Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

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Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 20 Aug 2015 20:23

Greetings everyone!

In this thread, I'd like to present you my new conlang Caelian.

Caelian is a project I've played for month with because I wanted to invent a nonconcatentative language like Arab or Hebrew. In fact, this has faltered; with my grown linguistics knowledge I can tell that Caelian doesn't really work like Arab or Hebrew. Indeed, I like the result and hope you'll too [:D]
I will update this from time to time. The language is on a state where most sentences can be formed with, but it may struggle at sentences that are more complicated.

The main point of Caelian is that all primary roots follow the pattern (C)-V-CC-V-(C). Those roots often can form nouns, verbs or adjectives on the same; while the consonants won't change, the vowels do and enable a quite complex inflection system with a lot of infixes.

But in this thread, I want to start conventionally with

1. The phonetics

Caelian does have the following consonant phonemes:

Stops: /b p d t g k ȹ*/
Palatalized stops: /bʲ pʲ ɟ c gʲ kʲ/
Nasals: /m n ɲ ŋ/
A single vibrant: /r/
Fricatives: /ɸ f s ʃ ç h/
Approximants: /ʋ j w/
Lateral approximants: /l ʎ/

The fricatives are in position-bound allophony to their respective counterparts [β v z ʒ ʝ] (besides /h/).
If the consonants appear on the places CVCCVC, they are voiceless; if they appear at CVCCVC, they are voiced. [ȹ] only appears word-initial.

*This marks a labiodental stop. According to Wikipedia, this symbol is used to describe Bantu languages; for better clarification, I will use this instead of the IPA symbol [p̪].

Caelian has the following vowel phonemes:

/a ɛ ə i ɔ ʊ ʏ/
vowel length is not distinctive. Furthermore, Caelian also has [æ œ], which are represented by ä and ö, but those are usually not seen as phonemes, because they are only used for demonstration at nouns (see later) and in some function words, that's why they are not counted to vowel phonemes.

The following diphtongs and triphtongs appear:
[aɪ ɛɪ əɪ ij ɔɪ ʊɪ œɪ æɪ ʊɔ ʏɪ ɪjɛ ɪjø]

2. The Alphabet

The Caelian alphabet consists of the following 36 letters:

A B By C D Dy E Ë F G Gy H I J K Ky L Ly M N Ny Ng O P Py Vp R S T Ty U Ü V W Wy Z
a b by c d dy e ë f g gy h i j k ky l ly m n ny ng o p py vp r s t ty u ü v w wy z

All letters represent exactly one phoneme, and for most of them, one can easily tell which sound is which letter. Some are special though:

<C c> represents the palatal fricative /ç/
<Ë ë> represents the Schwa /ə/
<F f> represents the bilabial fricative /ɸ/
<V v>, however, represents the labiodental fricative /v/ (so it can occur as [f] too!)
<Ng ng> represents the velar nasal /ŋ/
<Vp vp> represents the labiodental stop /ȹ/
<S s> represents the postalveolar fricative /ʃ/
<Z z>, however, represents the alveolar friative /s/.
<Wy wy> represents the labiodental approximant /ʋ/.

Ä and Ö are not part of the alphabet.

Apart from the palatalized consonants, no clusters can fill the four consonant places. Valid words could be (all words with no meaning):

porden (CVCCVC is made)
tolpyen (CVCCVC is made, because <py> is a letter)
pyengded (CVCCVC is made, because <ng> is a letter)
vpoddyen
vpodjen (no phonetic difference between them, but there will be in inflection)

But not allowed:
*prondyen (two consonants word initial)
*partmen (three consonants in the mid)
*dornern (two consonants in the end)
*midyen (only one consonant in the mid, you would have to write it either midjen or middyen)

In the mid of the word, all kinds of consonants can meet except of
<vp>, which can only accur word-initial
palatalized consonants (other than <ly>) on the second consonant place (so no *panydes, but palydes allowed)

Palatalized consonants (other than <ly>) are not allowed to occur on the second and fourth consonant place.
(Keep in mind that <Wy wy> is not a palatalized consonant; it can occur there)

Next to be uploaded: Primary words and nouns

I would appreciate meanings and thoughts from all of you! [:)]
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 21 Aug 2015 03:52

Iyionaku wrote:Greetings everyone!

