˤ ĕĕˤ ëˤ ëëˤ oˤ ooˤ iˤ iiˤ üˤ üüˤ ĭˤ ĭĭˤ ïˤ ïïˤ uˤ uuˤ>

/æ̰̃ æ̰̃ː ɐ̰̃ ɐ̰̃ː ɑ̰̃ ɑ̰̃ː ḛ̃ ḛ̃ː ø̰̃ ø̰̃ː ə̰̃ ə̰̃ː ɤ̰̃ ɤ̰̃ː õ̰ õ̰ː ḭ̃ ḭ̃ː ỹ̰ ỹ̰ː ɨ̰̃ ɨ̰̃ː ɯ̰̃ ɯ̰̃ː ṵ̃ ṵ̃ː/
<äˤñ ääˤñ ăˤñ ăăˤñ aˤñ aaˤñ eˤñ eeˤñ öˤñ ööˤñ ĕˤñ ĕĕˤñ ëˤñ ëëˤñ oˤñ ooˤñ iˤñ iiˤñ üˤñ üüˤñ ĭˤñ ĭĭˤñ ïˤñ ïïˤñ uˤñ uuˤñ>

/m n/<m n>
/p t k~q/<p t k>
/s h~ħ/<s h>
/j ɥ ɰ~ʁ w~ʁʷ/<y ẅ ÿ w>
Height, backness, and rounding features are all harder for a perceiver to distinguish when a vowel is nasalized or creaky. Contrasting so many vowel qualities may be doable in nonnasal modal vowels (though even /ɨ ~ ɯ/ and /ə ~ ɤ/ contrasts are already pretty iffy), but I'd expect there to be vowel quality neutralizations among the nasal and creaky series. Full height × backness × rounding × nasality × phonation contrasts would really push the limits of human perception, I think. That's not a disqualifier by any means, though. It sounds like you specifically want something that pushes the envelope, though. It's just something to keep in mind that a more naturalistic system would be very likely to collapse many of the contrasts, or at the very least enhance the bejesus out of them though allophonic cues on surrounding segments.

Also, I'm curious why you use <ˤ> (the pharyngealization diacritic) to represent creakiness, and why velars uvularize before creaky vowels. Does creaky voice stem from pharyngealization in a previous stage of the language? The articulatory/perceptual link between pharyngealization and creak is not obvious to me, so I'm wondering what your diachronic story is.
Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 01:08
Modal means its phonation is default, as it is for voiced consonants. But you can have nasalized modal voiced vowels and consonants because nasalization is not a type of phonation. Creamy, murmured, breathy, devolved, voiceless, and modal are all phonation types.
What is devolved phonation?

Khemehekis
mayan
mayan
Posts: 2323
Joined: 14 Aug 2010 09:36
Location: California über alles

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Khemehekis » 16 Apr 2019 01:20

Ahzoh wrote: Modal means its phonation is default, as it is for voiced consonants. But you can have nasalized modal voiced vowels and consonants because nasalization is not a type of phonation. Creaky, slack-voiced, murmured, breathy, devoiced, voiceless, and modal are all phonation types.
shimobaatar wrote:
16 Apr 2019 01:14
Not nasality. It's just related to phonation.
Got it.
♂♥♂♀

Squirrels chase koi . . . chase squirrels

My Kankonian-English dictionary: 60,137 words and counting

31,416: The number of the conlanging beast!

User avatar
Ahzoh
korean
korean
Posts: 5764
Joined: 20 Oct 2013 02:57
Location: Toma-ʾEzra lit Vṛḵaža

