Ottóxzhé Gétkerna, literally, The Speech of the People of Tégré(=Tíkrí), is spoken among the highlands in the center of the continent. Gétkerna culture features a strong horse-riding culture, but of the vocabulary for animal domestication (and, for that matter, many large animals) come from heavy influence from a substrate language that
/m n ɲ/ m n ñ
/p tʰ t kʰ k ʔ/ b t d k g '
/f s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ/ f s z sh zh x ɣ
/ɾ j w/ r y w
Aspirated and nonaspirated stops are only contrastive before vowels or at the end of a word.
Stops can also be geminated, usually from an adjacent fricative (e.g. ottóxzhé 'speech, language', from Project Lily *ztó'osé).
/ɐ e~ə~ɪ ʌ/ a e o
/aː eː oː/ aa ee oo
/a͡ɪ e͡ɪ o͡ɪ/ ai ei oi
All vowels can also be nasalised:
/ɐ̃ ẽ~ə̃~ɪ̃ ʌ̃/ ą ę į
/e eː/ is much more common than other vowels, so there is significant allophony based on tone and stress, but I haven't totally worked out the kinks yet.
Short vowels are either high or low tone:
/ɐ́ ɐ̀ ɐ́ ɐ̀/ á a ą́ ą
Long vowels and diphthongs distinguish between high, low, rising, and falling tones:
/áː àː ǎː âː/ áá aa aá áa
Old Tuókěn, also called Estuôźí Gé’ne (“Our Language”), was spoken in Heótien, the riverbeds to the east of Gédker, at the golden age of Early Heótien literature. As you may have guessed, it is the ancestor of Tuókěn (cognate with the endonym).
Out of universe, after creating Tuókěn, I was daunted by the sharp departures it made from its agglutinative protolang, so I backtracked to find a middle ground where I could sort out some goddamn patterns before chopping off the beginning and end of every word. I’m also going to rework Tuókěn pretty soon, having dissected it already by analyzing Old Tuókěn, so the names and words you see here will likely be different by the time it’s ready to share.
Unfortunately for poor Tuókěn readers, Old Tuókěn was also when Tuókěn writing was last codified.
/m n ŋ/ m n ŋ
/p b t d k g q ʔ/ p b t d k g q '
/f s z s̺ z̺ ɹ x ɣ h/ f s z ś ź r x ɣ h
Nothing especially interesting to see here. I’m not totally sure on the pronunciation of <r> yet, since in most relatives it’s either /r/ or /ɾ/, but in its descendant, it will be /ɹ~ʒ/. Also, strings of –‘C- are too common in Old Tuókěn for my tastes, so I might say that the glottal stop is pronounced /h/ before consonants or word-finally. Either way, it will merge with /h/ after vowels to become a high tone marker.
/a e i o u/ a e i o u
/aː eː iː oː uː/ aa ee ii oo uu
Any two short vowels can occur as a diphthong.
Any vowel can be any tone, though short vowels with contour tones are uncommon.
/á ǎ à â/ á ǎ a â
/áː ǎː àː âː/ aá aǎ aa aâ
Gédkerna and Old Tuókěn both lean heavily on verbs, which often cover large semantic ground, and have a complex TAM system, including polypersonal marking and two separate stems for progressive and non-progressive tenses. (I’ll go into the history of this system soon). They are both VSO languages, heavily pro-drop, and are both ergative. Gédkerna has preserved an animate-inanimate distinction, which has developed into split ergativity as well, but Old Tuókěn has lost the animate class entirely, save for a few nonproductive derivations and irregular nouns.
Soon I'll put up a discussion of Tuókěn and Gédkerna verbs, with some vocabulary (so y'all can look for cognates), and maybe even examples!