In this thread, I'd like to present you my new conlang Caelian.
Spoiler:
Caelian is a project I've played for month with because I wanted to invent a nonconcatentative language like Arab or Hebrew. In fact, this has faltered; with my grown linguistics knowledge I can tell that Caelian doesn't really work like Arab or Hebrew. Indeed, I like the result and hope you'll too [:D]
I will update this from time to time. The language is on a state where most sentences can be formed with, but it may struggle at sentences that are more complicated.

The main point of Caelian is that all primary roots follow the pattern (C)-V-CC-V-(C). Those roots often can form nouns, verbs or adjectives on the same; while the consonants won't change, the vowels do and enable a quite complex inflection system with a lot of infixes.
Hello! I'm looking forward to hearing/reading more about the language both now and in the future. [:D]
Iyionaku wrote:1. The phonetics
Lovely! The phonemic inventory, phonotactic constraints, and orthography you've presented here all have very unique feels to them!
Iyionaku wrote:I would appreciate meanings and thoughts from all of you! [:)]
I'm not sure what you mean by "meanings", but I think the language is off to a great start.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by DesEsseintes » 21 Aug 2015 07:54

shimobaatar wrote:I'm not sure what you mean by "meanings", but I think the language is off to a great start.
I believe the German word Meinung can be used to mean opinion.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 21 Aug 2015 17:36

Stress

Stress is always on the last syllable, except this is a suffix (and no infix)

3. Primary words

A primary word is always, as mentioned above, of the form (C)-VCCV-(C). The first vowel alwas determines the gender of the noun and can be either

- a (feminine gender)
- o (masculine gender)
- i (inanimate gender)

However, those genders today have only grammatical functions and don't follow their destination always. For example, a fence (which is definitely inanimate) is bozner, while a fox that is an animal (I think you'd all agree with that) is fiplez.
The genders are kongruent to the indefinite article, which is either ma, mo or mi, and to Adjectives.

The second vowel place used to be always -e-. But this rule is weakened in younger past: About 10% of Caelian primary words don't have e as second vowel, mainly loan words that are fit to the Caelian word pattern, for example:

Walter -> Walter (fits perfectly) but:
Jesse -> Sezzi (what comes closest and doesn't have an e as second vowel, in the mid there must be two consonants anyway).

Cola -> Kolla
Mercedes -> Merkedës (loan words can have three or more syllables, but never one):
Paul -> Pahhul
Jane -> Sehhin

Out of the primary form, you can, keeping the consonants, form nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

4. Nouns

The primary form of a word is always identical to the nominative of the word. The alignment is Nominative-Accusative.

Article

Standard Caelian doesn't have a definite article but an indefinite (ma, mo, mi) which precedes the noun. It's also existent in the other numbers.

Demonstration

Demonstration on nouns can be shown by umlauting the first vowel place
from a to ä
from o to ö
from i to ije

So: mo bordyek (a man) - bordyek (the man) - bördyek (this man)
ma janna (a woman) - janna (the woman) - jänna (this woman)
mi hizbeg (a development) - hizbeg (development) - hijezbeg (this development)

Number

Caelian has three numbers: Singular, Plural and Collective.
Plural is shown by an infix -a- in the mid of the word: (C)-V-C-a-C-V-(C).

Tasfem (apple) -> Tasafem (apples)

Now you can see (what I've told you) that there is indeed a difference between -dj- and -ddy-.
For example: compare the words padjem (hut) and paddyem (lion). Both are pronounced [pʰadˈjɛm], but in plural, it's padajem (huts) [pʰadaˈjɛm], but padadyem (lions) [pʰadaˈɟɛm].