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Ahzoh » 16 Apr 2019 01:43

náʼoolkiłí wrote:
16 Apr 2019 01:14
Contrasting so many vowel qualities may be doable in nonnasal modal vowels (though even /ɨ ~ ɯ/ and /ə ~ ɤ/ contrasts are already pretty iffy)
Perhaps the difference between /ɨ/ and /ɯ/ and /ə/ and /ɤ/ is that /ɨ ə/ interrupt vowel harmony while /ɯ ɤ/ do not.
at the very least enhance the bejesus out of them though allophonic cues on surrounding segments.
There might be allophonic palatalization, labialization, etc. of preceding consonants.
Also, I'm curious why you use <ˤ> (the pharyngealization diacritic) to represent creakiness, and why velars uvularize before creaky vowels.
There were no good means of indicating creaky voice and it was the closest to the phonation type. It doesn't matter what way I indicate the creaky voice. The creaky voicing causes retraction of the tongue root, thus velars become retracted even further into uvulars.
What is devolved phonation?
Iphone keyboards are fucking shit to type. it's devoiced.
Image Ӯсцьӣ (Onschen) [ CWS ]
Image Šat Wərxažu (Vrkhazhian) [ WIKI | CWS ]

náʼoolkiłí
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 15
Joined: 04 Apr 2019 20:06

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by náʼoolkiłí » 16 Apr 2019 02:31

Ahzoh wrote:
16 Apr 2019 01:43
Perhaps the difference between /ɨ/ and /ɯ/ and /ə/ and /ɤ/ is that /ɨ ə/ interrupt vowel harmony while /ɯ ɤ/ do not.
I'm intrigued — can you expand on this? What's the nature of the harmony system, and what do you mean by interrupt?
There might be allophonic palatalization, labialization, etc. of preceding consonants.
Seems reasonable.
There were no good means of indicating creaky voice and it was the closest to the phonation type. It doesn't matter what way I indicate the creaky voice. The creaky voicing causes retraction of the tongue root, thus velars become retracted even further into uvulars.
Why not <ˀ> (the glottalization diacritic), or just <'>? But ultimately you're right, the orthography doesn't matter.

Do you mean creaky voice in general coincides with retracted tongue root, or in Hööˤñÿăăˤ specifically? I'm not aware of that being a general connection. But if it's specific to your language, that's an interesting way to enhance the perceptability of the creaky voice contrast. (Though I suspect it would further hinder the perceptability of the vowel quality distinctions.)

User avatar
HJH
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 41
Joined: 16 Feb 2019 13:00

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by HJH » 17 Apr 2019 12:48

I have made a lot of morphological stuff.
Case suffixes have several different forms. This depends on whether the last consonant of the singular or plural form of the noun is light, grey or dark and whether the noun is definite. When the noun does not end with a vowel, the final consonants are removed and the case suffix is added if an illegal consonant would be formed. Otherwise, the suffix is simply added on.

Consonants are divided into three “colours” based on place of articulation. The light consonants are labial and dental. Grey consonants are those in the alveolar places of articulation. The rest of the consonants are pronounced further back in the mouth and are dark.

Code: Select all

Case/ Definiteness	Light	Grey	Dark
Oblique Definite			
Oblique Indefinite	p	n	k
Ergative Definite	f	t	x
Ergative Indefinite	m	s	lk
Absolutive Definite	b	d	rk
Absolutive Indefinite	mt	nt	lx
Affective Definite	mb	l	rx
Affective Indefinite	b	ld	qc
Dative Definite		lb	z	y
Dative Indefinite	np	v	lq
Instrumental Definite	lp	y	q
Instrumental Indefinite	rp	rn	xk
Genitive Definite	nb	r	c
Genitive Indefinite	rb	g	lw
Partitive Definite	mf	w	yc
Partitive Indefinite	bp	sf	rw
Casia uses a very simple, non-standard kinship system. The kinship terms are:

Code: Select all

	
Mother	foe, feo
Father	aem, eam
Sister 	coe, gen
Brother	ealy, ceo
Wife	kep, kiesp
Husband	aos, oas
These are compounded to create more terms:

aemfo- paternal grandmother

/aemvɯ/

foecoe- maternal aunt

/foeɟoe/

aosaem- father in-law

/aozaem/

The tense suffix is a single consonant and is added in the same way as a case and definiteness suffix.