Collective is shown by an infix -ü- at the same place, and the first vowel place changes too:
From a to ai
From o to oi
i doesn't change

So vasmet - vasamet - vaisümet (girl - girls - all girls)
bordyek - boradyek - borüdyek (man - men - all men) [o -> oi is dissimilated because of the r]
rister - risater - risüter (price - prices - all prices)

Case

The case system is really complex. Written Caelian has not less than 24 cases (spoken Caelian has only 15, but I'll come to that later).

Case is marked with infixes that replace the second vowel. There are five primary cases and 20 seconday cases, the difference is not shown at nouns, but at prepositions (what I'll come to later): They have own forms for the primary cases, but only suffixes at the nominative form in the secondary cases.
If a noun is demonstrated, the vowels a, o and u (but not i) sometimes have to be umlauted to ä, ö and ou.

The cases are:
Spoiler:
Primary cases:

Nominative
The nominative is the subject of a sentence. Unmarked
Example: mo vporten - the house

Accusative
The accusative is the direct object of a sentence. Marked with infix -ui- (dem. -üi-), or -unge- after <ly> and <ny>
vporten -> vportuin (the house), moi vportuin (a house) vpörtüin (this house)

Examples in a sentence (just ignore the verbs at the end of the sentence for this moment):

Bordyek vportuin byäis. (The man owns the house).
Vporten borduik türlit. (The house includes the man).

Dative
The dative is the indirect object of a sentence. Marked with -u- (dem. ü)

vporten - vportun (the house), mu vportun (a house) vpörtün (this house)

Genitive
The genitive represents what owns something or is related to this (just like in English) and always succedes the noun it determines. Marked with -ije- (no demonstration form)

janna - vporten jannije (the woman's house, the house of the woman) - vporten jännije (the house of this woman)

Instrumental
The instrument of something or the thing with what it's done. Marked by -o- (dem. -ö-)

zapjes (table) - zapjos (with the table) - zäpjös (with this table).

Secondary cases:

Abessive
Absence of something, marked with -englyu- (dem. englyou)
borrek (boy) - borrenglyuk (without the boy) - börrenglyouk (without this boy)

Ablative
Movement away from something, marked with -enkyo- (dem. enkyö)
vportenkyon (away from the house) - vpörtenkyön (away from this house)

Adessive
Position close to something, marked with -ëmë- (dem. ema, emo or emi, acc. to gender)
vportëmën (close to the house) - vpörtemon (close to this house)

Allative
Movement towards something, marked with -ocu- (dem. öcou)
vportocun (to the house) - vpörtöcoun (to this house)

Equative
Comparision to something, marked with -ore- (dem. öre)
assel (child) - ma asasorel (like children) - ässörel (like this child)

Delative
Movement down from something, marked with -uise (dem. ouse)
vapnyeng (ship) - vapnuiseng (down from the ship) [dissimilation of ny to n]

Derivative
Origin of something, marked with -ese-
Garmen (Germany) - Garmesen (from Germany)

Elative
Movement out of something, marked with -abyu (dem. äbyu)
vportabyun (out of the house), vpörtäbyun (out of this house)

Essive
Only used when telling what something works for or similar cases, marked with -owye-
pospyer (teacher) - pospyowyer (as a teacher)

Illative
Movement into something, marked with -ubya- (dem. oubya)
vportubyan (into the house) - vpörtoubyan (into this house)

Inessive
Postion in something, marked with -alye- (dem. älye)
vportalyen (in the house) - vportälyen (in this house)

Comitative
Together with, marked with -uri (dem. ouri)
byarvel (wife) - byarvuril Tobyan (together with his wife, "his" means Tobyan)

Locative
Location, marked with -abya- (dem. äbya)
vportabyan (at the house) - vpörtäbyan (at this house)

Perlative
Movement through something, marked with -age- (dem. äge)
vportagen (through the house) - vpörtägen (through this house)

Prolative
Instead of something, marked with -ënë-
bordyënëk (in lieu of the man)

Sublative
Movement upon something, marked with -ose- (dem. öse)
vapnyoseng (upon the ship) - väpnyöseng (upon this ship)

Superessive
Position on something, marked with -ugye- (dem. ougye)
vapnyugeng (on the ship) - väpnyougeng (on this ship) [again the second palatalization is dropped]

Terminative
End of movement or time, marked with -api- (dem. äpi)
mattes (morning) - mattapis (until the morning) - mättäpis (until this morning)

Vocative
Address case, marked with -ëzë-, or, deferential, -eztyëvë-, also with names
pospyer (teacher) - pospyëzër (mr. teacher)

James Rodriguez -> Cammez (James), Cammëzëz (Mr. Rodriguez) (you don't use surnames out of assignment in daily contact).

Byarvel (king, always capitalized) - Byarveztyëvël (Your majesty)
All those grammatical categories are consequently down to loan words too.

dollar (dollar) - pl. not *dollars but dolahar [second l is shifted to h]

Porsche -> porsche (Porsche would hardly allow to write it *porse, but due to the strict word formation rules, porsche can be understood.)

in the Porsche -> Porschalye
with my Porsche -> Porschobre Rabye
Last edited by Iyionaku on 31 Jul 2017 08:29, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 22 Aug 2015 03:41

DesEsseintes wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:I'm not sure what you mean by "meanings", but I think the language is off to a great start.
I believe the German word Meinung can be used to mean opinion.
Yes, indeed. And thank you, it didn't cross my mind to go down that path for an explanation. [:)]

Everything still looks good to me, Iyionaku. Hopefully we get to hear more about this:
Iyionaku wrote:The case system is really complex. Written Caelian has not less than 24 cases (spoken Caelian has only 15, but I'll come to that later).
Sometime relatively soon.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by HoskhMatriarch » 22 Aug 2015 04:58

DesEsseintes wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:I'm not sure what you mean by "meanings", but I think the language is off to a great start.
I believe the German word Meinung can be used to mean opinion.
It does, and that's how I interpreted it. Source: Ich spreche Deutsch.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 22 Aug 2015 08:37

I'd really appreciate comments on my language in exchange to comments on my English skills [;)]
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 22 Aug 2015 15:28

Well, what you've shared so far looks good, as I've said, but it's pretty straightforward, so there's not much to say, I'm afraid. And I wasn't trying to berate you, just to understand what you were asking us to do.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 23 Aug 2015 12:11

4. Pronouns

Caelian differentiates personal pronouns after

- person (speaker, spoken at, spoken about, all)
- number (singular, plural, collective)
- gender in the 3rd person singular and plural
- in 1st person plural, whether the spoken at is included to "we" or not (inclusive/exclusive)

Caelian inflects pronouns after the five primary cases (Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Instrumental). The other 18 cases (Derivative doesn't exist for personal pronouns, and vocative only exists in the 2nd person) are shown by suffixes on the nominative form of the pronoun. Below an overview about the pronouns and their primary cases is shown:

Person: Nominative/Genitive/Accusative/Dative/Instrumental
  • 1SG: Rar/Rabye/Rang/Raf/Robro
    2SG: Zan/Zabye/Zang/Zaf/Zabra
    3SG masculine: Tot/Tobyan/Tong/Tof/Tobro
    3SG feminine: Tat/Tabyan/Tang/Taf/Tabra
    3SG neuter: Tit/Tibyan/Ting/Tif/Tibre
    1PL inclusive: Seng/Sebyet/Senang/Sef/Sebre
    1PL exclusive: Rer/Rebyet/Reng/Ref/Rebre
    2PL: Zen/Zebyet/Zeng/Zef/Zebre
    3PL masculine: Tet/Tebyet/Teng/Tef/Tebre
    3PL feminine: Tyet/Tyebyet/Tyeng/Tyef/Tyebye
    3PL neuter: Tët/Tebyet/Tëng/Tëf/Tebre
    1COL: Ruj/Rubi/Rung/Rujef/Rubye
    2COL: Zaj/Zabi/Zajang/Zajef/Zabye
    3COL: Tëj/Tëbi/Tëjëng/Tëjëf/Tëbye
    4th person: Bol/Bolyet/Bojeng/Bojef/Bolyo
The 4th person is used for "everyone". (In the official grammar you can read that it is used when referring to "Rung ën Zajang ën Tëjëng", we all and you all and they all)