Code: Select all

Light	Completive	Progressive	Imminent
Hodiernal Past	mp	m	rm
Hodiernal Non-Past	p		fp
Crastinal	mp	f	bp
Far Future	np	mb	nb
Hesternal	lp	b	rb
Far Past	rp	lb	mf

Code: Select all

Grey	Completive	Progressive	Imminent
Hodiernal Past	t	n	nt
Hodiernal Non-Past	v		vt
Crastinal	rt	s	st
Far Future	rd	d	sd
Hesternal	vd	r	ls
Far Past	zd	z	ns

Code: Select all

Dark	Completive	Progressive	Imminent
Hodiernal Past	c	q	xc
Hodiernal Non-Past	w		qc
Crastinal	lg	g	lq
Far Future	rq	k	xk
Hesternal	rw	x	lw
Far Past	yk	y	yc
The hodiernal non-past is unmarked.
There is another suffix for further aspects.

Code: Select all

	
Habitual	a
Iterative	o
Inchoative	e
Terminative	ao
I would like criticism for this part:
The first verb prefix on a verb is a classifier that shows aktionsart, or lexical aspect, and transitivity. It has an important role in deriving more meaning from a verb stem. If a verb stem begins with a vowel, as it often does, a hyphen is placed between the prefix and the stem. This shows [h] in this case only, but it is pronounced as /ɦ/ because it is between two vowels.

Code: Select all

Transitive	Intransitive	Ditransitive
Accomplishment	a	ao	ie
Achievement	e	io	uo
Semelfactive	ae	ea	jo
State 		o	oe	ua
Activity	oa	eo	ja
For example:

oe-okga
“to be burning”
/oeɦɔgɟʝɒ/

oa-okga
“to burn something”
/oaɦɔgɟʝɒ/

ao-okga
“to burn down”
/aoɦɔgɟʝɒ/
:con: Casia- Grammar- Thread

User avatar
Ahzoh
korean
korean
Posts: 5764
Joined: 20 Oct 2013 02:57
Location: Toma-ʾEzra lit Vṛḵaža

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by Ahzoh » 19 Apr 2019 15:13

I made more sentences in Ho'nwaa':

Eeˀkiˀkekăăwtkuuw skooˀ tiw.
3>3s-eat-PST man seal
/ḛːkḭkekɐːwtkuːw sko̰ː ciw/
The man ate the seal.

Eeˀkiˀkekăăwtkuuw tiwsää skooˀ.
3>3s-eat-PST seal-sää* man
/ḛːkḭkekɐːwtkuːw ciwɕæː sko̰ː/
The seal ate a man.
(*marker indicating less animate entity acting on more animate entity)

Maˀtĭĭynkąwkkuuwną̆ą̆ˀ.
1-REFL-wash-PST-PL
/mɒ̰tɨːjnkɒ̃wkkuːwnɐ̰̃ː/
We washed ourselves.

Maˀwąąʱssăʱyh eeˀpiiʱ tiwimĕĕʱ.
1>3p-talk 3s-DAT seal-PL
/mɒ̰wɒ̤̃ːssɐ̤jh ḛ:pi̤ː ciwimə̤ː/
I talk about seals with him/her.

Tįw, eeˀwąąʱspoʱwmsiiˀykuuw määysää Tĕˀtinǫˀk mǫǫyimĕĕʱ eeˀwǫˀk.
and_so 3s.NOM>3p.ACC-blind-subdue-PST light-sää Tetin-GEN enemy-PL 3s-GEN
/cĩw ḛːwɒ̤̃ːspo̤wmɕḭːjkuːw mæːjɕæː tə̰cinõ̰k mõːjimə̤ː ḛːwõ̰k/
And so the Light of Tetin blinded and subdued his enemies.
Image Ӯсцьӣ (Onschen) [ CWS ]
Image Šat Wərxažu (Vrkhazhian) [ WIKI | CWS ]

User avatar
DesEsseintes
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4581
Joined: 31 Mar 2013 13:16

Re: What did you accomplish today?

Post by DesEsseintes » 07 May 2019 06:12

/t͡ɬ/ is no longer a Híí phoneme.

Post Reply