The other cases are shown by suffixes on the nominative form:

Abessive: -eng: Rareng, Zaneng, Toteng, Tyeteng, Boleng
Ablative: -ek: Rarek, Zanek, Totek, Tyetek, Bolek
Adessive: -ëm: Rarëm, Zanëm, Totëm, Tyetëm, Bolëm
Allative: -oc: Raroc, Zanoc, Totoc, Tyetoc, Boloc
Equative: -or: Raror, Zanor, Totor, Tyetor, Bolor
Delative: -ui: Rarui, Zanui, Totui, Tyetui, Bolui
Elative: -ab: Rarab, Zanab, Totab, Tyetab, Bolab
Essive: -owy: Rarowy, Zanowy, Totowy, Tyetowy, Bolowy
Illative: -ub: Rarub, Zanub, Totub, Tyetub, Bolub
Inessive: -aly: Raraly, Zanaly, Totaly, Tyetaly, Bolaly
Komitative:-ur: Rarur, Zanur, Totur, Tyetur, Bolur
Locative. -bya: Rarbya, Zanbya, Totbya, Tyetbya, Bolbya
Perlative: -ak: Rarak, Zanak, Totak, Tyetak, Bolak
Prolative: -ën: Rarën, Zanën, Totën, Tyetën, Bolën
Sublative: -os: Raros, Zanos, Totos, Tyetos, Bolos
Superessive:-u Raru, Zanu, Totu, Tyetu, Bolu
Terminative:-ap: Rarap, Zanap, Totap, Tyetap, Bolap

Vocative only exists in the 2nd person: Zanëz, Zenëz, Zajëz

Personal pronouns are always capitalized in Caelian!

5. Adpositions

Written Caelian uses Postpositions exclusively.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 23 Aug 2015 22:04

Iyionaku wrote: Personal pronouns are always capitalized in Caelian!
What would the connotations of not doing so be?
Iyionaku wrote:Written Caelian uses Postpositions exclusively.
What about the spoken language? Also, if you wouldn't mind, could you give some examples of adpositions the language uses?

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 23 Aug 2015 22:22

shimobaatar wrote:
Iyionaku wrote: Personal pronouns are always capitalized in Caelian!
What would the connotations of not doing so be?
There would be no connotations at all, but it's a grown standard to do so. It's just an orthographic rule. If you wrote a personal pronoun with minuscules, it'd just be wrong. (Like English "I" or German nouns)
shimobaatar wrote:What about the spoken language? Also, if you wouldn't mind, could you give some examples of adpositions the language uses?
Spoken Caelian has adopted some prepositions from Yélian in order to express some written cases analytically (or at least more analytically). I would need to anticipate too much right now, so please don't feel embarrassed when I don't give you an example. [:(]

However, a few postpositions in spoken Caelian are:

after: ceiz [ç͡ɛɪs], needs Terminative.
hour - hipten, after an hour: mi hiptapin ceiz

beside: tos [tʰɔʃ], needs Adessive.
girl - vasmet, beside the girl: vasmëmët tos

hap [hap] - turns some cases upside down. Example:
vportalyen (inside the house) <-> vportalyen hap (outside the house)
vapnyugeng (on the ship) <-> vapnyugeng hap (under the ship)

By the way, is this last postposition plausible? :/
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 23 Aug 2015 22:34

Iyionaku wrote: There would be no connotations at all, but it's a grown standard to do so. It's just an orthographic rule. If you wrote a personal pronoun with minuscules, it'd just be wrong. (Like English "I" or German nouns)
So making the mistake of not capitalizing a pronoun wouldn't have any negative connotations/make the person who made the mistake seem somewhat uneducated or improperly casual or something in the eyes of some people?
Iyionaku wrote: By the way, is this last postposition plausible? :/
I'd say so, yes.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 25 Aug 2015 19:14

shimobaatar wrote: So making the mistake of not capitalizing a pronoun wouldn't have any negative connotations/make the person who made the mistake seem somewhat uneducated or improperly casual or something in the eyes of some people?
Seems that I have misunderstood you... yes, there is definitely. A person who wrote personal pronouns minorized would definitely seem uneducated or at least inattentive.

6. Verbs

Verbs in Caelian inflect after

- person and number of subject (infix)
- person and number of object (infix, with a relatively free definition what the object is, it can sometimes be a prepositional construction too)
- also, in 1PS Plural and Collective, if the spoken-to is included or not (inclusive/exclusive)
- time (prefix)
- perfective/imperfective (prefix)
- modus (suffix)

Genus verbi, however, is shown syntactically (this will shown later).

Regular declension (without prefixes and suffixes)

The subject is represented at the first vowel place, the object on the second.
The subject infixes are:
1SG: -u-
2SG: -i- (is used too for intransitive verbs)
3SG: -ü-
If the subject is in plural (and object is not) there is an additional infix between the two mid consonants: -er-.
In Plural, the subject infixes change only a little:

1PL.INCL: -uo-
1PL.EXCL: -u-
2PL: -i-
3PL: -ü-

In collective infix -er- stays, but the subject infixes change.

1COL.INCL: -uy-
1COL.EXCL: -öy-
2COL: -äi-
3COL: -ije-
4: -ijö-

Other possible infixes between the 2nd and 3rd consonant place:
If subject isn't singular and object is plural, the infix is -ok-.
If subject is singular and object is collective, the infix is -u-.
If subject and object are collective, the infix is -në-.

Object infixes

1SG: -ay-
2SG: -a-
3SG: -i-

1PL.INC: -uy-
1PL.EXC: -ei-
2PL: -a-:
3PL: -i-

1COL.INC: -üy-
1COL.EXC: -äi-
2COL: -ä-
3COL: -oy-
4: -ë-

There are some rules for palatalization:
If the last consonant is -j-, this consonant is dropped when the object infix contains <y>.
p.e. barnej (to go): birney, birunüy (not: *birneyj, *birunüyj)
If the first or third consonant is palatalized (except <j> and <ly>, and the infix contains <y> or <i>, the palatalization vanishes.
p.e. saldyel (to visit): suldail, suldil (not: *suldyail, *suldyil)
If the first or third consonant is <j> and the infix contains a diphtong with non-syllabic /i/, it changes to a monophtong.
p.e. jammer (to cut out): jumermair, jämermir (not: *juymermair, *jäimermir)
If the first or third consonant is <j> and the infix is <i> (3rd person), this infix changes to -ë-.

A complete overview of a regular verb's declension you can find here.

There is one irregular verb, "byanglis", which has unfortunately a lot of meanings (here the word fits [xP] ): to be, to become, to have, to change to, can be found here.

Tense

Caelian has eight tenses and two morpological modi (indicative and conjunctive, conjunctive is an "irregular" form and has the prefix ti-).
The tenses are:

Present, used for actual actions, no marking
Example:
Rar mo losgyunged susnil
1SG INDEF.MASC book-ACC read-SUB.1SG-OBJ.3SG
I read a book.

Past, used for actions that have passed, marked with si-
Rar mo losgyunged sisusnil.
1SG INDEF.MASC book-ACC PST-read-SUB.1SG-OBJ.3SG
I read a book.

Pre-Past, used for actions that have acted before a told action in the past, marked with ti-
Duk Rer pädjälyem sivpöyrerten, kyif mo bordyek püttaz tivpürten.
Before 1PL hut-INN PST-live-SUB.1PLEXC-OBJ.3SG, here INDEF.MASC man old-MASC PPST-live-SUB.3SG-OBJ.3SG
Before we lived in this hut, an old man lived here.

Historite, used for actions that are completely historical and with no significance for the present, marked with -lyo
Barando borwyungeb süljon lyopüspir.
Brando belief-ACC yélian-MASC HIST-teach-SUB.3SG-OBJ.3SG
Brando teached the Yélian belief.

Stative, used for inchangeable actions or proverbs, marked with bi-
Jomahen barkenkyos on biwünudid.
Planet-PL sun-ABL around STAT-circulate-SUB.3PL-OBJ.1SG
The planets circulate around the sun.

Justative, used for things that changed their status recently, marked with kya-
Karlin sangakavcel Martibyen vpünazal cës ittapis kyavpüglyah.
Caroline joke-PL-DAT Martin-GEN dirty-FEM because-of red-FEM-ADV JUST-get-SUB.3SG-OBJ.3SG
Caroline got red because of Martin's dirty jokes.

Future, used for future things, marked with ro-
Lauhra Raroc rocüdrayt.
Laura 1SG.ALL FUT-come-SUB.3SG-OBJ.1SG
Laura will come to me.

Postfuture, used for things that are to become true very unlikely in closer future, often combined with këtsa (never), marked with ca-
Zan këtsa cakiddal!
2SG never PFUT-getAnywhere-SUB.2SG-INTR
You will never get anywhere!

Aspect
Caelian has two aspects: imperfective and perfective. Imperfectivity exists for the tenses: Present, Past, Future, Historite and Justative. marker is da- and merges with past marker si- to das- and with futur marker ro- to dor-. In Historite and Justative there is no merge: dalyo-, dakya-.

I've got a question!

Could somebody suggest better names for the tenses Historite and Justative? I've created both on my own but I'm afraid I will always have to explain them. Are there existing tenses in other languages with clearer names?

Modus

As in the far-related Yélian, modus affixes replace auxillary verbs. While Yélian uses prefixes, Caelian uses suffixes.

A few examples:

can: -nas. Rar cidranas - I can come
must: -ëve. Rar cidraëve - I must come
should: -den. Rar cidraden - I should come

Remember that stress is always on the last syllable: That doesn't change here.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 28 Aug 2015 21:50

Iyionaku wrote:A person who wrote personal pronouns minorized would definitely seem uneducated or at least inattentive.
Ahh, got it. Thank you!
Iyionaku wrote: I've got a question!

Could somebody suggest better names for the tenses Historite and Justative? I've created both on my own but I'm afraid I will always have to explain them. Are there existing tenses in other languages with clearer names?
Historical past and inchoative, perhaps? The inchoative is usually called an aspect, but it's closer in meaning to your "Justative" than any tense I could think of or find, I'd say.

Everything still looks good so far, by the way. [:)]

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 30 Aug 2015 15:16

shimobataar wrote: Historical past and inchoative, perhaps? The inchoative is usually called an aspect, but it's closer in meaning to your "Justative" than any tense I could think of or find, I'd say.



Everything still looks good so far, by the way. [:)]
I've just read the wikipedia article about inchoative and I think that describes it perfectly. Thank you!

7. Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives always follow their noun, while adverbs preceed the verb they determine.

Adjectives are built out of the primary words by changing the first vowel place to -ü-, while the second corresponds to the gender of the noun and so is -a-, -o- or -i-.
They are inflected after gender and number (but only singular - plural & collective opposition!)

Examples:
fear: popjew
a frightened baby: ma vpangdel püpjaw.
a frightened man: mo bordyek püpjow.
a frightened bird: mi hispec püpjëw. (The rules for palatalization are applied too.)
a few frightened babys: ma vpangadel püpajaw.

As you can see, the plural form of adjectives is also formed with the infix -a-, just like nouns.
There are also some "native" adjectives that are not formed from other primary words, those are mainly colours and some basic words like "small, big, light, heavy". Those aren't inflected after gender, but after number.

Example: small (nibbez)
A small man: mo bordyek nibbez
A small woman: ma janna nibbez
A small bird: mi hispec nibbez

Comparision

Caelian has four steps of comparision: the yet described Postive, furthermore Comparative, Superlative and Elative.

The comparative is formed with a particle ës.

Example:

Pallu lüdvot bui. (For names, you use either -o- or -a- depending on which gender the natural person has).
Paul is large.

Pallu Markures lüdvot ës bui.
Paul.NOM Markus-EQU big-ADJ.MASC COMP COP-SUB.3SG-INTR
Paul is larger than Markus. (literally: "Paul, compared to Markus, is larger)

Plural stays as it is.

Vatasen tarajuret wünadam ës berejaz, Rar hunbas.
cat-PL.NOM dog-PL.EQU pretty-PL.ADJ.FEM COMP COP-SUB.3PL-OBJ.3PL, 1SG find-SUB.1SG-INTR
Cats are prettier than dogs, I find.

The superlative uses that particle too, furthermore it has an infix -ul- in the adjective (-aul- in plural).

Pallu pordalyen lüdulvot ës byäis.
Paul.NOM class.INN large-ADJ-SUP-MASC COMP COP-SUB.3SG-OBJ.3SG
Paul is the largest in the class.

Pallu ëz Michal lüdaulvot ës berjäiz.
Paul.NOM and Michal.NOM large-ADJ-SUP-PL-MASC COMP COP-SUB.3PL-OBJ.3SG
Paul and Michael are the largest in the class.

The elativ uses the infix -ën- (-an- in plural), plus the particle ëbol which replaces ës.

Robret Pershing Wadlow folnyen lüdënvot ëbol lyobui.
Robert.NOM Pershing Wadlow human.NOM large-ADJ.MASC-ELA ELA HIST-COP-SUB.3SG-INTR
Robert Pershing Wadlow was the biggest human.

In Plural, the adjective would have been lüdanvot.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by shimobaatar » 30 Aug 2015 17:16

What differentiates the superlative and elative from one another?

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 08 Feb 2016 19:31

Sorry for that ultra-late answer...

The Superlative is used to describe a "local maximum", while the Elative is the "global maximum", to describe it mathematically.

So you use the Superlative to refer to the biggest person of a group, but the Elative to refer to the biggest person at all.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Omzinesý » 11 Feb 2016 20:22

An interesting lang, but there is very little description of its semantics. How are all those forms used.

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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Iyionaku » 12 Feb 2016 17:19

I'm currently doing the 218-sentences challenge for it (around 120 at the moment). If you're interested, I could upload it as soon as I'm finished; it could highlight some of the semantics, I guess.

I know at what your question aims; It's true that I sometimes struggled with the several cases, word order, and the problems of a different language structure than I was used to. I still have minor (major at some points) open issues.
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Re: Caelian - a new Conlang by Iyionaku

Post by Omzinesý » 12 Feb 2016 19:01

Iyionaku wrote:I'm currently doing the 218-sentences challenge for it (around 120 at the moment). If you're interested, I could upload it as soon as I'm finished; it could highlight some of the semantics, I guess.

I know at what your question aims; It's true that I sometimes struggled with the several cases, word order, and the problems of a different language structure than I was used to. I still have minor (major at some points) open issues.
I am too lazy to read a bunch of example sentences, but I guess there are many who are interested. I just meant an example sentence for the usage of every word form you describe formally.

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